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GAPDH glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 2597, updated on 9-Sep-2018

Summary

Official Symbol
GAPDHprovided by HGNC
Official Full Name
glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenaseprovided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:4141
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000111640 MIM:138400; Vega:OTTHUMG00000137379
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
G3PD; GAPD; HEL-S-162eP
Summary
This gene encodes a member of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase protein family. The encoded protein has been identified as a moonlighting protein based on its ability to perform mechanistically distinct functions. The product of this gene catalyzes an important energy-yielding step in carbohydrate metabolism, the reversible oxidative phosphorylation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate in the presence of inorganic phosphate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). The encoded protein has additionally been identified to have uracil DNA glycosylase activity in the nucleus. Also, this protein contains a peptide that has antimicrobial activity against E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and C. albicans. Studies of a similar protein in mouse have assigned a variety of additional functions including nitrosylation of nuclear proteins, the regulation of mRNA stability, and acting as a transferrin receptor on the cell surface of macrophage. Many pseudogenes similar to this locus are present in the human genome. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]
Expression
Ubiquitous expression in bone marrow (RPKM 1203.9), heart (RPKM 1083.8) and 24 other tissues See more
Orthologs

Genomic context

See GAPDH in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
12p13.31
Exon count:
10
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109 current GRCh38.p12 (GCF_000001405.38) 12 NC_000012.12 (6534517..6538375)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 12 NC_000012.11 (6643585..6647537)

Chromosome 12 - NC_000012.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene non-SMC condensin I complex subunit D2 Neighboring gene small Cajal body-specific RNA 10 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC112268089 Neighboring gene intermediate filament family orphan 1 Neighboring gene NOP2 nucleolar protein

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Jun 15 11:32:44 2016

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

HIV-1 interactions

Replication interactions

Interaction Pubs
Knockdown of GAPDH by siRNA enhances HIV-1 infectivity in TZM-bl cells PubMed

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env Tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry analysis identify glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), HIV-1 Gag, Gag/Pol, gp120, and Nef incorporated into staufen1 RNP complexes isolated from HIV-1-expressing cells PubMed
Gag-Pol gag-pol Immunoprecipitation assay shows that GAPDH directly interacts with HIV-1 Gag and Gag-Pol. Packaging of LysRS and tRNA-Lys3 into virions is negatively regulated by GAPDH, leading to decreased viral infectivity PubMed
gag-pol Tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry analysis identify glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), HIV-1 Gag, Gag/Pol, gp120, and Nef incorporated into staufen1 RNP complexes isolated from HIV-1-expressing cells PubMed
Nef nef Tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry analysis identify glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), HIV-1 Gag, Gag/Pol, gp120, and Nef incorporated into staufen1 RNP complexes isolated from HIV-1-expressing cells PubMed
Pr55(Gag) gag Immunoprecipitation assay shows that GAPDH directly interacts with HIV-1 Gag and Gag-Pol. Packaging of LysRS and tRNA-Lys3 into virions is negatively regulated by GAPDH, leading to decreased viral infectivity PubMed
gag Tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry analysis identify glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), HIV-1 Gag, Gag/Pol, gp120, and Nef incorporated into staufen1 RNP complexes isolated from HIV-1-expressing cells PubMed
Rev rev HIV-1 Rev interacting protein, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), is identified by the in-vitro binding experiments involving cytosolic or nuclear extracts from HeLa cells. The interaction of Rev with GAPDH is increased by RRE PubMed
Tat tat Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is identified to interact with HIV-1 Tat mutant Nullbasic in HeLa cells by LC MS/MS PubMed
Vpr vpr A stable-isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture coupled with mass spectrometry-based proteomics identifies downregulation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) expression by HIV-1 Vpr in Vpr transduced macrophages PubMed
vpr Treatment of human primary astrocytes with HIV-1 Vpr downregulates expression of mRNA GAPDH and GAPDH activity PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

Pathways from BioSystems

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Clone Names

  • MGC88685

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
NAD binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
NADP binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
aspartic-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
disordered domain specific binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (NAD+) (phosphorylating) activity EXP
Inferred from Experiment
more info
PubMed 
glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (NAD+) (phosphorylating) activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (NAD+) (phosphorylating) activity ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (NAD+) (phosphorylating) activity NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
identical protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
microtubule binding ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
peptidyl-cysteine S-nitrosylase activity ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
antimicrobial humoral immune response mediated by antimicrobial peptide IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
canonical glycolysis TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
cellular response to interferon-gamma IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
defense response to fungus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
gluconeogenesis TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
glycolytic process IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
killing by host of symbiont cells IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
killing of cells of other organism IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
microtubule cytoskeleton organization ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
negative regulation of endopeptidase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of translation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of translation IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
neuron apoptotic process ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
peptidyl-cysteine S-trans-nitrosylation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation by organism of apoptotic process in other organism involved in symbiotic interaction IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of cytokine secretion IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
protein stabilization ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
regulation of macroautophagy TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
GAIT complex IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cytoplasm IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cytoplasm ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
cytosol IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
cytosol IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cytosol ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
cytosol TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
extracellular exosome HDA PubMed 
intracellular membrane-bounded organelle IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
lipid droplet IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
membrane HDA PubMed 
microtubule cytoskeleton ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
nuclear membrane IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
nucleus HDA PubMed 
nucleus ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
perinuclear region of cytoplasm IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
plasma membrane IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
ribonucleoprotein complex IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
vesicle HDA PubMed 

General protein information

Preferred Names
glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase
Names
OCAS, p38 component
Oct1 coactivator in S phase, 38 Kd component
aging-associated gene 9 protein
epididymis secretory sperm binding protein Li 162eP
peptidyl-cysteine S-nitrosylase GAPDH
NP_001243728.1
NP_001276674.1
NP_001276675.1
NP_001344872.1
NP_002037.2

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_007073.2 RefSeqGene

    Range
    5027..8885
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001256799.2NP_001243728.1  glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase isoform 2

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001243728.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) differs in the 5' UTR and lacks a portion of the 5' coding region compared to variant 1. These differences cause translation initiation at a downstream start codon and result in an isoform (2) with a shorter N-terminus compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AF261085, BE893087, HY000136
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS58201.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P04406
    Related
    ENSP00000380067.1, OTTHUMP00000174434, ENST00000396858.5, OTTHUMT00000268066
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cl27764
    Location:1290
    Gp_dh_N; Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, NAD binding domain
  2. NM_001289745.2NP_001276674.1  glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase isoform 1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001276674.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (3) differs in the 5' UTR, compared to variant 1. Variants 1, 3, and 4 encode the same isoform (1).
    Source sequence(s)
    AK308198, BE893087, BM763361, M33197
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS8549.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P04406
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    V9HVZ4
    Related
    ENSP00000380070.1, OTTHUMP00000174431, ENST00000396861.5
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cl27764
    Location:2332
    Gp_dh_N; Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, NAD binding domain
  3. NM_001289746.1NP_001276675.1  glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase isoform 1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001276675.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (4) differs in the 5' UTR, compared to variant 1. Variants 1, 3, and 4 encode the same isoform (1).
    Source sequence(s)
    BC023632, BE893087, HY004110, HY022295
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS8549.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P04406
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    V9HVZ4
    Related
    ENSP00000380068.1, OTTHUMP00000174432, ENST00000396859.5, OTTHUMT00000268061
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cl27764
    Location:2332
    Gp_dh_N; Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, NAD binding domain
  4. NM_001357943.1NP_001344872.1  glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase isoform 4

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (7) uses an alternate splice site but retains the reading frame compared to variant 1. The encoded isoform (4) is shorter than isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AC006064
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cl27764
    Location:2314
    Gp_dh_N; Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, NAD binding domain
  5. NM_002046.6NP_002037.2  glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase isoform 1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_002037.2

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) encodes the longest isoform (1).
    Source sequence(s)
    AK308198, BC009081, BE893087
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS8549.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P04406
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    V9HVZ4
    Related
    ENSP00000229239.5, OTTHUMP00000174430, ENST00000229239.9
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cl27764
    Location:2332
    Gp_dh_N; Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, NAD binding domain

RNA

  1. NR_152150.1 RNA Sequence

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (6) uses an alternate splice site and lacks two exons compared to variant 1. This variant is represented as non-coding because it lacks a large portion of the coding region found in variant 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AC006064

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109 details...Open this link in a new tab

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000012.12 Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

    Range
    6534517..6538375
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Suppressed Reference Sequence(s)

The following Reference Sequences have been suppressed. Explain

  1. NM_001357938.1: Suppressed sequence

    Description
    NM_001357938.1: This RefSeq was removed because currently there is insufficient support for the transcript and protein.
  2. NM_001357944.1: Suppressed sequence

    Description
    NM_001357944.1: This RefSeq has been removed because there is insufficient support for the transcript and protein.
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