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ADAR adenosine deaminase RNA specific [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 103, updated on 5-Jul-2020

Summary

Official Symbol
ADARprovided by HGNC
Official Full Name
adenosine deaminase RNA specificprovided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:225
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000160710 MIM:146920
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
DSH; AGS6; G1P1; IFI4; P136; ADAR1; DRADA; DSRAD; IFI-4; K88DSRBP
Summary
This gene encodes the enzyme responsible for RNA editing by site-specific deamination of adenosines. This enzyme destabilizes double-stranded RNA through conversion of adenosine to inosine. Mutations in this gene have been associated with dyschromatosis symmetrica hereditaria. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]
Expression
Ubiquitous expression in spleen (RPKM 49.6), appendix (RPKM 40.8) and 25 other tissues See more
Orthologs

Genomic context

See ADAR in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
1q21.3
Exon count:
21
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109.20200522 current GRCh38.p13 (GCF_000001405.39) 1 NC_000001.11 (154582057..154627997, complement)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 1 NC_000001.10 (154554533..154600456, complement)

Chromosome 1 - NC_000001.11Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene UBE2Q1 antisense RNA 1 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC107985206 Neighboring gene ubiquitin conjugating enzyme E2 Q1 Neighboring gene cholinergic receptor nicotinic beta 2 subunit Neighboring gene potassium calcium-activated channel subfamily N member 3 Neighboring gene Sharpr-MPRA regulatory region 4766 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105371449

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

What's a GeneRIF?

Phenotypes

Associated conditions

Description Tests
Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome 6
MedGen: C3539013 OMIM: 615010 GeneReviews: Aicardi-Goutieres Syndrome
Compare labs
Symmetrical dyschromatosis of extremities
MedGen: C0406775 OMIM: 127400 GeneReviews: Not available
Compare labs

NHGRI GWAS Catalog

Description
Genome-Wide Association Study of CSF Levels of 59 Alzheimer's Disease Candidate Proteins: Significant Associations with Proteins Involved in Amyloid Processing and Inflammation.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Identification of 23 new prostate cancer susceptibility loci using the iCOGS custom genotyping array.
NHGRI GWA Catalog

HIV-1 interactions

Replication interactions

Interaction Pubs
HIV-1 infection (overnight) induces 150-kDa ADAR protein expression in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages BUT NOT in primary CD4+ T cells PubMed
HIV-1 requires ADAR1 for efficient replication in CD4+ T cells as shown through knockdown and genetic deletion PubMed
shRNA knockdown of ADAR increases HIV-1 RNA copies in OM10.1 cells (latently infected with HIV-1); HIV is restricted by ADAR PubMed
HIV-1 is restricted by ADAR in OM10.1 cells (latently infected with HIV-1) overexpressing 150-kDa ADAR PubMed
siRNA knockdown of ADAR increases HIV-1 replication in monocyte-derived macrophages and alveolar macrophages from HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (N=4); ADAR restricts HIV-1 replication PubMed

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env Tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry analysis identify adenosine deaminase RNA-specific binding protein (ADAR), HIV-1 Gag, Gag/Pol, gp120, and Nef incorporated into staufen1 RNP complexes isolated from HIV-1-expressing cells PubMed
env ADAR1 inhibits HIV-1 viral protein synthesis such as p24 CA, gp120, and p65 Pol proteins in the various cell lines. The catalytic motif of ADAR1 deaminase domain is required for the inhibition function PubMed
env Overexpression of ADAR1 increases the levels of gp120, p24, and Nef in HIV-1 producer cells, which requires inhibition of the RNA-activated protein kinase PKR PubMed
env HIV-1 gp120 inhibits adenosine deaminase (ADA) binding to CD26 (dipeptidyl-peptidase 4) in both CD4+ and CD4- cells; this effect requires the interaction of gp120 with CD4 or CXCR4 PubMed
Gag-Pol gag-pol Tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry analysis identify adenosine deaminase RNA-specific binding protein (ADAR), HIV-1 Gag, Gag/Pol, gp120, and Nef incorporated into staufen1 RNP complexes isolated from HIV-1-expressing cells PubMed
Nef nef Tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry analysis identify adenosine deaminase RNA-specific binding protein (ADAR), HIV-1 Gag, Gag/Pol, gp120, and Nef incorporated into staufen1 RNP complexes isolated from HIV-1-expressing cells PubMed
nef Overexpression of ADAR1 increases the levels of gp120, p24, and Nef in HIV-1 producer cells, which requires inhibition of the RNA-activated protein kinase PKR PubMed
Pr55(Gag) gag p55 Gag associates with ADAR1 PubMed
gag Tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry analysis identify adenosine deaminase RNA-specific binding protein (ADAR), HIV-1 Gag, Gag/Pol, gp120, and Nef incorporated into staufen1 RNP complexes isolated from HIV-1-expressing cells PubMed
Rev rev HIV-1 Rev interacting protein, adenosine deaminase, RNA-specific (ADAR), is identified by the in-vitro binding experiments involving cytosolic or nuclear extracts from HeLa cells. The interaction of Rev with ADAR is increased by RRE PubMed
rev ADAR1-mediated A-to-G mutations in RRE region of the env gene affect the binding of HIV-1 Rev PubMed
Tat tat Expression of HIV-1 Tat downregulates the abundance of RNA-specific adenosine deaminase (ADAR) in the nucleoli of Jurkat T-cells PubMed
capsid gag ADAR1 inhibits HIV-1 viral protein synthesis such as p24 CA, gp120, and p65 Pol proteins in the various cell lines. The catalytic motif of ADAR1 deaminase domain is required for the inhibition function PubMed
gag Overexpression of ADAR1 increases the levels of gp120, p24, and Nef in HIV-1 producer cells, which requires inhibition of the RNA-activated protein kinase PKR PubMed
reverse transcriptase gag-pol ADAR1 inhibits HIV-1 viral protein synthesis such as p24 CA, gp120, and p65 Pol proteins in the various cell lines. The catalytic motif of ADAR1 deaminase domain is required for the inhibition function PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

Pathways from PubChem

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
DNA binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
RNA binding HDA PubMed 
double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminase activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminase activity NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
double-stranded RNA binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
metal ion binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
tRNA-specific adenosine deaminase activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
RNA processing IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
adenosine to inosine editing IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
adenosine to inosine editing IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
adenosine to inosine editing IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
adenosine to inosine editing TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
base conversion or substitution editing IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to virus IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
defense response to virus IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
definitive hemopoiesis IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
erythrocyte differentiation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
hematopoietic progenitor cell differentiation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
hematopoietic stem cell homeostasis IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
innate immune response TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
mRNA processing IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
miRNA loading onto RISC involved in gene silencing by miRNA IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of RNA interference IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
negative regulation of apoptotic process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
negative regulation of protein kinase activity by regulation of protein phosphorylation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of protein kinase activity by regulation of protein phosphorylation IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of type I interferon-mediated signaling pathway IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
osteoblast differentiation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of viral genome replication IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of viral genome replication IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
pre-miRNA processing IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
response to interferon-alpha IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
response to virus IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
somatic diversification of immune receptors via somatic mutation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
type I interferon signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
cytoplasm IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
cytoplasm IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cytoplasm TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
membrane HDA PubMed 
nucleolus IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
nucleolus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
nucleoplasm IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
nucleoplasm TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
nucleus IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
nucleus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
nucleus TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
supraspliceosomal complex IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 

General protein information

Preferred Names
double-stranded RNA-specific adenosine deaminase
Names
136 kDa double-stranded RNA-binding protein
adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 1-A
dsRNA adenosine deaminase
dsRNA adeonosine deaminase
interferon-induced protein 4
interferon-inducible protein 4
NP_001020278.1
NP_001102.3
NP_001180424.1
NP_001351974.1
NP_001351975.1
NP_001351976.1
NP_001351977.1
NP_001351978.1
NP_056655.3
NP_056656.3
XP_006711176.1
XP_011507363.2
XP_011507364.1

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_011844.2 RefSeqGene

    Range
    28375..54504
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics), LRG_1212

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001025107.3NP_001020278.1  double-stranded RNA-specific adenosine deaminase isoform d

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001020278.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (4) differs in the 5' UTR, lacks a portion of the 5' coding region, and uses a downstream start codon, compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (d) is shorter at the N-terminus, compared to isoform a. Variants 4, 5, 7, 8, and 9, encode the same isoform.
    Source sequence(s)
    AA449679, AL592078, AL606500, BX538232, BX640741, CD108625
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS30879.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P55265
    Related
    ENSP00000357456.3, ENST00000368471.8
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    smart00358
    Location:209274
    DSRM; Double-stranded RNA binding motif
    smart00552
    Location:544927
    ADEAMc; tRNA-specific and double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminase (RNA-specific editase)
    pfam02295
    Location:164
    z-alpha; Adenosine deaminase z-alpha domain
  2. NM_001111.5NP_001102.3  double-stranded RNA-specific adenosine deaminase isoform a

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) encodes isoform (a, also referred to as ADAR-a).
    Source sequence(s)
    AA449679, AI309328, AK304153, AL592078, AL606500, U10439
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS1071.1
    Related
    ENSP00000357459.4, ENST00000368474.9
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    smart00358
    Location:504569
    DSRM; Double-stranded RNA binding motif
    smart00552
    Location:8391222
    ADEAMc; tRNA-specific and double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminase (RNA-specific editase)
    pfam02295
    Location:135201
    z-alpha; Adenosine deaminase z-alpha domain
  3. NM_001193495.2NP_001180424.1  double-stranded RNA-specific adenosine deaminase isoform d

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001180424.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (5) differs in the 5' UTR, lacks a portion of the 5' coding region, and uses a downstream start codon, compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (d) is shorter at the N-terminus, compared to isoform a. Variants 4, 5, 7, 8, and 9, encode the same isoform.
    Source sequence(s)
    AA449679, AL592078, AL606500, CD108625, X79448
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS30879.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P55265
    Related
    ENSP00000497555.1, ENST00000648231.1
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    smart00358
    Location:209274
    DSRM; Double-stranded RNA binding motif
    smart00552
    Location:544927
    ADEAMc; tRNA-specific and double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminase (RNA-specific editase)
    pfam02295
    Location:164
    z-alpha; Adenosine deaminase z-alpha domain
  4. NM_001365045.1NP_001351974.1  double-stranded RNA-specific adenosine deaminase isoform e

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    AL592078, AL606500, AL691488
    Related
    ENST00000649021.1
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    smart00358
    Location:513578
    DSRM; Double-stranded RNA binding motif
    smart00552
    Location:8481231
    ADEAMc; tRNA-specific and double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminase (RNA-specific editase)
    pfam02295
    Location:144210
    z-alpha; Adenosine deaminase z-alpha domain
  5. NM_001365046.1NP_001351975.1  double-stranded RNA-specific adenosine deaminase isoform d

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: Variants 4, 5, 7, 8, and 9, encode the same isoform.
    Source sequence(s)
    AL592078, AL606500, AL691488
    Related
    ENSP00000497790.1, ENST00000649042.1
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    smart00358
    Location:209274
    DSRM; Double-stranded RNA binding motif
    smart00552
    Location:544927
    ADEAMc; tRNA-specific and double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminase (RNA-specific editase)
    pfam02295
    Location:164
    z-alpha; Adenosine deaminase z-alpha domain
  6. NM_001365047.1NP_001351976.1  double-stranded RNA-specific adenosine deaminase isoform d

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: Variants 4, 5, 7, 8, and 9, encode the same isoform.
    Source sequence(s)
    AL592078, AL606500, AL691488
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    smart00358
    Location:209274
    DSRM; Double-stranded RNA binding motif
    smart00552
    Location:544927
    ADEAMc; tRNA-specific and double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminase (RNA-specific editase)
    pfam02295
    Location:164
    z-alpha; Adenosine deaminase z-alpha domain
  7. NM_001365048.1NP_001351977.1  double-stranded RNA-specific adenosine deaminase isoform d

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: Variants 4, 5, 7, 8, and 9, encode the same isoform.
    Source sequence(s)
    AL592078, AL606500, AL691488
    Related
    ENSP00000497210.1, ENST00000649749.1
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    smart00358
    Location:209274
    DSRM; Double-stranded RNA binding motif
    smart00552
    Location:544927
    ADEAMc; tRNA-specific and double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminase (RNA-specific editase)
    pfam02295
    Location:164
    z-alpha; Adenosine deaminase z-alpha domain
  8. NM_001365049.1NP_001351978.1  double-stranded RNA-specific adenosine deaminase isoform f

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    AL592078, AL606500, AL691488
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    smart00358
    Location:209274
    DSRM; Double-stranded RNA binding motif
    smart00552
    Location:518901
    ADEAMc; tRNA-specific and double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminase (RNA-specific editase)
    pfam02295
    Location:164
    z-alpha; Adenosine deaminase z-alpha domain
  9. NM_015840.4NP_056655.3  double-stranded RNA-specific adenosine deaminase isoform b

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) uses an alternate in-frame splice site in the central coding region, compared to variant 1, resulting in an isoform (b, also referred to as ADAR-b) that is shorter than isoform a. There are no publicly available full-length transcripts representing this variant; it is represented based on data in PMID:9020165 and annotation on DNA accession U75503.1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AA449679, AL592078, AL606500, CD108625, U10439
    Related
    ENSP00000431794.2, ENST00000529168.2
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    smart00358
    Location:504569
    DSRM; Double-stranded RNA binding motif
    smart00552
    Location:8131196
    ADEAMc; tRNA-specific and double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminase (RNA-specific editase)
    pfam02295
    Location:135201
    z-alpha; Adenosine deaminase z-alpha domain
  10. NM_015841.4NP_056656.3  double-stranded RNA-specific adenosine deaminase isoform c

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (3) uses two alternate in-frame splice sites in the central coding region, compared to variant 1, resulting in an isoform (c, also referred to as ADAR-c) that is shorter than isoform a. There are no publicly available full-length transcripts representing this variant; it is represented based on data in PMID:9020165 and annotation on DNA accession U75503.1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AA449679, AL592078, AL606500, CD108625, U10439
    Related
    ENSP00000496896.1, ENST00000649022.1
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    smart00358
    Location:504569
    DSRM; Double-stranded RNA binding motif
    smart00552
    Location:7941177
    ADEAMc; tRNA-specific and double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminase (RNA-specific editase)
    pfam02295
    Location:135201
    z-alpha; Adenosine deaminase z-alpha domain

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Updated Annotation Release 109.

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000001.11 Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

    Range
    154582057..154627997 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. XM_011509061.2XP_011507363.2  double-stranded RNA-specific adenosine deaminase isoform X2

    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    smart00358
    Location:209274
    DSRM; Double-stranded RNA binding motif
    smart00552
    Location:518901
    ADEAMc; tRNA-specific and double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminase (RNA-specific editase)
    pfam02295
    Location:164
    z-alpha; Adenosine deaminase z-alpha domain
  2. XM_011509062.1XP_011507364.1  double-stranded RNA-specific adenosine deaminase isoform X4

    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    smart00358
    Location:510575
    DSRM; Double-stranded RNA binding motif
    smart00552
    Location:8451228
    ADEAMc; tRNA-specific and double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminase (RNA-specific editase)
    pfam02295
    Location:141207
    z-alpha; Adenosine deaminase z-alpha domain
  3. XM_006711113.2XP_006711176.1  double-stranded RNA-specific adenosine deaminase isoform X5

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_006711176.1

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P55265
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    smart00358
    Location:209274
    DSRM; Double-stranded RNA binding motif
    smart00552
    Location:544927
    ADEAMc; tRNA-specific and double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminase (RNA-specific editase)
    pfam02295
    Location:164
    z-alpha; Adenosine deaminase z-alpha domain
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