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RRAS2 RAS related 2 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 22800, updated on 6-Jan-2019

Summary

Official Symbol
RRAS2provided by HGNC
Official Full Name
RAS related 2provided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:17271
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000133818 MIM:600098
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
TC21
Summary
This gene encodes a member of the R-Ras subfamily of Ras-like small GTPases. The encoded protein associates with the plasma membrane and may function as a signal transducer. This protein may play an important role in activating signal transduction pathways that control cell proliferation. Mutations in this gene are associated with the growth of certain tumors. Pseudogenes of this gene are found on chromosomes 1 and 2. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2010]
Expression
Ubiquitous expression in small intestine (RPKM 12.4), kidney (RPKM 11.9) and 25 other tissues See more
Orthologs

Genomic context

See RRAS2 in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
11p15.2
Exon count:
9
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109 current GRCh38.p12 (GCF_000001405.38) 11 NC_000011.10 (14277920..14364506, complement)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 11 NC_000011.9 (14299466..14386052, complement)

Chromosome 11 - NC_000011.10Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC101928132 Neighboring gene spondin 1 Neighboring gene RNA, 5S ribosomal pseudogene 332 Neighboring gene 60S ribosomal protein L13a-like Neighboring gene RNA, U7 small nuclear 49 pseudogene Neighboring gene coatomer protein complex subunit beta 1

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

Phenotypes

NHGRI GWAS Catalog

Description
A genome-wide association study in the genetic analysis of idiopathic thrombophilia project suggests sex-specific regulation of mitochondrial DNA levels.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Genome-wide association study of the rate of cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Genome-wide association study of vitamin D levels in children: replication in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) study.
NHGRI GWA Catalog

HIV-1 interactions

Replication interactions

Interaction Pubs
Knockdown of related RAS viral (r-ras) oncogene homolog 2 (RRAS2) by shRNA library screening inhibits HIV-1 replication in cultured Jurkat T-cells PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

Pathways from BioSystems

  • Apelin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Apelin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemApelin is an endogenous peptide capable of binding the apelin receptor (APJ), which was originally described as an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor. Apelin and APJ are widely expressed in various ti...
  • Autophagy - animal, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Autophagy - animal, organism-specific biosystemAutophagy (or macroautophagy) is a cellular catabolic pathway involving in protein degradation, organelle turnover, and non-selective breakdown of cytoplasmic components, which is evolutionarily cons...
  • Autophagy - animal, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Autophagy - animal, conserved biosystemAutophagy (or macroautophagy) is a cellular catabolic pathway involving in protein degradation, organelle turnover, and non-selective breakdown of cytoplasmic components, which is evolutionarily cons...
  • HTLV-I infection, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    HTLV-I infection, organism-specific biosystemHuman T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a pathogenic retrovirus that is associated with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL). It is also strongly implicated in non-neoplastic chronic inflammato...
  • HTLV-I infection, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    HTLV-I infection, conserved biosystemHuman T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a pathogenic retrovirus that is associated with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL). It is also strongly implicated in non-neoplastic chronic inflammato...
  • MAPK signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    MAPK signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is a highly conserved module that is involved in various cellular functions, including cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. Mammals e...
  • MAPK signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    MAPK signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThe mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is a highly conserved module that is involved in various cellular functions, including cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. Mammals e...
  • Mitophagy - animal, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Mitophagy - animal, organism-specific biosystemMitochondria act as the energy powerhouse of the cell, and are essential for eukaryotic cells to grow and function normally. However, deleterious byproducts of oxidative phosphorylation process calle...
  • Mitophagy - animal, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Mitophagy - animal, conserved biosystemMitochondria act as the energy powerhouse of the cell, and are essential for eukaryotic cells to grow and function normally. However, deleterious byproducts of oxidative phosphorylation process calle...
  • Phospholipase D signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Phospholipase D signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemPhospholipase D (PLD) is an essential enzyme responsible for the production of the lipid second messenger phosphatidic acid (PA), which is involved in fundamental cellular processes, including membra...
  • Phospholipase D signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Phospholipase D signaling pathway, conserved biosystemPhospholipase D (PLD) is an essential enzyme responsible for the production of the lipid second messenger phosphatidic acid (PA), which is involved in fundamental cellular processes, including membra...
  • Proteoglycans in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Proteoglycans in cancer, organism-specific biosystemMany proteoglycans (PGs) in the tumor microenvironment have been shown to be key macromolecules that contribute to biology of various types of cancer including proliferation, adhesion, angiogenesis a...
  • Proteoglycans in cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Proteoglycans in cancer, conserved biosystemMany proteoglycans (PGs) in the tumor microenvironment have been shown to be key macromolecules that contribute to biology of various types of cancer including proliferation, adhesion, angiogenesis a...
  • Ras signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Ras signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe Ras proteins are GTPases that function as molecular switches for signaling pathways regulating cell proliferation, survival, growth, migration, differentiation or cytoskeletal dynamism. Ras prote...
  • Regulation of Actin Cytoskeleton, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Regulation of Actin Cytoskeleton, organism-specific biosystemhttp://www.genome.jp/kegg/pathway/hsa/hsa04810.html
  • Regulation of actin cytoskeleton, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Regulation of actin cytoskeleton, organism-specific biosystem
    Regulation of actin cytoskeleton
  • Regulation of actin cytoskeleton, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Regulation of actin cytoskeleton, conserved biosystem
    Regulation of actin cytoskeleton
  • cAMP signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    cAMP signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemcAMP is one of the most common and universal second messengers, and its formation is promoted by adenylyl cyclase (AC) activation after ligation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) by ligands incl...
  • cAMP signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    cAMP signaling pathway, conserved biosystemcAMP is one of the most common and universal second messengers, and its formation is promoted by adenylyl cyclase (AC) activation after ligation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) by ligands incl...

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
GTP binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
GTPase activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
Ras protein signal transduction IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
osteoblast differentiation HDA PubMed 
positive regulation of cell migration IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
regulation of neuron death IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
endoplasmic reticulum NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
extracellular exosome HDA PubMed 
focal adhesion HDA PubMed 
membrane HDA PubMed 
plasma membrane IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 

General protein information

Preferred Names
ras-related protein R-Ras2
Names
ras-like protein TC21
related RAS viral (r-ras) oncogene homolog 2
teratocarcinoma oncogene

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_017058.1 RefSeqGene

    Range
    5001..91587
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001102669.2NP_001096139.1  ras-related protein R-Ras2 isoform b

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001096139.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) differs in the 5' UTR and 5' coding region, compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (b) is shorter at the N-terminus compared to isoform a. Both variants 2 and 4 encode the same isoform (b).
    Source sequence(s)
    AA873016, AC011084, AK309683, BG428983, BQ020351, BQ023701
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS44544.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P62070
    Related
    ENSP00000434104.1, ENST00000526063.5
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cl21455
    Location:199
    P-loop_NTPase; P-loop containing Nucleoside Triphosphate Hydrolases
  2. NM_001177314.1NP_001170785.1  ras-related protein R-Ras2 isoform c

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001170785.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (3) differs in the 5' UTR and 5' coding region and initiates translation at an alternate start codon, compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (b) is shorter and has a distinct N-terminus compared to isoform a.
    Source sequence(s)
    AA873016, AK300103, BQ020351, BQ023701
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS53603.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P62070
    Related
    ENSP00000437547.1, ENST00000537760.5
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cl21455
    Location:2141
    P-loop_NTPase; P-loop containing Nucleoside Triphosphate Hydrolases
  3. NM_001177315.1NP_001170786.1  ras-related protein R-Ras2 isoform b

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001170786.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (4) differs in the 5' UTR and 5' coding region, compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (b) is shorter at the N-terminus compared to isoform a. Both variants 2 and 4 encode the same isoform (b).
    Source sequence(s)
    AA873016, AK309550, BQ020351, BQ023701
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS44544.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P62070
    Related
    ENSP00000431954.1, ENST00000532814.5
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cl21455
    Location:199
    P-loop_NTPase; P-loop containing Nucleoside Triphosphate Hydrolases
  4. NM_012250.6NP_036382.2  ras-related protein R-Ras2 isoform a

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_036382.2

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) represents the longest transcript and encodes the longest isoform (a).
    Source sequence(s)
    AA873016, AK309683, AK313976, BQ020351, BQ023701
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS7814.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P62070
    Related
    ENSP00000256196.4, ENST00000256196.8
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd04145
    Location:13176
    M_R_Ras_like; R-Ras2/TC21, M-Ras/R-Ras3

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000011.10 Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

    Range
    14277920..14364506 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. XM_017017363.1XP_016872852.1  ras-related protein R-Ras2 isoform X1

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