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AZIN2 antizyme inhibitor 2 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 113451, updated on 26-Sep-2021

Summary

Official Symbol
AZIN2provided by HGNC
Official Full Name
antizyme inhibitor 2provided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:29957
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000142920 MIM:608353
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
ADC; AZI2; ODCp; AZIB1; ODC-p; ODC1L
Summary
The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the antizyme inhibitor family, which plays a role in cell growth and proliferation by maintaining polyamine homeostasis within the cell. Antizyme inhibitors are homologs of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC, the key enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis) that have lost the ability to decarboxylase ornithine; however, retain the ability to bind to antizymes. Antizymes negatively regulate intracellular polyamine levels by binding to ODC and targeting it for degradation, as well as by inhibiting polyamine uptake. Antizyme inhibitors function as positive regulators of polyamine levels by sequestering antizymes and neutralizing their effect. This gene encodes antizyme inhibitor 2, the second member of this gene family. Like antizyme inhibitor 1, antizyme inhibitor 2 interacts with all 3 antizymes and stimulates ODC activity and polyamine uptake. However, unlike antizyme inhibitor 1, which is ubiquitously expressed and localized in the nucleus and cytoplasm, antizyme inhibitor 2 is predominantly expressed in the brain and testis and localized in the endoplasmic reticulum-golgi intermediate compartment. Recent studies indicate that antizyme inhibitor 2 is also expressed in specific cell types in ovaries, adrenal glands and pancreas, and in mast cells. The exact function of this gene is not known, however, available data suggest its role in cell growth, spermiogenesis, vesicular trafficking and secretion. Accumulation of antizyme inhibitor 2 has also been observed in brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease. There has been confusion in literature and databases over the nomenclature of this gene, stemming from an earlier report that a human cDNA clone (identical to ODCp/AZIN2) had arginine decarboxylase (ADC) activity (PMID:14738999). Subsequent studies in human and mouse showed that antizyme inhibitor 2 was devoid of arginine decarboxylase activity (PMID:19956990). Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2014]
Expression
Broad expression in testis (RPKM 8.2), brain (RPKM 4.1) and 15 other tissues See more
Orthologs
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Genomic context

See AZIN2 in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
1p35.1
Exon count:
15
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109.20210514 current GRCh38.p13 (GCF_000001405.39) 1 NC_000001.11 (33081152..33162288)
105.20201022 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 1 NC_000001.10 (33546754..33589093)

Chromosome 1 - NC_000001.11Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene adenylate kinase 2 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105378635 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC112268224 Neighboring gene tripartite motif containing 62 Neighboring gene Sharpr-MPRA regulatory region 4113 Neighboring gene zinc finger protein 362 Neighboring gene alpha 1,3-galactosyltransferase 2

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

What's a GeneRIF?

Pathways from PubChem

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Clone Names

  • KIAA1945

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
enables arginine decarboxylase activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
enables ornithine decarboxylase activator activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
enables ornithine decarboxylase activator activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
enables ornithine decarboxylase activator activity ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
NOT enables ornithine decarboxylase activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
enables protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
located_in axon IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
located_in cis-Golgi network ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
is_active_in cytoplasm IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
located_in cytoplasmic vesicle IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
located_in cytosol IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
located_in cytosol TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
located_in dendrite IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
located_in endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi intermediate compartment membrane ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
located_in granular vesicle IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
located_in mitochondrion IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
located_in nucleus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
located_in perikaryon IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
located_in perinuclear region of cytoplasm IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
located_in trans-Golgi network IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
located_in transport vesicle IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 

General protein information

Preferred Names
antizyme inhibitor 2
Names
ODC antizyme inhibitor-2
ODC-like protein
ODC-paralogue
arginine decarboxylase
ornithine decarboxylase like
ornithine decarboxylase-like protein
ornithine decarboxylase-paralog

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

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RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001293562.2NP_001280491.1  antizyme inhibitor 2 isoform 1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001280491.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) lacks a 5' non-coding exon compared to variant 1. Variants 1 and 2 encode the same isoform (1).
    Source sequence(s)
    AL020995, AW450278, BC010449, BC028128
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS375.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q96A70
    Related
    ENSP00000362542.3, ENST00000373443.7
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd00622
    Location:40408
    PLPDE_III_ODC; Type III Pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP)-Dependent Enzyme Ornithine Decarboxylase
  2. NM_001301823.2NP_001288752.1  antizyme inhibitor 2 isoform 2

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001288752.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (3) has multiple differences at the 5' end, which result in a distinct 5' UTR and translation initiation from an in-frame downstream start codon, compared to variant 1. The encoded isoform (2) has a shorter N-terminus compared to isoform 1. Variants 3, 4, 8, 9, 10 and 11 encode the same isoform (2).
    Source sequence(s)
    AK095127, AL020995, AW450278, DB456925
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q96A70
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    D3DPR0
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd00622
    Location:1313
    PLPDE_III_ODC; Type III Pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP)-Dependent Enzyme Ornithine Decarboxylase
  3. NM_001301824.2NP_001288753.1  antizyme inhibitor 2 isoform 2

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001288753.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (4) has multiple differences at the 5' end, which result in a distinct 5' UTR and translation initiation from an in-frame downstream start codon, compared to variant 1. The encoded isoform (2) has a shorter N-terminus compared to isoform 1. Variants 3, 4, 8, 9, 10 and 11 encode the same isoform (2).
    Source sequence(s)
    AK057051, AL020995, AW450278, DB456925
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q96A70
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    D3DPR0
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd00622
    Location:1313
    PLPDE_III_ODC; Type III Pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP)-Dependent Enzyme Ornithine Decarboxylase
  4. NM_001301825.1NP_001288754.1  antizyme inhibitor 2 isoform 3

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001288754.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (5, also known as SV2) uses an alternate in-frame acceptor splice site in the 3' coding region compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (3) is longer containing a 20 aa protein segment not found in isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AW450278, AY050635, BC028128
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS76138.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q96A70
    Related
    ENSP00000362540.1, ENST00000373441.1
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd00622
    Location:40428
    PLPDE_III_ODC; Type III Pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP)-Dependent Enzyme Ornithine Decarboxylase
  5. NM_001301826.1NP_001288755.1  antizyme inhibitor 2 isoform 4

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001288755.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (6, also known as SV3) contains a different 3' terminal exon compared to variant 1. The encoded isoform (4) is shorter with a distinct C-terminus compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AY050637, BC028128
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q96A70
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd00622
    Location:40353
    PLPDE_III_ODC; Type III Pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP)-Dependent Enzyme Ornithine Decarboxylase
  6. NM_001350398.2NP_001337327.1  antizyme inhibitor 2 isoform 2

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (8) has multiple differences at the 5' end, which result in a distinct 5' UTR and translation initiation from an in-frame downstream start codon, compared to variant 1. The encoded isoform (2) has a shorter N-terminus compared to isoform 1. Variants 3, 4, 8, 9, 10 and 11 encode the same isoform (2).
    Source sequence(s)
    AK095127, AL020995, AW450278, BC028128, BX444560, DB476211
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd00622
    Location:1313
    PLPDE_III_ODC; Type III Pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP)-Dependent Enzyme Ornithine Decarboxylase
  7. NM_001350399.2NP_001337328.1  antizyme inhibitor 2 isoform 2

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (9) has multiple differences at the 5' end, which result in a distinct 5' UTR and translation initiation from an in-frame downstream start codon, compared to variant 1. The encoded isoform (2) has a shorter N-terminus compared to isoform 1. Variants 3, 4, 8, 9, 10 and 11 encode the same isoform (2).
    Source sequence(s)
    AK095127, AL020995, AW450278, BC028128, BX444560, DB456925, DB476211
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd00622
    Location:1313
    PLPDE_III_ODC; Type III Pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP)-Dependent Enzyme Ornithine Decarboxylase
  8. NM_001350400.2NP_001337329.1  antizyme inhibitor 2 isoform 2

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (10) has multiple differences at the 5' end, which result in a distinct 5' UTR and translation initiation from an in-frame downstream start codon, compared to variant 1. The encoded isoform (2) has a shorter N-terminus compared to isoform 1. Variants 3, 4, 8, 9, 10 and 11 encode the same isoform (2).
    Source sequence(s)
    AK095127, AL020995, AW450278, BC028128, BX444560, DB476211
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd00622
    Location:1313
    PLPDE_III_ODC; Type III Pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP)-Dependent Enzyme Ornithine Decarboxylase
  9. NM_001350401.2NP_001337330.1  antizyme inhibitor 2 isoform 2

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (11) has multiple differences at the 5' end, which result in a distinct 5' UTR and translation initiation from an in-frame downstream start codon, compared to variant 1. The encoded isoform (2) has a shorter N-terminus compared to isoform 1. Variants 3, 4, 8, 9, 10 and 11 encode the same isoform (2).
    Source sequence(s)
    AK095127, AL020995, AW450278, BC028128, BX444560, DB476211
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd00622
    Location:1313
    PLPDE_III_ODC; Type III Pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP)-Dependent Enzyme Ornithine Decarboxylase
  10. NM_001350402.1NP_001337331.1  antizyme inhibitor 2 isoform 5

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (12) has multiple differences at the 5' end, which result in a distinct 5' UTR and translation initiation from an in-frame downstream start codon, compared to variant 1. The encoded isoform (5) has a shorter N-terminus compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AK095127, AL020995, AW450278, BX444560, DB476211, R15361
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cl00261
    Location:1257
    PLPDE_III; Type III Pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP)-Dependent Enzymes
  11. NM_001376722.1NP_001363651.1  antizyme inhibitor 2 isoform 1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    AL020995
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd00622
    Location:40408
    PLPDE_III_ODC; Type III Pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP)-Dependent Enzyme Ornithine Decarboxylase
  12. NM_001376724.1NP_001363653.1  antizyme inhibitor 2 isoform 1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    AL020995
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd00622
    Location:40408
    PLPDE_III_ODC; Type III Pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP)-Dependent Enzyme Ornithine Decarboxylase
  13. NM_001376725.1NP_001363654.1  antizyme inhibitor 2 isoform 2

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    AL020995
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd00622
    Location:1313
    PLPDE_III_ODC; Type III Pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP)-Dependent Enzyme Ornithine Decarboxylase
  14. NM_001376727.1NP_001363656.1  antizyme inhibitor 2 isoform 2

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    AL020995
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd00622
    Location:1313
    PLPDE_III_ODC; Type III Pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP)-Dependent Enzyme Ornithine Decarboxylase
  15. NM_001376729.1NP_001363658.1  antizyme inhibitor 2 isoform 2

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    AL020995
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd00622
    Location:1313
    PLPDE_III_ODC; Type III Pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP)-Dependent Enzyme Ornithine Decarboxylase
  16. NM_001376730.1NP_001363659.1  antizyme inhibitor 2 isoform 6

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    AL020995
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd00622
    Location:21350
    PLPDE_III_ODC; Type III Pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP)-Dependent Enzyme Ornithine Decarboxylase
  17. NM_001376732.1NP_001363661.1  antizyme inhibitor 2 isoform 5

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    AL020995
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cl00261
    Location:1257
    PLPDE_III; Type III Pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP)-Dependent Enzymes
  18. NM_052998.4NP_443724.1  antizyme inhibitor 2 isoform 1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_443724.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) encodes the predominant isoform (1). Variants 1 and 2 encode the same isoform.
    Source sequence(s)
    AL020995, AW450278, BC028128
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS375.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q96A70
    Related
    ENSP00000294517.6, ENST00000294517.11
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd00622
    Location:40408
    PLPDE_III_ODC; Type III Pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP)-Dependent Enzyme Ornithine Decarboxylase

RNA

  1. NR_126031.1 RNA Sequence

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (7, also known as SV4) uses an alternate acceptor splice site at an internal exon compared to variant 1. It is represented as non-coding because the use of the 5'-most translational start codon, as used in variant 1, renders this transcript a candidate for nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD).
    Source sequence(s)
    AK122697, AY050636, BC028128
  2. NR_146648.2 RNA Sequence

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (13) contains multiple differences compared to variant 1. It is represented as non-coding because the use of the 5'-most translational start codon, as used in variant 1, renders this transcript a candidate for nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD).
    Source sequence(s)
    AK095127, AL020995, AW450278, AY050637, BC028128, BX444560, DB456925, DB476211
  3. NR_146649.2 RNA Sequence

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (14) contains multiple differences at internal exons compared to variant 1. It is represented as non-coding because the use of the 5'-most translational start codon, as used in variant 1, renders this transcript a candidate for nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD).
    Source sequence(s)
    AL020995, AW450278, BC010449, BC028128, R15361

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Updated Annotation Release 109.20210514

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000001.11 Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

    Range
    33081152..33162288
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. XM_006710312.1XP_006710375.1  antizyme inhibitor 2 isoform X8

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_006710375.1

    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    B3KV62
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cl00261
    Location:1257
    PLPDE_III; Type III Pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP)-Dependent Enzymes
  2. XM_017000175.1XP_016855664.1  antizyme inhibitor 2 isoform X4

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q96A70
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    D3DPR0
    Related
    ENST00000481886.5
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd00622
    Location:1313
    PLPDE_III_ODC; Type III Pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP)-Dependent Enzyme Ornithine Decarboxylase
  3. XM_017000174.1XP_016855663.1  antizyme inhibitor 2 isoform X6

    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd00622
    Location:40305
    PLPDE_III_ODC; Type III Pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP)-Dependent Enzyme Ornithine Decarboxylase
  4. XM_017000167.1XP_016855656.1  antizyme inhibitor 2 isoform X2

  5. XM_011540566.1XP_011538868.1  antizyme inhibitor 2 isoform X7

    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd00622
    Location:40305
    PLPDE_III_ODC; Type III Pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP)-Dependent Enzyme Ornithine Decarboxylase
  6. XM_011540563.1XP_011538865.1  antizyme inhibitor 2 isoform X5

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_011538865.1

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q96A70
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd00622
    Location:40353
    PLPDE_III_ODC; Type III Pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP)-Dependent Enzyme Ornithine Decarboxylase
  7. XM_024452818.1XP_024308586.1  antizyme inhibitor 2 isoform X4

    Related
    ENST00000471119.5
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd00622
    Location:1313
    PLPDE_III_ODC; Type III Pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP)-Dependent Enzyme Ornithine Decarboxylase
  8. XM_011540557.1XP_011538859.1  antizyme inhibitor 2 isoform X1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_011538859.1

    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd00622
    Location:21350
    PLPDE_III_ODC; Type III Pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP)-Dependent Enzyme Ornithine Decarboxylase
  9. XM_017000171.1XP_016855660.1  antizyme inhibitor 2 isoform X4

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q96A70
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    D3DPR0
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd00622
    Location:1313
    PLPDE_III_ODC; Type III Pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP)-Dependent Enzyme Ornithine Decarboxylase
  10. XM_024452824.1XP_024308592.1  antizyme inhibitor 2 isoform X8

    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cl00261
    Location:1257
    PLPDE_III; Type III Pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP)-Dependent Enzymes
  11. XM_017000178.1XP_016855667.1  antizyme inhibitor 2 isoform X8

    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    B3KV62
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cl00261
    Location:1257
    PLPDE_III; Type III Pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP)-Dependent Enzymes

RNA

  1. XR_946531.1 RNA Sequence

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