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Cover of Developmental Biology

Developmental Biology, 6th edition

.

Swarthmore College
Sunderland (MA): Sinauer Associates; .
ISBN-10: 0-87893-243-7

Excerpt

Developmental biology is a great field for scientists who want to integrate different levels of biology. We can take a problem and study it on the molecular and chemical levels (e.g., How are globin genes transcribed, and how do the factors activating their transcription interact with one another on the DNA?), on the cellular and tissue levels (Which cells are able to make globin, and how does globin mRNA leave the nucleus?), on the organ and organ system levels (How do the capillaries form in each tissue, and how are they instructed to branch and connect?), and even at the ecological and evolutionary levels (How do differences in globin gene activation enable oxygen to flow from mother to fetus, and how do environmental factors trigger the differentiation of more red blood cells?).

Developmental biology is one of the fastest growing and most exciting fields in biology, creating a framework that integrates molecular biology, physiology, cell biology, anatomy, cancer research, neurobiology, immunology, ecology, and evolutionary biology. The study of development has become essential for understanding any other area of biology.

Contents

  • Preface
  • Acknowledgments
  • Part 1. Principles of development in biology
    • Chapter 1. Developmental biology: The anatomical tradition
      • The Questions of Developmental Biology
      • Anatomical Approaches to Developmental Biology
      • Comparative Embryology
        • Epigenesis and preformation
        • Naming the parts: The primary germ layers and early organs
        • The four principles of Karl Ernst von Baer
        • Fate mapping the embryo
        • Cell migration
      • Evolutionary Embryology
        • Embryonic homologies
      • Medical Embryology and Teratology
      • Mathematical Modeling of Development
        • The mathematics of organismal growth
        • The mathematics of patterning
      • Principles of Development: Developmental Anatomy
      • References
    • Chapter 2. Life cycles and the evolution of developmental patterns
      • The Circle of Life: The Stages of Animal Development
      • The Frog Life Cycle
      • The Evolution of Developmental Patterns in Unicellular Protists
        • Control of developmental morphogenesis: The role of the nucleus
        • Unicellular protists and the origins of sexual reproduction
      • Multicellularity: The Evolution of Differentiation
        • The Volvocaceans
        • Differentiation and Morphogenesis in Dictyostelium: Cell Adhesion
      • Developmental Patterns among the Metazoa
        • Diploblasts
        • Protostomes and deuterostomes
      • Principles of Development: Life Cycles and Developmental Patterns
      • References
    • Chapter 3. Principles of experimental embryology
      • Environmental Developmental Biology
        • Environmental sex determination
        • Adaptation of embryos and larvae to their environments
      • The Developmental Mechanics of Cell Specification
        • Autonomous Specification
        • Conditional specification
        • Syncytial specification
      • Morphogenesis and Cell Adhesion
        • Differential cell affinity
        • The thermodynamic model of cell interactions
        • Cadherins and cell adhesion
      • Principles of Development: Experimental Embryology
      • References
    • Chapter 4. Genes and development: Techniques and ethical issues
      • The Embryological Origins of the Gene Theory
        • Nucleus or cytoplasm: Which controls heredity?
        • The split between embryology and genetics
        • Early attempts at developmental genetics
      • Evidence for Genomic Equivalence
        • Metaplasia
        • Amphibian cloning: The restriction of nuclear potency
        • Amphibian cloning: The pluripotency of somatic cells
        • Cloning mammals
      • Differential Gene Expression
      • RNA Localization Techniques
        • Northern blotting
        • In situ hybridization
        • The polymerase chain reaction
      • Determining the Function of Genes during Development
        • Transgenic cells and organisms
        • Determining the function of a message: Antisense RNA
      • Identifying the Genes for Human Developmental Anomalies
      • Principles of Development: Genes and Development
      • References
    • Chapter 5. The genetic core of development: Differential gene expression
      • Differential Gene Transcription
        • Anatomy of the gene: Exons and introns
        • Anatomy of the gene: Promoters and enhancers
        • Transcription factors
        • Silencers
        • Locus control regions in globin genes
      • Methylation Pattern and the Control of Transcription
        • DNA methylation and gene activity
        • Possible mechanisms by which methylation represses gene transcription
      • Transcriptional Regulation of an Entire Chromosome: Dosage Compensation
      • Differential RNA Processing
        • Control of early development by nuclear RNA selection
        • Creating families of proteins through differential nRNA splicing
      • Control of Gene Expression at the Level of Translation
        • Differential mRNA longevity
        • Selective inhibition of mRNA translation
        • Control of RNA expression by cytoplasmic localization
      • Epilogue: Posttranslational Gene Regulation
      • Principles of Development: Developmental Genetics
      • References
    • Chapter 6. Cell-cell communication in development
      • Induction and Competence
        • Cascades of induction: Reciprocal and sequential inductive events
        • Instructive and permissive interactions
        • Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions
      • Paracrine Factors
        • The fibroblast growth factors
        • The Hedgehog family
        • The Wnt family
        • The TGF-β superfamily
        • Other paracrine factors
      • Cell Surface Receptors and Their Signal Transduction Pathways
        • The RTK pathway
        • The Smad pathway
        • The JAK-STAT pathway
        • The Wnt pathway
        • The Hedgehog pathway
      • The Cell Death Pathways
      • Juxtacrine Signaling
        • The Notch pathway: Juxtaposed ligands and receptors
        • The extracellular matrix as a source of critical developmental signals
        • Direct transmission of signals through gap junctions
      • Cross-Talk between Pathways
      • Coda
      • Principles of Development:Cell-Cell Communication
      • References
  • Part 2. Early embryonic development
    • Chapter 7. Fertilization: Beginning a new organism
      • Structure of the Gametes
        • Sperm
        • The egg
      • Recognition of Egg and Sperm
        • Sperm attraction: Action at a distance
        • The acrosomal reaction in sea urchins
        • Species-specific recognition in sea urchins
        • Gamete binding and recognition in mammals
      • Gamete Fusion and the Prevention of Polyspermy
        • Fusion of the egg and sperm plasma membranes
        • The prevention of polyspermy
      • The Activation of Egg Metabolism
        • Early responses
        • Late responses
      • Fusion of the Genetic Material
        • Fusion of genetic material in sea urchins
        • Fusion of genetic material in mammals
      • Rearrangement of the Egg Cytoplasm
        • Preparation for cleavage
      • Snapshot Summary: Fertilization
      • References
    • Chapter 8. Early development in selected invertebrates
      • An Introduction to Early Developmental Processes
        • Cleavage
        • Gastrulation
        • Axis Formation
      • The Early Development of Sea Urchins
        • Cleavage in Sea Urchins
        • Sea Urchin Gastrulation
      • The Early Development of Snails
        • Cleavage in Snail Eggs
        • Gastrulation in Snails
      • Early Development in Tunicates
        • Tunicate Cleavage
        • Gastrulation in Tunicates
      • Early Development of the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans
        • Why C. elegans?
        • Cleavage and Axis Formation in C. elegans
        • Gastrulation in C. elegans
        • Coda
        • Snapshot Summary: Early Invertebrate Development
      • References
    • Chapter 9. The genetics of axis specification in Drosophila
      • Early Drosophila Development
        • Cleavage
        • Gastrulation
      • The Origins of Anterior-Posterior Polarity
        • The Maternal Effect Genes
        • The Segmentation Genes
        • The Homeotic Selector Genes
      • The Generation of Dorsal-Ventral Polarity
        • The Morphogenetic Agent for Dorsal-Ventral Polarity
        • The Translocation of Dorsal Protein
        • Axes and Organ Primordia: The Cartesian Coordinate Model
        • Coda
        • Snapshot Summary: Drosophila Development and Axis Specification
      • References
    • Chapter 10. Early development and axis formation in amphibians
      • Early Amphibian Development
        • Cleavage in Amphibians
        • Amphibian Gastrulation
      • Axis Formation in Amphibians: The Phenomenon of the Organizer
        • The Progressive Determination of the Amphibian Axes
        • Hans Spemann and Hilde Mangold: Primary Embryonic Induction
        • The Mechanisms of Axis Formation in Amphibians
        • The Functions of the Organizer
        • The Regional Specificity of Induction
        • Snapshot Summary: Early Development and Axis Formation in Amphibians
      • References
    • Chapter 11. The early development of vertebrates: Fish, birds, and mammals
      • Early Development in Fish
        • Cleavage in Fish Eggs
        • Gastrulation in Fish Embryos
        • Axis Formation in Fish Embryos
      • Early Development in Birds
        • Cleavage in Bird Eggs
        • Gastrulation of the Avian Embryo
        • Axis Formation in the Chick Embryo
      • Early Mammalian Development
        • Cleavage in Mammals
        • Escape from the Zona Pellucida
        • Gastrulation in Mammals
        • Mammalian Anterior-Posterior Axis Formation
        • The Dorsal-Ventral and Left-Right Axes in Mammals
        • Snapshot Summary: The Early Development of Vertebrates
      • References
  • Part 3. Later embryonic development
    • Chapter 12. The central nervous system and the epidermis
      • Formation of the Neural Tube
        • Primary neurulation
        • Secondary neurulation
      • Differentiation of the Neural Tube
        • The anterior-posterior axis
        • The dorsal-ventral axis
      • Tissue Architecture of the Central Nervous System
        • Spinal chord and medulla organization
        • Cerebellar organization
        • Cerebral organization
        • Adult neural stem cells
      • Neuronal Types
      • Development of the Vertebrate Eye
        • The dynamics of optic development
        • Neural retina differentiation
        • Lens and cornea differentiation
      • The Epidermis and the Origin of Cutaneous Structures
        • The origin of epidermal cells
        • Cutaneous appendages
        • Patterning of cutaneous appendages
      • Snapshot Summary: Central Nervous System and Epidermis
      • References
    • Chapter 13. Neural crest cells and axonal specificity
      • The Neural Crest
        • The Trunk Neural Crest
        • The Cranial Neural Crest
        • The Cardiac Neural Crest
      • Neuronal Specification and Axonal Specificity
        • The Generation of Neuronal Diversity
        • Pattern Generation in the Nervous System
        • The Development of Behaviors: Constancy and Plasticity
        • Snapshot Summary: Neural Crest Cells and Axonal Specificity
      • References
    • Chapter 14. Paraxial and intermediate mesoderm
      • Paraxial Mesoderm: The Somites and Their Derivatives
        • The initiation of somite formation
        • Specification and commitment of somitic cell types
        • Determining somitic cell fates
      • Myogenesis: The Development of Muscle
        • Specification and differentiation by the myogenic bHLH proteins
        • Muscle cell fusion
      • Osteogenesis: The Development of Bones
        • Intramembranous ossification
        • Endochondral ossification
        • Osteoclasts
      • Intermediate Mesoderm
        • Progression of kidney types
        • Reciprocal interaction of kidney tissues
        • The mechanisms of reciprocal induction
      • Snapshot Summary: Paraxial and Intermediate Mesoderm
      • References
    • Chapter 15. Lateral plate mesoderm and endoderm
      • Lateral Plate Mesoderm
        • The Heart
        • Formation of Blood Vessels
        • The Development of Blood Cells
      • Endoderm
        • The Pharynx
        • The Digestive Tube and Its Derivatives
        • The Respiratory Tube
        • The Extraembryonic Membranes
        • Snapshot Summary: Lateral Mesoderm and Endoderm
      • References
    • Chapter 16. Development of the tetrapod limb
      • Formation of the Limb Bud
        • Specification of the limb fields: Hox genes and retinoic acid
        • Induction of the early limb bud: Fibroblast growth factors
        • Specification of forelimb or hindlimb: Tbx4 and Tbx5
        • Induction of the apical ectodermal ridge
      • Generating the Proximal-Distal Axis of the Limb
        • The apical ectodermal ridge: The ectodermal component
        • The progress zone: The mesodermal component
        • Hox genes and the specification of the proximal-distal axis
      • Specification of the Anterior-Posterior Limb Axis
        • The zone of polarizing activity
        • Sonic hedgehog defines the ZPA
      • The Generation of the Dorsal-Ventral Axis
      • Coordination among the Three Axes
      • Cell Death and the Formation of Digits and Joints
        • Sculpting the autopod
        • Forming the joints
      • Snapshot Summary: The Tetrapod Limb
      • References
    • Chapter 17. Sex determination
      • Chromosomal Sex Determination in Mammals
        • Primary and secondary sex determination
        • The developing gonads
        • The mechanisms of mammalian primary sex determination
        • Secondary sex determination: Hormonal regulation of the sexual phenotype
      • Chromosomal Sex Determination in Drosophila
        • The sexual development pathway
        • The sex-lethal gene as the pivot for sex determination
        • The transformer genes
        • Doublesex: The switch gene of sex determination
      • Environmental Sex Determination
        • Temperature-dependent sex determination in reptiles
        • Location-dependent sex determination in Bonellia and Crepidula
      • Snapshot Summary: Sex Determination
      • References
    • Chapter 18. Metamorphosis, regeneration, and aging
      • Metamorphosis: The Hormonal Reactivation of Development
        • Amphibian Metamorphosis
        • Metamorphosis in Insects
      • Regeneration
        • Epimorphic Regeneration of Salamander Limbs
        • Compensatory Regeneration in the Mammalian Liver
        • Morphallactic Regeneration in Hydras
      • Aging: The Biology of Senescence
        • Maximum Life Span and Life Expectancy
        • Causes of Aging
        • Snapshot Summary: Metamorphosis, Regeneration, and Aging
      • References
    • Chapter 19. The saga of the germ line
      • Germ Plasm and the Determination of the Primordial Germ Cells
        • Germ cell determination in nematodes
        • Germ cell determination in insects
        • Germ cell determination in amphibians
      • Germ Cell Migration
        • Germ cell migration in amphibians
        • Germ cell migration in mammals
        • Germ cell migration in birds and reptiles
        • Germ cell migration in Drosophila
      • Meiosis
      • Spermatogenesis
        • Spermiogenesis
      • Oogenesis
        • Oogenic meiosis
        • Maturation of the oocyte in amphibians
        • Completion of amphibian meiosis: Progesterone and fertilization
        • Gene transcription in oocytes
        • Meroistic oogenesis in insects
        • Oogenesis in mammals
      • Snapshot Summary: The Germ Line
      • References
  • Part 4. Ramifications of developmental biology
    • Chapter 20. An overview of plant development
      • Plant Life Cycles
      • Gamete Production in Angiosperms
        • Pollen
        • The ovary
      • Pollination
      • Fertilization
      • Embryonic Development
        • Experimental studies
        • Embryogenesis
      • Dormancy
      • Germination
      • Vegetative Growth
        • Meristems
        • Root development
        • Shoot development
        • Leaf development
      • The Vegetative-to-Reproductive Transition
      • Senescence
      • Snapshot Summary: Plant Development
      • References
    • Chapter 21. Environmental regulation of animal development
      • Environmental Regulation of Normal Development
        • Environmental Cues and Normal Development
        • Predictable Environmental Differences as Cues for Development
        • Phenotypic Plasticity: Polyphenism and Reaction Norms
        • Predator-Induced Defenses
        • Mammalian Immunity as a Predator-Induced Response
        • Learning: An Environmentally Adaptive Nervous System
      • Environmental Disruption of Normal Development
        • Teratogenic Agents
        • Genetic-Environmental Interactions
        • Coda
        • Snapshot Summary: The Environmental Regulation of Development
      • References
    • Chapter 22. Developmental mechanisms of evolutionary change
      • “Unity of Type” and “Conditions of Existence”
        • Charles Darwin's synthesis
        • E. B. Wilson and F. R. Lillie
        • “Life's splendid drama”
        • The search for the Urbilaterian ancestor
      • Hox Genes: Descent with Modification
        • Changes in Hox-responsive elements of downstream genes
        • Changes in Hox gene transcription patterns within a body portion
        • Changes in Hox gene expression between body segments
        • Changes in Hox gene number
      • Homologous Pathways of Development
        • Instructions for forming the central nervous system
        • Limb formation
      • Modularity: The Prerequisite for Evolution through Development
        • Dissociation: Heterochrony and allometry
        • Duplication and divergence
        • Co-option
      • Developmental Correlation
        • Correlated progression
        • Coevolution of ligand and receptor
      • Developmental Constraints
        • Physical constraints
        • Morphogenetic constraints
        • Phyletic constraints
      • A New Evolutionary Synthesis
      • Snapshot Summary: Evolutionary Developmental Biology
      • References
  • Appendix

With a chapter on Plant Development by Susan R Singer, Carleton College

By agreement with the publisher, this book is accessible by the search feature, but cannot be browsed.

Copyright © 2000, Sinauer Associates.
Bookshelf ID: NBK9983

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