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ATF2 activating transcription factor 2 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 1386, updated on 9-May-2021

Summary

Official Symbol
ATF2provided by HGNC
Official Full Name
activating transcription factor 2provided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:784
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000115966 MIM:123811
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
HB16; CREB2; TREB7; CREB-2; CRE-BP1
Summary
This gene encodes a transcription factor that is a member of the leucine zipper family of DNA binding proteins. The encoded protein has been identified as a moonlighting protein based on its ability to perform mechanistically distinct functions This protein binds to the cAMP-responsive element (CRE), an octameric palindrome. It forms a homodimer or a heterodimer with c-Jun and stimulates CRE-dependent transcription. This protein is also a histone acetyltransferase (HAT) that specifically acetylates histones H2B and H4 in vitro; thus it may represent a class of sequence-specific factors that activate transcription by direct effects on chromatin components. The encoded protein may also be involved in cell's DNA damage response independent of its role in transcriptional regulation. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]
Expression
Ubiquitous expression in thyroid (RPKM 19.6), brain (RPKM 14.7) and 25 other tissues See more
Orthologs
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Genomic context

See ATF2 in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
2q31.1
Exon count:
17
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109.20210226 current GRCh38.p13 (GCF_000001405.39) 2 NC_000002.12 (175072259..175168203, complement)
105.20201022 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 2 NC_000002.11 (175936987..176032931, complement)

Chromosome 2 - NC_000002.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene RNA, U6 small nuclear 1290, pseudogene Neighboring gene ribosomal protein L21 pseudogene 31 Neighboring gene microRNA 933 Neighboring gene ATP synthase membrane subunit c locus 3 Neighboring gene ribosomal protein S15a pseudogene 14

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

What's a GeneRIF?

HIV-1 interactions

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env HIV-1 gp120 and p300 synergistically increase TGF-beta, ATF-2 and activating protein-1 (AP-1) expression leading to tubular cell apoptosis; in addition, HIV-1 gp120 treatment causes phosphorylation of Smad2 and downregulation of c-Jun PubMed
Nef nef ATF2 mRNA is selectively retained in HIV-1 Nef-expressing cellular exosomes, and three miRNAs (miR-17, miR-92a, and miR-21) which target ATF2 mRNA are selectively secreted in exosomes from these cells PubMed
nef Nef inhibits ASK1/p38MAPK-dependent Mycobacterium tuberculosis-induced TNF-alpha production by inhibiting binding of ATF2 to the TNF-alpha promoter PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

Pathways from PubChem

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Potential readthrough

Included gene: CHN1

Homology

Clone Names

  • MGC111558

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
enables DNA-binding transcription activator activity, RNA polymerase II-specific IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
enables DNA-binding transcription factor activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
enables DNA-binding transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II-specific IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
enables DNA-binding transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II-specific IC
Inferred by Curator
more info
PubMed 
enables DNA-binding transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II-specific ISA
Inferred from Sequence Alignment
more info
 
enables H2B histone acetyltransferase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
enables H4 histone acetyltransferase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
enables RNA polymerase II cis-regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
enables RNA polymerase II cis-regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
enables RNA polymerase II transcription regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
enables RNA polymerase II-specific DNA-binding transcription factor binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
enables cAMP response element binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
enables cAMP response element binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
enables cAMP response element binding protein binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
enables chromatin binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
enables cis-regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
enables identical protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
enables metal ion binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
enables protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
enables protein kinase binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
enables protein-containing complex binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
enables sequence-specific double-stranded DNA binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
involved_in adipose tissue development IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in amelogenesis IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in cellular response to DNA damage stimulus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in cellular response to DNA damage stimulus IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in cellular response to amino acid starvation TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
involved_in fat cell differentiation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in histone H2B acetylation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in histone H4 acetylation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in mitotic intra-S DNA damage checkpoint signaling IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in negative regulation of angiogenesis IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in negative regulation of epithelial cell proliferation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in outflow tract morphogenesis IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of DNA-binding transcription factor activity IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of cardiac muscle myoblast proliferation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of gene expression IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of mitochondrial membrane permeability involved in apoptotic process IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of neuron apoptotic process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of transforming growth factor beta2 production IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in regulation of DNA-binding transcription factor activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
involved_in regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
involved_in regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in regulation of transcription, DNA-templated IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in response to osmotic stress IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in response to water deprivation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
part_of H4 histone acetyltransferase complex IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
located_in chromatin IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
located_in chromatin ISA
Inferred from Sequence Alignment
more info
 
located_in cytoplasm IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
located_in mitochondrial outer membrane IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
located_in nucleoplasm IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
located_in nucleoplasm TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
located_in nucleus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
located_in site of double-strand break IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 

General protein information

Preferred Names
cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-2
Names
activating transcription factor 2 splice variant ATF2-var2
cAMP response element-binding protein CRE-BP1
cAMP responsive element binding protein 2, formerly
cAMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-2
cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 2
histone acetyltransferase ATF2
NP_001243019.1
NP_001243020.1
NP_001243021.1
NP_001243022.1
NP_001243023.1
NP_001871.2

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

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RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_047045.1 RefSeqGene

    Range
    5004..100948
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001256090.2NP_001243019.1  cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-2 isoform 1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001243019.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) contains an additional 5' non-coding exon compared to variant 1. Variants 1 and 2 encode the same isoform (1).
    Source sequence(s)
    BC107698, BC130335, BX648469, DA995464, DQ003041
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS2262.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P15336
    Related
    ENSP00000376327.1, ENST00000392544.5
    Conserved Domains (4) summary
    cd12192
    Location:65102
    GCN4_cent; GCN4 central activation domain-like acidic activation domain
    cd14687
    Location:354414
    bZIP_ATF2; Basic leucine zipper (bZIP) domain of Activating Transcription Factor-2 (ATF-2) and similar proteins: a DNA-binding and dimerization domain
    sd00019
    Location:2749
    ZF_C2H2; C2H2 Zn finger [structural motif]
    pfam05109
    Location:90342
    Herpes_BLLF1; Herpes virus major outer envelope glycoprotein (BLLF1)
  2. NM_001256091.2NP_001243020.1  cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-2 isoform 2

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001243020.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (3) contains an additional 5' non-coding exon, and lacks another exon compared to variant 1. This results in translation initiation from an in-frame downstream AUG, and an isoform (2) with a shorter N-terminus compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    BC107698, BC130335, BX648469, DA995464, DQ003049
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS58738.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P15336
    Related
    ENSP00000407911.3, ENST00000426833.7
    Conserved Domains (4) summary
    cd12192
    Location:4784
    GCN4_cent; GCN4 central activation domain-like acidic activation domain
    cd14687
    Location:336396
    bZIP_ATF2; Basic leucine zipper (bZIP) domain of Activating Transcription Factor-2 (ATF-2) and similar proteins: a DNA-binding and dimerization domain
    sd00019
    Location:931
    ZF_C2H2; C2H2 Zn finger [structural motif]
    cl26386
    Location:184312
    DNA_pol3_gamma3; DNA polymerase III subunits gamma and tau domain III
  3. NM_001256092.2NP_001243021.1  cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-2 isoform 3

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001243021.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (4) lacks an internal exon compared to variant 1. This results in translation initiation from another start site, and a shorter isoform (3) with a distinct N-terminus compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    BC107698, BX648469, DA995464
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS58737.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P15336
    Related
    ENSP00000340576.5, ENST00000345739.9
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    cd12192
    Location:944
    GCN4_cent; GCN4 central activation domain-like acidic activation domain
    PRK14951
    Location:144272
    PRK14951; DNA polymerase III subunits gamma and tau; Provisional
    cd14687
    Location:296356
    bZIP_ATF2; Basic leucine zipper (bZIP) domain of Activating Transcription Factor-2 (ATF-2) and similar proteins: a DNA-binding and dimerization domain
  4. NM_001256093.2NP_001243022.1  cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-2 isoform 4

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (5) lacks an internal exon, and uses an alternate acceptor splice site at the 3' terminal exon compared to variant 1. This results in translation initiation from another start site, and a shorter isoform (4) with distinct N- and C- termini compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    BC107698, BX648469, DA995464, DQ003048
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P15336
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A4D7V5
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd12192
    Location:944
    GCN4_cent; GCN4 central activation domain-like acidic activation domain
    cd14687
    Location:296356
    bZIP_ATF2; Basic leucine zipper (bZIP) domain of Activating Transcription Factor-2 (ATF-2) and similar proteins: a DNA-binding and dimerization domain
  5. NM_001256094.2NP_001243023.1  cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-2 isoform 5

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001243023.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (6) lacks several exons from the 3' end, and has a different 3' UTR compared to variant 1. This results in an isoform (5) with a shorter C-terminus compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AC007435, BC026175, DA995464
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS58739.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P15336
    Related
    ENSP00000386526.1, ENST00000409833.5
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd12192
    Location:65102
    GCN4_cent; GCN4 central activation domain-like acidic activation domain
    sd00019
    Location:2749
    ZF_C2H2; C2H2 Zn finger [structural motif]
  6. NM_001880.4NP_001871.2  cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-2 isoform 1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001871.2

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) encodes the longest isoform (1). Variants 1 and 2 encode the same isoform.
    Source sequence(s)
    BC107698, BC130335, BX648469, DA995464
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS2262.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P15336
    Related
    ENSP00000264110.2, ENST00000264110.7
    Conserved Domains (4) summary
    cd12192
    Location:65102
    GCN4_cent; GCN4 central activation domain-like acidic activation domain
    cd14687
    Location:354414
    bZIP_ATF2; Basic leucine zipper (bZIP) domain of Activating Transcription Factor-2 (ATF-2) and similar proteins: a DNA-binding and dimerization domain
    sd00019
    Location:2749
    ZF_C2H2; C2H2 Zn finger [structural motif]
    pfam05109
    Location:90342
    Herpes_BLLF1; Herpes virus major outer envelope glycoprotein (BLLF1)

RNA

  1. NR_045768.2 RNA Sequence

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (7) contains two additional exons compared to variant 1. It is represented as non-coding because the use of the 5'-most translational start codon, as used in variant 1, renders this transcript a candidate for nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD).
    Source sequence(s)
    BC107698, BC130335, BX648469, DA995464, DQ003043
  2. NR_045769.2 RNA Sequence

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (8) contains two additional exons, and uses an alternate acceptor splice site at the 3' terminal exon compared to variant 1. It is represented as non-coding because the use of the 5'-most translational start codon, as used in variant 1, renders this transcript a candidate for nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD).
    Source sequence(s)
    BC107698, BC130335, BX648469, DA995464, DQ003036
  3. NR_045770.2 RNA Sequence

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (9) contains two additional exons, and lacks another exon compared to variant 1. It is represented as non-coding because the use of the 5'-most translational start codon, as used in variant 1, renders this transcript a candidate for nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD).
    Source sequence(s)
    BC107698, BX648469, DA995464, DQ003044
  4. NR_045771.2 RNA Sequence

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (10) contains an additional exon compared to variant 1. It is represented as non-coding because the use of the 5'-most translational start codon, as used in variant 1, renders this transcript a candidate for nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD).
    Source sequence(s)
    BC107698, BC130335, BX648469, DA995464, DQ003039
  5. NR_045772.2 RNA Sequence

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (11) contains two additional exons, and lacks another exon compared to variant 1. It is represented as non-coding because the use of the 5'-most translational start codon, as used in variant 1, renders this transcript a candidate for nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD).
    Source sequence(s)
    BC107698, BC130335, BX648469, DA995464, DQ003040
  6. NR_045773.2 RNA Sequence

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (12) contains an additional exon, and lacks another exon compared to variant 1. It is represented as non-coding because the use of the 5'-most translational start codon, as used in variant 1, renders this transcript a candidate for nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD).
    Source sequence(s)
    BC107698, BC130335, BX648469, DA995464, DQ003046
  7. NR_045774.2 RNA Sequence

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (13) lacks an internal exon compared to variant 1. It is represented as non-coding because the use of the 5'-most translational start codon, as used in variant 1, renders this transcript a candidate for nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD).
    Source sequence(s)
    BC107698, BX648469, DA995464, DQ003047
    Related
    ENST00000409437.5

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Updated Annotation Release 109.20210226

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000002.12 Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

    Range
    175072259..175168203 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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