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PARP1 poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 142, updated on 24-Nov-2020

Summary

Official Symbol
PARP1provided by HGNC
Official Full Name
poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1provided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:270
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000143799 MIM:173870
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
PARP; PPOL; ADPRT; ARTD1; ADPRT1; PARP-1; ADPRT 1; pADPRT-1
Summary
This gene encodes a chromatin-associated enzyme, poly(ADP-ribosyl)transferase, which modifies various nuclear proteins by poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. The modification is dependent on DNA and is involved in the regulation of various important cellular processes such as differentiation, proliferation, and tumor transformation and also in the regulation of the molecular events involved in the recovery of cell from DNA damage. In addition, this enzyme may be the site of mutation in Fanconi anemia, and may participate in the pathophysiology of type I diabetes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Expression
Ubiquitous expression in lymph node (RPKM 71.4), appendix (RPKM 40.9) and 25 other tissues See more
Orthologs

Genomic context

See PARP1 in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
1q42.12
Exon count:
23
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109.20201120 current GRCh38.p13 (GCF_000001405.39) 1 NC_000001.11 (226360691..226408093, complement)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 1 NC_000001.10 (226548392..226595801, complement)

Chromosome 1 - NC_000001.11Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene Y-box binding protein 1 pseudogene 9 Neighboring gene signal peptidase complex subunit 3-like Neighboring gene RPS3A pseudogene 7 Neighboring gene RN7SK pseudogene 165

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

What's a GeneRIF?

Phenotypes

Associated conditions

Description Tests
Genome-wide association study identifies a new melanoma susceptibility locus at 1q21.3.
GeneReviews: Not available

HIV-1 interactions

Replication interactions

Interaction Pubs
HIV-1 replication is enhanced by PARP1 in monocyte derived macrophages PubMed

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env The mRNA expression levels for alpha-tubulin, TRADD, IFN-gamma R2, GAS1, MADD, NF-kappaB, I-kappa B, 14-3-3 protein, APaf1, PARP, IGF-1 receptor, RB1, Rb2/p130, ARC, and caspase 6 are upregulated in human neuronal cells after treatment with HIV-1 gp120 PubMed
env Contact of CD4+ T cells with HIV-1 infected or HIV-1 gp120-expressing cells induces PARP hydrolysis, which leads to the cleavage of 116 kDa PARP into two fragments PubMed
Nef nef HIV-1 Nef enhances apoptosis in CD4+ T lymphoblastoid cell lines through mechanisms that include the cleavage of the caspase target poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase PubMed
nef Expression of HIV-1 Nef in human brain micro vascular endothelial cells induces the cleavage of PARP protein, which is involved in DNA repair PubMed
Tat tat HIV-1 Tat binds TOP2B (topoisomeraseIIb), XRCC6 (Ku70), and PARP1 during transactivation and viral replication PubMed
tat HIV-1 clade B and C Tat induces cleavage of both PARP and CASP3 in primary glia PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat-induced PARP cleavage during mitotic arrest occurs downstream of Tat-induced cytochrome c release during mitotic arrest in CD4+ T-lymphocytes PubMed
tat CB1 and CB2 endocannabinoid receptors are involved in HIV-1 Tat-induced cleavage of PARP1 and CASP3 in retinal cells PubMed
tat The levels of PARP1 protein are reduced after Caco-2 cells exposure to HIV-1 Tat compared with control PubMed
tat PARP1 negatively regulates HIV-1 transcription by directly competing with Tat-P-TEFb complex for binding to TAR RNA PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat induces the cleavage of PARP and activation of apoptosis through a p56lck dependent mechanism PubMed
tat Treatment of primary human microvascular endothelial cells of lung origin with HIV-1 Tat caused cleavage of poly(A/DP)-ribose polymerase as a result of caspase activation PubMed
tat The poly(A) site in the HIV-1 5'-LTR is occluded in a Tat-dependent manner, suggesting a role for Tat in regulating this nucleotide signal PubMed
tat Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase modifies HIV-1 Tat with poly(ADP-ribose), suggesting a role for this enzyme in the regulation of HIV-1 gene expression PubMed
tat Purified recombinant HIV-1 Tat protein stimulates poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase in a dose dependent manner PubMed
Vpr vpr Recruitment of PARP-1 by HIV-1 Vpr-glucocorticoid receptor (GR) complex prevents its nuclear localization, which is necessary for Vpr to suppress NF-kappaB PubMed
vpr HIV-1 Vpr induces apoptosis and the cleavage of ADPRT in a manner that is signaled through the DNA damage signaling protein ataxia telangiectasia Rad3-related protein (ATR) PubMed
Vpu vpu HIV-1 Vpu-induced cleavage of PARP is dependent on caspase activity in cells PubMed
integrase gag-pol PARP has been described as a requirement for efficient HIV-1 integration, however a conflicting report indicates it is not essential for efficient lentivirus integration PubMed
retropepsin gag-pol Inhibition of HIV-1 protease by saquinavir and leu3.a blocks PARP cleavage and protects cells from apoptosis and necrosis PubMed
gag-pol Positional proteomics analysis identifies the cleavage of human poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase family, member 1 (PARP1) at amino acid residues 185-186 by the HIV-1 protease PubMed
gag-pol HIV-1 protease directly cleaves and activates procaspase 8 in T cells, which is associated with cleavage of BID, mitochondrial release of cytochrome c, activation of the downstream caspases 9 and 3, and cleavage of DFF and PARP PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

Pathways from PubChem

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
DNA binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
NAD DNA ADP-ribosyltransferase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
NAD binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
NAD+ ADP-ribosyltransferase activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
NAD+ ADP-ribosyltransferase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
NAD+ ADP-ribosyltransferase activity IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
NAD+ ADP-ribosyltransferase activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
R-SMAD binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
RNA binding HDA PubMed 
enzyme binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
estrogen receptor binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
histone deacetylase binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
identical protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protein ADP-ribosylase activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
protein ADP-ribosylase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
protein N-terminus binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protein kinase binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
transcription factor binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
zinc ion binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
ATP generation from poly-ADP-D-ribose IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
DNA ADP-ribosylation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
DNA damage response, detection of DNA damage IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
DNA repair TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
apoptotic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to DNA damage stimulus IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to UV IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to amyloid-beta IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cellular response to insulin stimulus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to oxidative stress IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to zinc ion IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
double-strand break repair IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
double-strand break repair IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
double-strand break repair via homologous recombination TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
global genome nucleotide-excision repair TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
macrophage differentiation TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
mitochondrial DNA metabolic process IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
mitochondrial DNA repair IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
mitochondrion organization IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of ATP biosynthetic process IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of telomere maintenance via telomere lengthening ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
nucleotide-excision repair, DNA damage recognition TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
nucleotide-excision repair, DNA duplex unwinding TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
nucleotide-excision repair, DNA incision TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
nucleotide-excision repair, DNA incision, 3'-to lesion TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
nucleotide-excision repair, DNA incision, 5'-to lesion TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
nucleotide-excision repair, preincision complex assembly TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
nucleotide-excision repair, preincision complex stabilization TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
peptidyl-glutamic acid poly-ADP-ribosylation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
peptidyl-serine ADP-ribosylation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of SMAD protein signal transduction IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of cardiac muscle hypertrophy ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of double-strand break repair via homologous recombination IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of intracellular estrogen receptor signaling pathway IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of mitochondrial depolarization IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of myofibroblast differentiation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of neuron death IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of protein localization to nucleus IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of single strand break repair IGI
Inferred from Genetic Interaction
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of transcription regulatory region DNA binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
protein ADP-ribosylation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
protein ADP-ribosylation IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
protein auto-ADP-ribosylation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
protein autoprocessing IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
protein modification process IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
protein poly-ADP-ribosylation IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
protein poly-ADP-ribosylation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
regulation of DNA methylation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
regulation of SMAD protein complex assembly IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
regulation of catalytic activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
regulation of cellular protein localization IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
regulation of oxidative stress-induced neuron intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to aldosterone IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to gamma radiation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
signal transduction involved in regulation of gene expression IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
telomere maintenance TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
transcription by RNA polymerase II TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
chromosome, telomeric region HDA PubMed 
membrane HDA PubMed 
mitochondrion IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
nuclear body IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
nuclear envelope IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
nucleolus IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
nucleolus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
nucleoplasm IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
nucleoplasm TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
nucleus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
protein-DNA complex IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
protein-containing complex IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
site of DNA damage IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
site of double-strand break IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
transcription regulator complex IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 

General protein information

Preferred Names
poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 1
Names
ADP-ribosyltransferase (NAD+; poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase)
ADP-ribosyltransferase NAD(+)
ADP-ribosyltransferase diphtheria toxin-like 1
DNA ADP-ribosyltransferase PARP1
NAD(+) ADP-ribosyltransferase 1
poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase family, member 1
poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase
poly(ADP-ribosyl)transferase
poly[ADP-ribose] synthase 1
protein poly-ADP-ribosyltransferase PARP1
NP_001609.2

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001618.4NP_001609.2  poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001609.2

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    AK225654, BC037545, DB097441, J03473
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS1554.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P09874
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A0A024R3T8
    Related
    ENSP00000355759.5, ENST00000366794.10
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cl27333
    Location:61010
    PARP_reg; Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, regulatory domain

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Updated Annotation Release 109.20201120

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000001.11 Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

    Range
    226360691..226408093 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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