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CDKN1A cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 1A [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 1026, updated on 19-Aug-2018

Summary

Official Symbol
CDKN1Aprovided by HGNC
Official Full Name
cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 1Aprovided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:1784
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000124762 MIM:116899; Vega:OTTHUMG00000014603
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
P21; CIP1; SDI1; WAF1; CAP20; CDKN1; MDA-6; p21CIP1
Summary
This gene encodes a potent cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. The encoded protein binds to and inhibits the activity of cyclin-cyclin-dependent kinase2 or -cyclin-dependent kinase4 complexes, and thus functions as a regulator of cell cycle progression at G1. The expression of this gene is tightly controlled by the tumor suppressor protein p53, through which this protein mediates the p53-dependent cell cycle G1 phase arrest in response to a variety of stress stimuli. This protein can interact with proliferating cell nuclear antigen, a DNA polymerase accessory factor, and plays a regulatory role in S phase DNA replication and DNA damage repair. This protein was reported to be specifically cleaved by CASP3-like caspases, which thus leads to a dramatic activation of cyclin-dependent kinase2, and may be instrumental in the execution of apoptosis following caspase activation. Mice that lack this gene have the ability to regenerate damaged or missing tissue. Multiple alternatively spliced variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2015]
Expression
Ubiquitous expression in colon (RPKM 71.4), gall bladder (RPKM 68.8) and 24 other tissues See more
Orthologs

Genomic context

See CDKN1A in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
6p21.2
Exon count:
6
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109 current GRCh38.p12 (GCF_000001405.38) 6 NC_000006.12 (36676460..36687339)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 6 NC_000006.11 (36644237..36655116)

Chromosome 6 - NC_000006.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105375038 Neighboring gene RNA, U1 small nuclear 88, pseudogene Neighboring gene promoter of CDKN1A antisense DNA damage activated RNA Neighboring gene leucine aminopeptidase 3 pseudogene 2 Neighboring gene damage induced long noncoding RNA Neighboring gene RAB44, member RAS oncogene family Neighboring gene G protein-coupled receptor 166 pseudogene

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Jun 15 11:32:44 2016

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

Phenotypes

NHGRI GWAS Catalog

Description
Common variants in 22 loci are associated with QRS duration and cardiac ventricular conduction.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Common variation near CDKN1A, POLD3 and SHROOM2 influences colorectal cancer risk.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Genome- and phenome-wide analyses of cardiac conduction identifies markers of arrhythmia risk.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Identification of three novel genetic variations associated with electrocardiographic traits (QRS duration and PR interval) in East Asians.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Several common variants modulate heart rate, PR interval and QRS duration.
NHGRI GWA Catalog

HIV-1 interactions

Replication interactions

Interaction Pubs
HIV-1 infection in CD4+ T cells induces higher expression of CDKN1A (p21) PubMed

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env HIV-1 gp120 upregulates the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A; p21; Cip1) in human B cells PubMed
env HIV-1 gp120 induces NF-kappaB activation and increases p21(cip1/waf1) and p27(kip1) protein levels in human mesangial cells PubMed
Nef nef HIV-1 Nef upregulates the expression of p21/WAF1 protein in human mesenchymal stem cells PubMed
Tat tat HIV-1 Tat upregulates the expression of p21/WAF1 protein in human mesenchymal stem cells PubMed
tat Treatment with HIV-Tat and morphine activates extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 (ERK1/2), upregulates p53 and p21 levels, and downregulates cyclin D1 and Akt levels in human fetal brain-derived neural precursor cells PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat inhibits SIRT1 and increases acetylation of p53, which leads to activation of p21 and BAX in HeLa-CD4+ cells PubMed
tat A p53 fusion protein with the HIV-1 Tat basic domain at its N terminus activates the expression of p21and downregulates the levels of caspase-3 and Bcl-2 PubMed
Vif vif HIV-1 Vif upregulates the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A, p21, Cip1) in Vif-expression T cells PubMed
Vpr vpr Activation of p21/Waf1/Cip1 by HIV-1 Vpr appears to be dependent upon p53 PubMed
vpr COUP-TF-interacting protein 2 (CTIP2) abolishes Vpr-mediated stimulation of p21 by cooperating with SUV39H1 and HDAC1/HDAC2 to silence the p21 gene transcription PubMed
vpr Results from GST pull-down assays show the association of Vpr with p53 in extracts containing Sp1, suggesting the physical interaction of Vpr with Sp1 and p53 could modulate transcriptional activity of p21 PubMed
vpr HIV-1 Vpr activates promoter activity of p21/Cip1/Waf1 through the GC-rich region located between nucleotides -84 and -74 in a manner that requires cooperativity of Sp1, which binds to the DNA sequence spanning -84 to -74 PubMed
vpr HIV-1 Vpr activates the expression and transcription of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21/Waf1/Cip1, an inhibitor of the G1 and G2/M phase transitions in T lymphoid and myeloid cells PubMed
integrase gag-pol Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CKI) p21 (Waf1/Cip1/Sdi1) blocks viral infection by complexing with HIV-1 integrase and aborting chromosomal integration in hematopoietic stem cells PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

Pathways from BioSystems

  • AKT phosphorylates targets in the cytosol, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • ATM Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
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  • Adaptive Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • Androgen receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Androgen receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemAndrogens, mainly testosterone and 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) play significant role in the growth and development of the male reproductive organs. These steroid hormones bring about their biolo...
  • Androgen receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Androgen receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemAndrogens, mainly testosterone and 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) play significant role in the growth and development of the male reproductive organs. These steroid hormones bring about their biolo...
  • Androgen receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Androgen receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemAndrogens, mainly testosterone and 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) play significant role in the growth and development of the male reproductive organs. These steroid hormones bring about their biolo...
  • Angiopoietin receptor Tie2-mediated signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Angiopoietin receptor Tie2-mediated signaling, organism-specific biosystem
    Angiopoietin receptor Tie2-mediated signaling
  • Apoptosis-related network due to altered Notch3 in ovarian cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Apoptosis-related network due to altered Notch3 in ovarian cancer, organism-specific biosystemResults of pathway analysis of apoptosis-related genes in OVCAR3 cells treated with Notch3 siRNA or control siRNA.
  • Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor, organism-specific biosystemThe Aryl Hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is ligand activated transcription factor that regulates wide spectrum of gene expression. The main mediator of AhR is 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) or...
  • Association Between Physico-Chemical Features and Toxicity Associated Pathways, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
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  • Bladder Cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Bladder Cancer, organism-specific biosystemThe urothelium covers the luminal surface of almost the entire urinary tract, extending from the renal pelvis, through the ureter and bladder, to the proximal urethra. The majority of urothelial carc...
  • Bladder cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Bladder cancer, organism-specific biosystemThe urothelium covers the luminal surface of almost the entire urinary tract, extending from the renal pelvis, through the ureter and bladder, to the proximal urethra. The majority of urothelial carc...
  • Bladder cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
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  • Breast cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Breast cancer, organism-specific biosystemBreast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among women worldwide. The vast majority of breast cancers are carcinomas that originate from cells lining the milk-forming ducts of the mammary gla...
  • Breast cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Breast cancer, conserved biosystemBreast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among women worldwide. The vast majority of breast cancers are carcinomas that originate from cells lining the milk-forming ducts of the mammary gla...
  • C-MYB transcription factor network, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    C-MYB transcription factor network, organism-specific biosystem
    C-MYB transcription factor network
  • Cell Cycle, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Cell Cycle, organism-specific biosystemThe cell cycle is the series of events that takes place in a cell leading to its division and duplication (replication). Regulation of the cell cycle involves processes crucial to the survival of a c...
  • Cell Cycle, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Cell Cycle, organism-specific biosystem
    Cell Cycle
  • Cell Cycle Checkpoints, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Cell Cycle Checkpoints, organism-specific biosystemA hallmark of the human cell cycle in normal somatic cells is its precision. This remarkable fidelity is achieved by a number of signal transduction pathways, known as checkpoints, which monitor cell...
  • Cell Cycle, Mitotic, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Cell Cycle, Mitotic, organism-specific biosystemThe replication of the genome and the subsequent segregation of chromosomes into daughter cells are controlled by a series of events collectively known as the cell cycle. DNA replication is carried o...
  • Cell cycle, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Cell cycle, organism-specific biosystemMitotic cell cycle progression is accomplished through a reproducible sequence of events, DNA replication (S phase) and mitosis (M phase) separated temporally by gaps known as G1 and G2 phases. Cycli...
  • Cell cycle, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Cell cycle, conserved biosystemMitotic cell cycle progression is accomplished through a reproducible sequence of events, DNA replication (S phase) and mitosis (M phase) separated temporally by gaps known as G1 and G2 phases. Cycli...
  • Cellular Senescence, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Cellular Senescence, organism-specific biosystemCellular senescence involves irreversible growth arrest accompanied by phenotypic changes such as enlarged morphology, reorganization of chromatin through formation of senescence-associated heterochr...
  • Cellular responses to stress, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Cellular responses to stress, organism-specific biosystemCells are subject to external molecular and physical stresses such as foreign molecules that perturb metabolic or signaling processes, and changes in temperature or pH. The ability of cells and tissu...
  • Chronic myeloid leukemia, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Chronic myeloid leukemia, organism-specific biosystemChronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a clonal myeloproliferative disorder of a pluripotent stem cell. The natural history of CML has a triphasic clinical course comprising of an initial chronic phase (C...
  • Chronic myeloid leukemia, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Chronic myeloid leukemia, conserved biosystemChronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a clonal myeloproliferative disorder of a pluripotent stem cell. The natural history of CML has a triphasic clinical course comprising of an initial chronic phase (C...
  • Class I PI3K signaling events mediated by Akt, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Class I PI3K signaling events mediated by Akt, organism-specific biosystem
    Class I PI3K signaling events mediated by Akt
  • Constitutive Signaling by AKT1 E17K in Cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Constitutive Signaling by AKT1 E17K in Cancer, organism-specific biosystemWhile AKT1 gene copy number, expression level and phosphorylation are often increased in cancer, only one low frequency point mutation has been repeatedly reported in cancer and functionally studied....
  • Cyclin A:Cdk2-associated events at S phase entry, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Cyclin A:Cdk2-associated events at S phase entry, organism-specific biosystemCyclin A:Cdk2 plays a key role in S phase entry by phosphorylation of proteins including Cdh1, Rb, p21 and p27. During G1 phase of the cell cycle, cyclin A is synthesized and associates with Cdk2. Af...
  • Cyclin D associated events in G1, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Cyclin D associated events in G1, organism-specific biosystemThree D-type cyclins are essential for progression from G1 to S-phase. These D cyclins bind to and activate both CDK4 and CDK6. The formation of all possible complexes between the D-type cyclins and...
  • Cyclin E associated events during G1/S transition, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Cyclin E associated events during G1/S transition, organism-specific biosystemThe transition from the G1 to S phase is controlled by the Cyclin E:Cdk2 complexes. As the Cyclin E:Cdk2 complexes are formed, the Cdk2 is phosphorylated by the Wee1 and Myt1 kinases. This phosphoryl...
  • Cytokine Signaling in Immune system, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Cytokine Signaling in Immune system, organism-specific biosystemCytokines are small proteins that regulate and mediate immunity, inflammation, and hematopoiesis. They are secreted in response to immune stimuli, and usually act briefly, locally, at very low concen...
  • DAP12 interactions, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    DAP12 interactions, organism-specific biosystemDNAX activation protein of 12kDa (DAP12) is an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-bearing adapter molecule that transduces activating signals in natural killer (NK) and myeloid cel...
  • DAP12 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    DAP12 signaling, organism-specific biosystemIn response to receptor ligation, the tyrosine residues in DAP12's immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) are phosphorylated by Src family kinases. These phosphotyrosines form the dock...
  • DNA Damage Response, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    DNA Damage Response, organism-specific biosystemThis is the first pathway out of two pathways which deals with DNA damage response. It has two central gene products (ATM and ATR) which are connected to the sources of DNA damage (in blue). The two ...
  • DNA Damage Response (only ATM dependent), organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    DNA Damage Response (only ATM dependent), organism-specific biosystemThis is the second pathway out of two pathways which deals with DNA damage response. It has two central gene products (ATM and TP53) which are connected with the first DNA damage response pathway. In...
  • DNA Damage/Telomere Stress Induced Senescence, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    DNA Damage/Telomere Stress Induced Senescence, organism-specific biosystemReactive oxygen species (ROS), whose concentration increases in senescent cells due to oncogenic RAS-induced mitochondrial dysfunction (Moiseeva et al. 2009) or due to environmental stress, cause DNA...
  • DNA Replication, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    DNA Replication, organism-specific biosystemStudies in the past decade have suggested that the basic mechanism of DNA replication initiation is conserved in all kingdoms of life. Initiation in unicellular eukaryotes, in particular Saccharomyce...
  • Direct p53 effectors, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Direct p53 effectors, organism-specific biosystem
    Direct p53 effectors
  • Disease, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Disease, organism-specific biosystemBiological processes are captured in Reactome by identifying the molecules (DNA, RNA, protein, small molecules) involved in them and describing the details of their interactions. From this molecular ...
  • Diseases of signal transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Diseases of signal transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignaling processes are central to human physiology (e.g., Pires-da Silva & Sommer 2003), and their disruption by either germ-line and somatic mutation can lead to serious disease. Here, the molecula...
  • Downstream signal transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Downstream signal transduction, organism-specific biosystemThe role of autophosphorylation sites on PDGF receptors are to provide docking sites for downstream signal transduction molecules which contain SH2 domains. The SH2 domain is a conserved motif of aro...
  • Downstream signaling events of B Cell Receptor (BCR), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Downstream signaling events of B Cell Receptor (BCR), organism-specific biosystemSecond messengers (calcium, diacylglycerol, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, and phosphatidyinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate) trigger signaling pathways: NF-kappaB is activated via protein kinase C beta, RA...
  • E2F transcription factor network, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    E2F transcription factor network, organism-specific biosystem
    E2F transcription factor network
  • Endocrine resistance, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Endocrine resistance, organism-specific biosystemEndocrine therapy is a key treatment strategy to control or eradicate hormone-responsive breast cancer. The most commonly used endocrine therapy agents are selective estrogen receptor modulators (SER...
  • Endocrine resistance, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Endocrine resistance, conserved biosystemEndocrine therapy is a key treatment strategy to control or eradicate hormone-responsive breast cancer. The most commonly used endocrine therapy agents are selective estrogen receptor modulators (SER...
  • Epstein-Barr virus infection, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Epstein-Barr virus infection, organism-specific biosystemEpstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous human herpesvirus that is associated with oncogenesis. EBV infection to primary human B lymphocytes leads to induction of EBV-specific HLA-restricted cytotoxi...
  • Epstein-Barr virus infection, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Epstein-Barr virus infection, conserved biosystemEpstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous human herpesvirus that is associated with oncogenesis. EBV infection to primary human B lymphocytes leads to induction of EBV-specific HLA-restricted cytotoxi...
  • ErbB Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    ErbB Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe ErbB protein family or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family is a family of four structurally related receptor tyrosine kinases. Insufficient ErbB signaling in humans is associated with ...
  • ErbB signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    ErbB signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) couples binding of extracellular growth factor ligands to intracellular signaling pathways regulating diverse biologic responses, including prolife...
  • ErbB signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    ErbB signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThe ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) couples binding of extracellular growth factor ligands to intracellular signaling pathways regulating diverse biologic responses, including prolife...
  • Fc epsilon receptor (FCERI) signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Fc epsilon receptor (FCERI) signaling, organism-specific biosystemMast cells (MC) are distributed in tissues throughout the human body and have long been recognized as key cells of type I hypersensitivity reactions. They also play important roles in inflammatory an...
  • FoxO signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    FoxO signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe forkhead box O (FOXO) family of transcription factors regulates the expression of genes in cellular physiological events including apoptosis, cell-cycle control, glucose metabolism, oxidative str...
  • G1 Phase, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    G1 Phase, organism-specific biosystemEarly cell cycle progression in G1 is under the control of the D-type cyclins together with Cdk4 and Cdk6. An important target for these CDKs is the Retinoblastoma (Rb) protein, which when phosphoryl...
  • G1 to S cell cycle control, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    G1 to S cell cycle control, organism-specific biosystemIn the G1 phase there are two types of DNA damage responses, the p53-dependent and the p53-independent pathways. The p53-dependent responses inhibit CDKs through the up-regulation of genes encoding C...
  • G1/S DNA Damage Checkpoints, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    G1/S DNA Damage Checkpoints, organism-specific biosystemIn the G1 phase there are two types of DNA damage responses, the p53-dependent and the p53-independent pathways. The p53-dependent responses inhibit CDKs through the up-regulation of genes encoding ...
  • G1/S Transition, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    G1/S Transition, organism-specific biosystemCyclin E - Cdk2 complexes control the transition from G1 into S-phase. In this case, the binding of p21Cip1/Waf1 or p27kip1 is inhibitory. Important substrates for Cyclin E - Cdk2 complexes include p...
  • G2/M Transition, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    G2/M Transition, organism-specific biosystemCyclin A can also form complexes with Cdc2 (Cdk1). Together with three B-type cyclins, Cdc2 (Cdk1) regulates the transition from G2 into mitosis. These complexes are activated by dephosphorylation of...
  • GAB1 signalosome, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • Gene Expression, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • Generic Transcription Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • Glioma, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
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  • Glioma, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
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  • Glucocorticoid receptor regulatory network, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Glucocorticoid receptor regulatory network, organism-specific biosystem
    Glucocorticoid receptor regulatory network
  • HIF-1 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
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  • HTLV-I infection, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
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  • HTLV-I infection, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
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  • Hepatitis B, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Hepatitis B, organism-specific biosystemHepatitis B virus (HBV) is an enveloped virus and contains a partially double-stranded relaxed circular DNA (RC-DNA) genome. After entry into hepatocytes, HBV RC-DNA is transported to the nucleus and...
  • Hepatitis C, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Hepatitis C, organism-specific biosystemHepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic liver disease. The HCV employ several strategies to perturb host cell immunity. After invasion, HCV RNA genome functions directly as an mRNA in the...
  • Hepatitis C, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Hepatitis C, conserved biosystemHepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic liver disease. The HCV employ several strategies to perturb host cell immunity. After invasion, HCV RNA genome functions directly as an mRNA in the...
  • Hepatitis C and Hepatocellular Carcinoma, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Hepatitis C and Hepatocellular Carcinoma, organism-specific biosystemPathway model based on hub miRNAs and their putative targets from network analysis. - From a set of differentially expressed genes in both chronic HCV (hepatitis C virus) and HCC (hepatocellular carc...
  • Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Immune System, organism-specific biosystemHumans are exposed to millions of potential pathogens daily, through contact, ingestion, and inhalation. Our ability to avoid infection depends on the adaptive immune system and during the first crit...
  • Innate Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • Integrated Cancer Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Integrated Cancer Pathway, organism-specific biosystem
    Integrated Cancer Pathway
  • Integrated Pancreatic Cancer Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Integrated Pancreatic Cancer Pathway, organism-specific biosystemAn integrated pathway model which displays the protein-protein interactions (PPIs) among the relevant proteins for pancreatic cancer. This pathway is a collection of different mechanistic protein pat...
  • Interleukin-4 and 13 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • Jak-STAT signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Jak-STAT signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway is one of a handful of pleiotropic cascades used to transduce a multitude of signals for development and homeost...
  • Jak-STAT signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
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  • LncRNA-mediated mechanisms of therapeutic resistance, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
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  • Melanoma, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Melanoma, organism-specific biosystemMelanoma is a form of skin cancer that has a poor prognosis and which is on the rise in Western populations. Melanoma arises from the malignant transformation of pigment-producing cells, melanocytes...
  • Melanoma, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
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  • MicroRNAs in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
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  • MicroRNAs in cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
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  • Mitotic G1-G1/S phases, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Mitotic G1-G1/S phases, organism-specific biosystem
    Mitotic G1-G1/S phases
  • Mitotic G2-G2/M phases, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Mitotic G2-G2/M phases, organism-specific biosystem
    Mitotic G2-G2/M phases
  • NGF signalling via TRKA from the plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    NGF signalling via TRKA from the plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystemTrk receptors signal from the plasma membrane and from intracellular membranes, particularly from early endosomes. Signalling from the plasma membrane is fast but transient; signalling from endosomes...
  • Notch Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Notch Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe Notch pathway is an evolutionally conserved signaling pathway which plays an important role in diverse developmental and physiological processes. These include cell-fate determination, tissue pat...
  • Notch signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Notch signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem
    Notch signaling pathway
  • Orc1 removal from chromatin, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Orc1 removal from chromatin, organism-specific biosystem
    Orc1 removal from chromatin
  • Oxytocin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Oxytocin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemOxytocin (OT) is a nonapeptide synthesized by the magno-cellular neurons located in the supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular (PVN) nuclei of the hypothalamus. It exerts a wide variety of central and ...
  • Oxytocin signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Oxytocin signaling pathway, conserved biosystemOxytocin (OT) is a nonapeptide synthesized by the magno-cellular neurons located in the supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular (PVN) nuclei of the hypothalamus. It exerts a wide variety of central and ...
  • PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe phosphatidylinositol 3' -kinase(PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway is activated by many types of cellular stimuli or toxic insults and regulates fundamental cellular functions such as transcription, tra...
  • PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThe phosphatidylinositol 3' -kinase(PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway is activated by many types of cellular stimuli or toxic insults and regulates fundamental cellular functions such as transcription, tra...
  • PI3K/AKT Signaling in Cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    PI3K/AKT Signaling in Cancer, organism-specific biosystemClass IA PI3K is a heterodimer of a p85 regulatory subunit (encoded by PIK3R1, PIK3R2 or PIK3R3) and a p110 catalytic subunit (encoded by PIK3CA, PIK3CB or PIK3CD). In the absence of activating signa...
  • PI3K/AKT activation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    PI3K/AKT activation, organism-specific biosystemPI3K/AKT signalling is a major regulator of neuron survival. It blocks cell death by both impinging on the cytoplasmic cell death machinery and by regulating the expression of genes involved in cell...
  • PIP3 activates AKT signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    PIP3 activates AKT signaling, organism-specific biosystemSignaling by AKT is one of the key outcomes of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) activation. AKT is activated by the cellular second messenger PIP3, a phospholipid that is generated by PI3K. In ustimula...
  • Pathways in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Pathways in cancer, organism-specific biosystem
    Pathways in cancer
  • Photodynamic therapy-induced AP-1 survival signaling., organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Photodynamic therapy-induced AP-1 survival signaling., organism-specific biosystemPhotodynamic therapy may induce an acute stress response mediated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 5 (MAP3K5), its downstream MAPKs that target c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK, MAPK8) a...
  • Platinum drug resistance, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Platinum drug resistance, organism-specific biosystemPlatinum-based drugs cisplatin, carboplatin and oxaliplatin are widely used in the therapy of solid malignancies, including testicular, ovarian, head and neck, colorectal, bladder and lung cancers. T...
  • Platinum drug resistance, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Platinum drug resistance, conserved biosystemPlatinum-based drugs cisplatin, carboplatin and oxaliplatin are widely used in the therapy of solid malignancies, including testicular, ovarian, head and neck, colorectal, bladder and lung cancers. T...
  • Primary Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis FSGS, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Primary Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis FSGS, organism-specific biosystemPrimary or idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) a cause of nephrotic syndrome in children and adolescents, as well as an important cause of end stage renal disease in adults. FSGS is ...
  • Prostate cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Prostate cancer, organism-specific biosystemProstate cancer constitutes a major health problem in Western countries. It is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among men and the second leading cause of male cancer deaths. The identification of...
  • Prostate cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Prostate cancer, conserved biosystemProstate cancer constitutes a major health problem in Western countries. It is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among men and the second leading cause of male cancer deaths. The identification of...
  • Proteoglycans in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Proteoglycans in cancer, organism-specific biosystemMany proteoglycans (PGs) in the tumor microenvironment have been shown to be key macromolecules that contribute to biology of various types of cancer including proliferation, adhesion, angiogenesis a...
  • Proteoglycans in cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Proteoglycans in cancer, conserved biosystemMany proteoglycans (PGs) in the tumor microenvironment have been shown to be key macromolecules that contribute to biology of various types of cancer including proliferation, adhesion, angiogenesis a...
  • Regulation of DNA replication, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Regulation of DNA replication, organism-specific biosystemDNA replication is regulated at various levels via ORC proteins. This pathway includes annotation of individual events that lead to the regulation of replication.
  • Regulation of nuclear SMAD2/3 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Regulation of nuclear SMAD2/3 signaling, organism-specific biosystem
    Regulation of nuclear SMAD2/3 signaling
  • Regulation of retinoblastoma protein, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Regulation of retinoblastoma protein, organism-specific biosystem
    Regulation of retinoblastoma protein
  • Removal of licensing factors from origins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Removal of licensing factors from origins, organism-specific biosystemLicensing factors are removed from the origin by various means like biochemical modification (phosphorylation) or by physical association with other proteins. This pathway includes the annotations of...
  • Retinoblastoma (RB) in Cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Retinoblastoma (RB) in Cancer, organism-specific biosystemDescribes the role of retinoblastoma (RB) gene in cancer.
  • Role of LAT2/NTAL/LAB on calcium mobilization, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Role of LAT2/NTAL/LAB on calcium mobilization, organism-specific biosystemThe lipid raft resident adaptor molecules LAT1 and Non-T cell activation linker (NTAL), also known as linker for activation of B cells (LAB)/LAT2 are known participants in the regulation of mast cell...
  • S Phase, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    S Phase, organism-specific biosystemDNA synthesis occurs in the S phase, or the synthesis phase, of the cell cycle. The cell duplicates its hereditary material, and two copies of the chromosome are formed. As DNA replication continues,...
  • SCF(Skp2)-mediated degradation of p27/p21, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    SCF(Skp2)-mediated degradation of p27/p21, organism-specific biosystemDuring G1, the activity of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) is kept in check by the CDK inhibitors (CKIs) p27 and p21, thereby preventing premature entry into S phase (see Guardavaccaro and Pagano, 20...
  • Senescence and Autophagy in Cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Senescence and Autophagy in Cancer, organism-specific biosystemSenescense and Autophagy Pathways in Cancer
  • Senescence-Associated Secretory Phenotype (SASP), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Senescence-Associated Secretory Phenotype (SASP), organism-specific biosystemThe culture medium of senescent cells in enriched in secreted proteins when compared with the culture medium of quiescent i.e. presenescent cells and these secreted proteins constitute the so-called ...
  • Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignal transduction is a process in which extracellular signals elicit changes in cell state and activity. Transmembrane receptors sense changes in the cellular environment by binding ligands, such a...
  • Signaling Pathways in Glioblastoma, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Signaling Pathways in Glioblastoma, organism-specific biosystemThe most frequently altered genes in glioblastoma. This pathway originally accompanied the 2008 Nature publication on the comprehensive genomic characterization of human glioblastoma genes and core p...
  • Signaling by EGFR, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by EGFR, organism-specific biosystemThe epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is one member of the ERBB family of transmembrane glycoprotein tyrosine receptor kinases (RTK). Binding of EGFR to its ligands induces conformational chang...
  • Signaling by Interleukins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by Interleukins, organism-specific biosystemInterleukins are low molecular weight proteins that bind to cell surface receptors and act in an autocrine and/or paracrine fashion. They were first identified as factors produced by leukocytes but a...
  • Signaling by PDGF, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by PDGF, organism-specific biosystemPlatelet-derived Growth Factor (PDGF) is a potent stimulator of growth and motility of connective tissue cells such as fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells as well as other cells such as capillary end...
  • Signaling by SCF-KIT, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by SCF-KIT, organism-specific biosystemStem cell factor (SCF) is a growth factor with membrane bound and soluble forms. It is expressed by fibroblasts and endothelial cells throughout the body, promoting proliferation, migration, survival...
  • Signaling by the B Cell Receptor (BCR), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by the B Cell Receptor (BCR), organism-specific biosystemMature B cells express IgM and IgD immunoglobulins which are complexed at the plasma membrane with Ig-alpha (CD79A, MB-1) and Ig-beta (CD79B, B29) to form the B cell receptor (BCR) (Fu et al. 1974, F...
  • Signaling events mediated by HDAC Class III, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Signaling events mediated by HDAC Class III, organism-specific biosystem
    Signaling events mediated by HDAC Class III
  • Signaling events mediated by PRL, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Signaling events mediated by PRL, organism-specific biosystem
    Signaling events mediated by PRL
  • Signalling by NGF, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signalling by NGF, organism-specific biosystemNeurotrophins (NGF, BDNF, NT-3, NT-4/5) play pivotal roles in survival, differentiation, and plasticity of neurons in the peripheral and central nervous system. They are produced, and secreted in mi...
  • Switching of origins to a post-replicative state, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Switching of origins to a post-replicative state, organism-specific biosystem
    Switching of origins to a post-replicative state
  • Synthesis of DNA, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Synthesis of DNA, organism-specific biosystemThe actual synthesis of DNA occurs in the S phase of the cell cycle. This includes the initiation of DNA replication, when the first nucleotide of the new strand is laid down during the synthesis of ...
  • TFAP2 (AP-2) family regulates transcription of cell cycle factors, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    TFAP2 (AP-2) family regulates transcription of cell cycle factors, organism-specific biosystemTFAP2A and TFAP2C play opposing roles in transcriptional regulation of the CDKN1A (p21) gene locus. While TFAP2A stimulates transcription of the CDKN1A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (Zeng et al. ...
  • TGF-beta Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    TGF-beta Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe signal transduction mechanisms underlying the pathophysiological activities of transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) have been extensively studied since its discovery nearly 30 years ago. TGF-? li...
  • TP53 Network, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    TP53 Network, organism-specific biosystemP53 is not a lonely genome guardian, it operates with the assistance of p73 and p63 within a complex network including distinct but complementary pathways. This protein family presents a high le...
  • TP53 Regulates Transcription of Cell Cycle Genes, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    TP53 Regulates Transcription of Cell Cycle Genes, organism-specific biosystemUnder a variety of stress conditions, TP53 (p53), stabilized by stress-induced phosphorylation at least on S15 and S20 serine residues, can induce the transcription of genes involved in cell cycle ar...
  • TP53 Regulates Transcription of Genes Involved in G1 Cell Cycle Arrest, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    TP53 Regulates Transcription of Genes Involved in G1 Cell Cycle Arrest, organism-specific biosystemThe most prominent TP53 target involved in G1 arrest is the inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases CDKN1A (p21). CDKN1A is one of the earliest genes induced by TP53 (El-Deiry et al. 1993). CDKN1A bind...
  • The role of GTSE1 in G2/M progression after G2 checkpoint, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    The role of GTSE1 in G2/M progression after G2 checkpoint, organism-specific biosystemGTSE1 (B99) was identified as a microtubule-associated protein product of the mouse B99 gene, which exhibits both a cell cycle regulated expression, with highest levels in G2, and DNA damage triggere...
  • Transcriptional activation of cell cycle inhibitor p21, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Transcriptional activation of cell cycle inhibitor p21, organism-specific biosystemBoth p53-independent and p53-dependent mechanisms of induction of p21 mRNA have been demonstrated. p21 is transcriptionally activated by p53 after DNA damage (el-Deiry et al., 1993).
  • Transcriptional Regulation by TP53, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Transcriptional Regulation by TP53, organism-specific biosystemThe tumor suppressor TP53 (encoded by the gene p53) is a transcription factor. Under stress conditions, it recognizes specific responsive DNA elements and thus regulates the transcription of many gen...
  • Transcriptional activation of p53 responsive genes, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Transcriptional activation of p53 responsive genes, organism-specific biosystemp53 causes G1 arrest by inducing the expression of a cell cycle inhibitor, p21 (El-Deiry et al, 1993; Harper et al, 1993; Xiong et al, 1993). P21 binds and inactivates Cyclin-Cdk complexes that medi...
  • Transcriptional misregulation in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Transcriptional misregulation in cancer, organism-specific biosystem
    Transcriptional misregulation in cancer
  • Transcriptional misregulation in cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Transcriptional misregulation in cancer, conserved biosystem
    Transcriptional misregulation in cancer
  • Transcriptional regulation by the AP-2 (TFAP2) family of transcription factors, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Transcriptional regulation by the AP-2 (TFAP2) family of transcription factors, organism-specific biosystemThe AP-2 (TFAP2) family of transcription factors includes five proteins in mammals: TFAP2A (AP-2 alpha), TFAP2B (AP-2 beta), TFAP2C (AP-2 gamma), TFAP2D (AP-2 delta) and TFAP2E (AP-2 epsilon). The AP...
  • Validated targets of C-MYC transcriptional repression, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Validated targets of C-MYC transcriptional repression, organism-specific biosystem
    Validated targets of C-MYC transcriptional repression
  • Viral carcinogenesis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Viral carcinogenesis, organism-specific biosystemThere is a strong association between viruses and the development of human malignancies. We now know that at least six human viruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C vi...
  • Viral carcinogenesis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Viral carcinogenesis, conserved biosystemThere is a strong association between viruses and the development of human malignancies. We now know that at least six human viruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C vi...
  • miR-517 relationship with ARCN1 and USP1, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    miR-517 relationship with ARCN1 and USP1, organism-specific biosystemSchematic summarizing predicted miR-517a relationships with ARCN1 and USP1. A genomewide miRNA mimic toxicity screen indicates common and selective vulnerabilities of epithelial ovarian cancer cells...
  • miRNA Regulation of DNA Damage Response, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    miRNA Regulation of DNA Damage Response, organism-specific biosystemThis is the first out of two pathways which deals with the DNA damage response. It is comprised of two central gene products (ATM and ATR) influenced by different sources of DNA damage (in blue). The...
  • miRNAs involved in DNA damage response, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    miRNAs involved in DNA damage response, organism-specific biosystemMicroRNA clusters involved in de DNA damage response. Genes they regulated and genes that regulate them. All genes presented in this pathway can also be found in the pathway "DNA damage response(Homo...
  • p53 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    p53 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemp53 activation is induced by a number of stress signals, including DNA damage, oxidative stress and activated oncogenes. The p53 protein is employed as a transcriptional activator of p53-regulated ge...
  • p53 signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    p53 signaling pathway, conserved biosystemp53 activation is induced by a number of stress signals, including DNA damage, oxidative stress and activated oncogenes. The p53 protein is employed as a transcriptional activator of p53-regulated ge...
  • p53-Dependent G1 DNA Damage Response, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    p53-Dependent G1 DNA Damage Response, organism-specific biosystemMost of the damage-induced modifications of p53 are dependent on the ATM kinase. The first link between ATM and p53 was predicted based on the earlier studies that showed that AT cells exhibit a redu...
  • p53-Dependent G1/S DNA damage checkpoint, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    p53-Dependent G1/S DNA damage checkpoint, organism-specific biosystemThe arrest at G1/S checkpoint is mediated by the action of a widely known tumor suppressor protein, p53. Loss of p53 functions, as a result of mutations in cancer prevent the G1/S checkpoint (Kuerbi...

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
cyclin binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cyclin-dependent protein kinase activating kinase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity EXP
Inferred from Experiment
more info
PubMed 
cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase inhibitor activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
metal ion binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protein kinase binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protein kinase inhibitor activity IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
protein-containing complex binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
ubiquitin protein ligase binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
DNA damage response, signal transduction by p53 class mediator resulting in cell cycle arrest IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
DNA damage response, signal transduction by p53 class mediator resulting in cell cycle arrest TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
DNA damage response, signal transduction by p53 class mediator resulting in transcription of p21 class mediator IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
G2/M transition of mitotic cell cycle IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
Ras protein signal transduction IEP
Inferred from Expression Pattern
more info
PubMed 
animal organ regeneration IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cell cycle arrest IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cell cycle arrest IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to DNA damage stimulus IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to UV-B ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
cellular response to amino acid starvation IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to extracellular stimulus IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to gamma radiation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cellular response to heat IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cellular response to ionizing radiation IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
cellular senescence IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
cytokine-mediated signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
intestinal epithelial cell maturation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in response to DNA damage by p53 class mediator IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
mitotic cell cycle arrest IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
negative regulation of G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle IGI
Inferred from Genetic Interaction
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of apoptotic process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
negative regulation of cell growth IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of cell proliferation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of cell proliferation IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of cyclin-dependent protein kinase activity IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
negative regulation of gene expression IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
negative regulation of phosphorylation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of B cell proliferation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of cyclin-dependent protein kinase activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of fibroblast proliferation IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of programmed cell death IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of protein kinase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of reactive oxygen species metabolic process IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
protein stabilization TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
regulation of DNA biosynthetic process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
regulation of cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
regulation of protein import into nucleus, translocation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
replicative senescence IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to X-ray IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to arsenic-containing substance IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to corticosterone IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to drug IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to hyperoxia IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to organonitrogen compound IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to toxic substance IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
stress-induced premature senescence TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
transcription initiation from RNA polymerase II promoter TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
PCNA-p21 complex IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cyclin-dependent protein kinase holoenzyme complex IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cytosol TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
nuclear body IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
nucleolus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
nucleoplasm IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
nucleoplasm TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
nucleus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
perinuclear region of cytoplasm IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
protein-containing complex IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 

General protein information

Preferred Names
cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1
Names
CDK-interacting protein 1
CDK-interaction protein 1
DNA synthesis inhibitor
cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (p21, Cip1)
melanoma differentiation associated protein 6
wild-type p53-activated fragment 1

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_009364.1 RefSeqGene

    Range
    2809..13658
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_000389.4NP_000380.1  cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 isoform 1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_000380.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) differs in the 5' UTR, lacks an in-frame portion of the 5' coding region, and initiates translation at a downstream start codon, compared to variant 3. The resulting isoform (1) has a shorter N-terminus, compared to isoform 2. Variants 1, 2, 4 and 5 encode the same isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    BC000275, BC000312, BQ941282, DA582789
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS4824.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P38936
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A0A024RCX5
    Related
    ENSP00000244741.5, OTTHUMP00000016297, ENST00000244741.9, OTTHUMT00000040354
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    pfam02234
    Location:2163
    CDI; Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor
  2. NM_001220777.1NP_001207706.1  cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 isoform 1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001207706.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (5) differs in the 5' UTR, lacks an in-frame portion of the 5' coding region, and initiates translation at a downstream start codon, compared to variant 3. The resulting isoform (1) has a shorter N-terminus, compared to isoform 2. Variants 1, 2, 4 and 5 encode the same isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AA534613, BC000312, DA702185
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS4824.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P38936
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A0A024RCX5
    Related
    ENSP00000482768.1, ENST00000615513.4
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    pfam02234
    Location:2163
    CDI; Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor
  3. NM_001220778.1NP_001207707.1  cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 isoform 1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001207707.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (4) differs in the 5' UTR, lacks an in-frame portion of the 5' coding region, and initiates translation at a downstream start codon, compared to variant 3. The resulting isoform (1) has a shorter N-terminus, compared to isoform 2. Variants 1, 2, 4 and 5 encode the same isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AA534613, BC000312, DA552678
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS4824.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P38936
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A0A024RCX5
    Related
    ENSP00000384849.1, ENST00000405375.5
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    pfam02234
    Location:2163
    CDI; Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor
  4. NM_001291549.1NP_001278478.1  cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 isoform 2

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001278478.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (3) encodes the longer isoform (2).
    Source sequence(s)
    AI973138, BC000275, BU193165
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P38936
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    pfam02234
    Location:5597
    CDI; Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor
  5. NM_078467.2NP_510867.1  cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 isoform 1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_510867.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) differs in the 5' UTR, lacks an in-frame portion of the 5' coding region, and initiates translation at a downstream start codon, compared to variant 3. The resulting isoform (1) has a shorter N-terminus, compared to isoform 2. Variants 1, 2, 4 and 5 encode the same isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    BC000312, BQ941282, BU154329
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS4824.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P38936
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A0A024RCX5
    Related
    ENSP00000409259.3, ENST00000448526.6
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    pfam02234
    Location:2163
    CDI; Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000006.12 Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

    Range
    36676460..36687339
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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