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DIO2 iodothyronine deiodinase 2 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 1734, updated on 11-Sep-2019

Summary

Official Symbol
DIO2provided by HGNC
Official Full Name
iodothyronine deiodinase 2provided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:2884
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000211448 MIM:601413
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
D2; 5DII; SelY; DIOII; TXDI2
Summary
The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the iodothyronine deiodinase family. It catalyzes the conversion of prohormone thyroxine (3,5,3',5'-tetraiodothyronine, T4) to the bioactive thyroid hormone (3,5,3'-triiodothyronine, T3) by outer ring 5'-deiodination. This gene is widely expressed, including in thyroid and brain. It is thought to be responsible for the 'local' production of T3, and thus important in influencing thyroid hormone action in these tissues. It has also been reported to be highly expressed in thyroids of patients with Graves disease, and in follicular adenomas. The intrathyroidal T4 to T3 conversion by this enzyme may contribute significantly to the relative increase in thyroidal T3 production in these patients. This protein is a selenoprotein containing the non-standard amino acid, selenocysteine (Sec), which is encoded by the UGA codon that normally signals translation termination. The 3' UTRs of selenoprotein mRNAs contain a conserved stem-loop structure, designated the Sec insertion sequence (SECIS) element, that is necessary for the recognition of UGA as a Sec codon, rather than as a stop signal. Unlike the other two members (DIO1 and DIO3) of this enzyme family, the mRNA for this gene contains an additional in-frame UGA codon that has been reported (in human) to function either as a Sec or a stop codon, which can result in two isoforms with one or two Sec residues; however, only the upstream Sec (conserved with the single Sec residue found at the active site in DIO1 and DIO3) was shown to be essential for enzyme activity (PMID:10403186). Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2018]
Expression
Biased expression in thyroid (RPKM 69.7), endometrium (RPKM 13.6) and 2 other tissues See more
Orthologs

Genomic context

See DIO2 in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
14q31.1
Exon count:
7
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109.20190905 current GRCh38.p13 (GCF_000001405.39) 14 NC_000014.9 (80197526..80231057, complement)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 14 NC_000014.8 (80663868..80697397, complement)

Chromosome 14 - NC_000014.9Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105370591 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105370593 Neighboring gene DIO2 antisense RNA 1 Neighboring gene centrosomal protein 128 Neighboring gene high mobility group nucleosomal binding domain 2 pseudogene 2 Neighboring gene basic helix-loop-helix family member b9 pseudogene 1 Neighboring gene thyroid stimulating hormone receptor

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

What's a GeneRIF?

Pathways from BioSystems

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
selenium binding IC
Inferred by Curator
more info
PubMed 
thyroxine 5'-deiodinase activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
thyroxine 5'-deiodinase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
thyroxine 5'-deiodinase activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
ubiquitin protein ligase binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
hormone biosynthetic process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
oxidation-reduction process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of cold-induced thermogenesis ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
PubMed 
selenocysteine incorporation NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
thyroid hormone catabolic process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
thyroid hormone generation TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
thyroid hormone metabolic process IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
thyroid hormone metabolic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
integral component of membrane IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
membrane IC
Inferred by Curator
more info
PubMed 
plasma membrane TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 

General protein information

Preferred Names
type II iodothyronine deiodinase
Names
deiodinase, iodothyronine type II
deiodinase-2
deiodonase-2
thyroxine deiodinase, type II
type 2 DI
type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase
type-II 5'-deiodinase
type-II 5'deiodinase
NP_000784.3
NP_001311391.2
NP_001353425.1
NP_054644.1

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_000793.6NP_000784.3  type II iodothyronine deiodinase isoform b

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) uses a different promoter and contains two novel 5' non-coding exons; thus, has a longer 5' UTR compared to the variant 1. Variants 1 (NM_001366496.1), 2 and 3 represent the same one-Sec containing isoform (b), considered to be the canonical form.
    Source sequence(s)
    AC007372, AF093774, AK292210, BC136514
    Related
    ENSP00000451419.1, ENST00000557010.5
  2. NM_001324462.2NP_001311391.2  type II iodothyronine deiodinase isoform b

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (3) uses a different promoter and contains a novel 5' non-coding exon; thus, has a longer 5' UTR compared to variant 1. Variants 1 (NM_001366496.1), 2 and 3 represent the same one-Sec containing isoform (b), considered to be the canonical form.
    Source sequence(s)
    AC007372, AF093774, BC136514, CD701270, JK546617
  3. NM_001366496.1NP_001353425.1  type II iodothyronine deiodinase isoform b

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1, also known as hDII-a) represents the predominant transcript and encodes two isoforms resulting from the use of alternative in-frame translation termination codons. The shorter isoform (b) with one Sec residue results from translation termination at the second UGA codon, while the longer isoform (a) with two Sec residues results from translation termination at an in-frame downstream UAA stop codon. This RefSeq represents the shorter isoform (b), which is considered the canonical form as the protein extension past the second UGA codon is not conserved in orthologs from other vertebrate species. Variants 2 and 3 also represent isoform b.
    Source sequence(s)
    AC007372, AF093774, BC136514
  4. NM_013989.5NP_054644.1  type II iodothyronine deiodinase isoform a

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_054644.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1, also known as hDII-a) represents the predominant transcript and encodes two isoforms resulting from the use of alternative in-frame translation termination codons. The shorter isoform (b) with one Sec residue results from translation termination at the second UGA codon, while the longer isoform (a) with two Sec residues results from translation termination at an in-frame downstream UAA stop codon. This RefSeq represents the longer isoform (a).
    Source sequence(s)
    AC007372, AF093774, BC136514
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS45146.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q92813
    Related
    ENSP00000405854.4, ENST00000438257.8
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    pfam00837
    Location:4262
    T4_deiodinase; Iodothyronine deiodinase

RNA

  1. NR_158990.1 RNA Sequence

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (4, also known as hDII-b) contains an internal novel exon compared to variant 1. This variant is represented as non-coding because the use of the 5'-most translational start codon, as used in variant 1, renders this transcript a candidate for nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD).
    Source sequence(s)
    AB041843, AC007372, AF093774, BC136514
  2. NR_158991.1 RNA Sequence

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (5, also known as hDII-c) contains two internal novel exons compared to variant 1. This variant is represented as non-coding because the use of the 5'-most translational start codon, as used in variant 1, renders this transcript a candidate for nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD).
    Source sequence(s)
    AB041844, AC007372, AF093774, BC136514
    Related
    ENST00000422005.7

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109 details...Open this link in a new tab

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000014.9 Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

    Range
    80197526..80231057 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Suppressed Reference Sequence(s)

The following Reference Sequences have been suppressed. Explain

  1. NM_001007023.4: Suppressed sequence

    Description
    NM_001007023.4: This RefSeq was removed because it is a nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) candidate.
  2. NM_001242503.2: Suppressed sequence

    Description
    NM_001242503.2: This RefSeq was removed because currently there is partial support for the transcript but none for the protein.
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