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ACTR2 ARP2 actin related protein 2 homolog [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 10097, updated on 4-Nov-2018

Summary

Official Symbol
ACTR2provided by HGNC
Official Full Name
ARP2 actin related protein 2 homologprovided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:169
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000138071 MIM:604221; Vega:OTTHUMG00000129540
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
ARP2
Summary
The specific function of this gene has not yet been determined; however, the protein it encodes is known to be a major constituent of the ARP2/3 complex. This complex is located at the cell surface and is essential to cell shape and motility through lamellipodial actin assembly and protrusion. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Expression
Ubiquitous expression in appendix (RPKM 135.1), lymph node (RPKM 134.7) and 25 other tissues See more
Orthologs

Genomic context

See ACTR2 in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
2p14
Exon count:
10
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109 current GRCh38.p12 (GCF_000001405.38) 2 NC_000002.12 (65227695..65271253)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 2 NC_000002.11 (65454829..65498387)

Chromosome 2 - NC_000002.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene centrosomal protein 68 Neighboring gene RAB1A, member RAS oncogene family Neighboring gene voltage dependent anion channel 2 pseudogene Neighboring gene sprouty related EVH1 domain containing 2 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105374780

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Jun 15 11:32:44 2016

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

Pathways from BioSystems

  • Association Between Physico-Chemical Features and Toxicity Associated Pathways, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Association Between Physico-Chemical Features and Toxicity Associated Pathways, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway is based on Figure 8 of "Mapping drug physico-chemical features to pathway activity reveals molecular networks linked to toxicity outcome."(See bibliography). These 3 pathways demonstr...
  • Axon guidance, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Axon guidance, organism-specific biosystemAxon guidance / axon pathfinding is the process by which neurons send out axons to reach the correct targets. Growing axons have a highly motile structure at the growing tip called the growth cone, w...
  • CDC42 signaling events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    CDC42 signaling events, organism-specific biosystem
    CDC42 signaling events
  • Clathrin-mediated endocytosis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis, organism-specific biosystemClathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is one of a number of process that control the uptake of material from the plasma membrane, and leads to the formation of clathrin-coated vesicles (Pearse et al, 1...
  • Developmental Biology, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Developmental Biology, organism-specific biosystemAs a first step towards capturing the array of processes by which a fertilized egg gives rise to the diverse tissues of the body, examples of three kinds of processes have been annotated. These are a...
  • EPH-Ephrin signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    EPH-Ephrin signaling, organism-specific biosystemDuring the development process cell migration and adhesion are the main forces involved in morphing the cells into critical anatomical structures. The ability of a cell to migrate to its correct dest...
  • EPHB-mediated forward signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    EPHB-mediated forward signaling, organism-specific biosystemMultiple EPHB receptors contribute directly to dendritic spine development and morphogenesis. These are more broadly involved in post-synaptic development through activation of focal adhesion kinase ...
  • ErbB1 downstream signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    ErbB1 downstream signaling, organism-specific biosystem
    ErbB1 downstream signaling
  • Fcgamma receptor (FCGR) dependent phagocytosis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Fcgamma receptor (FCGR) dependent phagocytosis, organism-specific biosystemPhagocytosis is one of the important innate immune responses that function to eliminate invading infectious agents. Monocytes, macrophages, and neutrophils are the professional phagocytic cells. Phag...
  • Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Immune System, organism-specific biosystemHumans are exposed to millions of potential pathogens daily, through contact, ingestion, and inhalation. Our ability to avoid infection depends on the adaptive immune system and during the first crit...
  • Innate Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Innate Immune System, organism-specific biosystemInnate immunity encompases the nonspecific part of immunity tha are part of an individual's natural biologic makeup
  • Membrane Trafficking, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Membrane Trafficking, organism-specific biosystemThe secretory membrane system allows a cell to regulate delivery of newly synthesized proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids to the cell surface, a necessity for growth and homeostasis. The system is ma...
  • Neutrophil degranulation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Neutrophil degranulation, organism-specific biosystemNeutrophils are the most abundant leukocytes (white blood cells), indispensable in defending the body against invading microorganisms. In response to infection, neutrophils leave the circulation and ...
  • RAC1 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    RAC1 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem
    RAC1 signaling pathway
  • RHO GTPase Effectors, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    RHO GTPase Effectors, organism-specific biosystemRHO GTPases regulate cell behaviour by activating a number of downstream effectors that regulate cytoskeletal organization, intracellular trafficking and transcription (reviewed by Sahai and Marshall...
  • RHO GTPases Activate WASPs and WAVEs, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    RHO GTPases Activate WASPs and WAVEs, organism-specific biosystemWASP and WAVE proteins belong to the Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein family, with recessive mutations in the founding member WASP being responsible for the X-linked recessive immunodeficieny known a...
  • Regulation of actin dynamics for phagocytic cup formation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Regulation of actin dynamics for phagocytic cup formation, organism-specific biosystemThe actin cytoskeleton is fundamental for phagocytosis and members of the Rho family GTPases RAC and CDC42 are involved in actin cytoskeletal regulation leading to pseudopod extension. Active RAC and...
  • Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignal transduction is a process in which extracellular signals elicit changes in cell state and activity. Transmembrane receptors sense changes in the cellular environment by binding ligands, such a...
  • Signaling by Rho GTPases, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by Rho GTPases, organism-specific biosystemThe Rho family of small guanine nucleotide binding proteins is one of five generally recognized branches of the Ras superfamily. Like most Ras superfamily members, typical Rho proteins function as bi...
  • Tight junction, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Tight junction, organism-specific biosystemTight junctions (TJs) are essential for establishing a selectively permeable barrier to diffusion through the paracellular space between neighboring cells. TJs are composed of at least three types of...
  • Tight junction, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Tight junction, conserved biosystemTight junctions (TJs) are essential for establishing a selectively permeable barrier to diffusion through the paracellular space between neighboring cells. TJs are composed of at least three types of...
  • Vesicle-mediated transport, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Vesicle-mediated transport, organism-specific biosystemThe transit of proteins and other cargo through the cell requires a cellular transport process in which transported substances are moved in membrane-bounded vesicles. Transported substances are enclo...

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
ATP binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
contributes_to actin filament binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
structural constituent of cytoskeleton IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
Arp2/3 complex-mediated actin nucleation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
Fc-gamma receptor signaling pathway involved in phagocytosis TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
associative learning IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
asymmetric cell division IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cellular response to interferon-gamma IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cellular response to trichostatin A IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cilium assembly IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
cytosolic transport IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
ephrin receptor signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
establishment or maintenance of cell polarity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
meiotic chromosome movement towards spindle pole IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
meiotic cytokinesis IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
membrane organization TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
neutrophil degranulation TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
positive regulation of dendritic spine morphogenesis IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of double-strand break repair via homologous recombination IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
NOT regulation of double-strand break repair via nonhomologous end joining IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
response to ethanol IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to immobilization stress IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
spindle localization IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
Arp2/3 protein complex IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
Arp2/3 protein complex TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
actin cap IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
actin cytoskeleton TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
azurophil granule lumen TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
cytoplasm IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cytosol TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
extracellular exosome HDA PubMed 
extracellular region TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
ficolin-1-rich granule lumen TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
focal adhesion HDA PubMed 
invadopodium IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
lamellipodium IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
membrane HDA PubMed 
nucleus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
podosome core IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
postsynaptic density IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
site of double-strand break IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 

General protein information

Preferred Names
actin-related protein 2
Names
actin-like protein 2

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001005386.2NP_001005386.1  actin-related protein 2 isoform a

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001005386.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) represents the longer transcript and encodes the longer isoform (a).
    Source sequence(s)
    AC007318, AK315205, BX491447, DC404298, W15444
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS46307.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P61160
    Related
    ENSP00000367220.4, OTTHUMP00000202270, ENST00000377982.8, OTTHUMT00000327567
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    smart00268
    Location:6393
    ACTIN; Actin
  2. NM_005722.3NP_005713.1  actin-related protein 2 isoform b

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_005713.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) lacks an alternate in-frame exon compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (b) has the same N- and C-termini but is shorter compared to isoform a.
    Source sequence(s)
    AC007318, AF006082, DC404298, W15444
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS1881.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P61160
    Related
    ENSP00000260641.5, OTTHUMP00000159937, ENST00000260641.9, OTTHUMT00000251730
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    smart00268
    Location:6388
    ACTIN; Actin

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109 details...Open this link in a new tab

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000002.12 Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

    Range
    65227695..65271253
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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