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MRPS31 mitochondrial ribosomal protein S31 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 10240, updated on 7-Sep-2023


Official Symbol
MRPS31provided by HGNC
Official Full Name
mitochondrial ribosomal protein S31provided by HGNC
Primary source
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000102738 MIM:611992; AllianceGenome:HGNC:16632
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
Homo sapiens
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
mS31; S31mt; IMOGN38; MRP-S31
Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. The 28S subunit of the mammalian mitoribosome may play a crucial and characteristic role in translation initiation. This gene encodes a 28S subunit protein that has also been associated with type 1 diabetes; however, its relationship to the etiology of this disease remains to be clarified. Pseudogenes corresponding to this gene have been found on chromosomes 3 and 13. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Ubiquitous expression in lymph node (RPKM 11.9), testis (RPKM 11.7) and 25 other tissues See more
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Genomic context

See MRPS31 in Genome Data Viewer
Exon count:
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
RS_2023_03 current GRCh38.p14 (GCF_000001405.40) 13 NC_000013.11 (40729128..40771190, complement)
RS_2023_03 current T2T-CHM13v2.0 (GCF_009914755.1) 13 NC_060937.1 (39948113..39990149, complement)
105.20220307 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 13 NC_000013.10 (41303264..41345326, complement)

Chromosome 13 - NC_000013.11Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene forkhead box O1 Neighboring gene ring finger protein, LIM domain interacting pseudogene 1 Neighboring gene OCT4-NANOG-H3K27ac-H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr13:41225852-41226373 Neighboring gene OCT4-NANOG-H3K27ac-H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr13:41226374-41226894 Neighboring gene OCT4-NANOG-H3K27ac hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr13:41254046-41254810 Neighboring gene OCT4-NANOG-H3K27ac-H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr13:41254811-41255575 Neighboring gene NANOG-H3K27ac-H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr13:41255576-41256340 Neighboring gene H3K27ac hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr13:41286412-41286912 Neighboring gene H3K27ac-H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr13:41308619-41309202 Neighboring gene microRNA 320d-1 Neighboring gene Sharpr-MPRA regulatory region 12795 Neighboring gene solute carrier family 25 member 15 Neighboring gene TPTE2 pseudogene 5 Neighboring gene NANOG-H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr13:41402827-41403328 Neighboring gene microRNA 621 Neighboring gene CYCS pseudogene 34

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products


  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Pathways from PubChem


Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information


Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
enables RNA binding HDA PubMed 
enables protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
enables protein domain specific binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
enables structural constituent of ribosome IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
Process Evidence Code Pubs
involved_in mitochondrial translation NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
Component Evidence Code Pubs
located_in mitochondrial inner membrane NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
located_in mitochondrial inner membrane TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
part_of mitochondrial small ribosomal subunit NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
located_in mitochondrion IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
located_in nucleolus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info

General protein information

Preferred Names
small ribosomal subunit protein mS31
28S ribosomal protein S31, mitochondrial
imogen 38
mitochondrial small ribosomal subunit protein mS31

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

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RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_005830.4NP_005821.2  small ribosomal subunit protein mS31

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_005821.2

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    AI343737, AL355132, AV712217, BC010159, BC022045
    Consensus CDS
    B2RCS3, Q5VYC8, Q8WTV8, Q92665
    ENSP00000315397.6, ENST00000323563.8
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    MRP-S31; Mitochondrial 28S ribosomal protein S31

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: GCF_000001405.40-RS_2023_03

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p14 Primary Assembly


  1. NC_000013.11 Reference GRCh38.p14 Primary Assembly

    40729128..40771190 complement
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)


  1. XR_007063654.1 RNA Sequence

Alternate T2T-CHM13v2.0


  1. NC_060937.1 Alternate T2T-CHM13v2.0

    39948113..39990149 complement
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)


  1. XR_008488724.1 RNA Sequence