APPENDIX DForum Member and Staff Biographies

Publication Details


JOSHUA LEDERBERG, Ph.D., is Professor emeritus of molecular genetics and informatics and Sackler Foundation Scholar at The Rockefeller University, New York, New York. His lifelong research, for which he received the Nobel Prize in 1958, has been in genetic structure and function in microorganisms. He has a keen interest in international health and was cochair of a previous Institute of Medicine committee, the Committee on Emerging Microbial Threats to Health (1990–1992). He has been a member of the National Academy of Sciences since 1957 and is a charter member of the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Lederberg is the chair of the Forum on Emerging Infections.

VINCENT AHONKHAI, M.D., is Vice President and Director at SmithKline Beecham Pharmaceuticals and is responsible for clinical research and development and medical affairs in anti-infectives and biologicals in North America. He has held this position since 1995, overseeing a product portfolio that includes antibiotics, antivirals, and vaccines. After completing medical school and internships in Nigeria, Dr. Ahonkhai obtained additional training in pediatric residency, followed by a fellowship in infectious diseases in adults and pediatrics at the State University of New York–Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, from 1975 to 1980. He then joined the faculty as Assistant Professor, Department of Pediatrics. In 1982, Dr. Ahonkhai started his pharmaceutical industry career as Associate Director, Infectious Diseases, at Merck, where he rose to the director level. Subsequently, he moved to the Robert Wood Johnson Pharmaceutical Research Institute, where he served first as Head of Infectious Diseases and later as Executive Director, Dermatology and Wound Healing. Dr. Ahonkhai is board certified in pediatrics and is a long-standing member and fellow of several professional organizations including the American Medical Association, National Medical Association, American Society for Microbiology, Infectious Diseases Society of America (fellow), Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, and American Academy of Pharmaceutical Physicians (Vice President, Membership Development Committee, and board member).

STEVEN J. BRICKNER, Ph.D., is Manager of Medicinal Chemistry at Pfizer Central Research, where he leads a team of medicinal chemists that is focused on the discovery and development of new antibacterial agents designed to meet the growing problems with resistance. He has more than 15 years of pharmaceutical industrial research experience, all directed at the discovery of novel antibiotics. Before joining Pfizer, he led a team that discovered and developed linezolid, the first oxazolidinone to undergo phase III clinical evaluation. Dr. Brickner is recognized as a world expert on this new class of antibacterial agents.

GAIL H. CASSELL, Ph.D., is Vice President, Infectious Diseases Research, Drug Discovery Research, and Clinical Investigation, at Eli Lilly & Company. Previously, she was the Charles H. McCauley Professor and (since 1987) Chair, Department of Microbiology, University of Alabama Schools of Medicine and Dentistry at Birmingham, a department which, under her leadership, has ranked first in research funding from the National Institutes of Health since 1989. She is a member of the Director’s Advisory Committee of the national Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Dr. Cassell is past president of the American Society for Microbiology, a former member of the National Institutes of Health Director’s Advisory Committee, and a former member of the Advisory Council of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. She has also served as an advisor on infectious diseases and indirect costs of research to the White House Office on Science and Technology and was previously Chair of the Board of Scientific Councelors of the National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Dr. Cassell served 8 years on the Bacteriology-Mycology-II Study Section and served as its chair for 3 years. She serves on the editorial boards of several prestigious scientific journals and has authored more than 250 articles and book chapters. She has been intimately involved in the establishment of science policy and legislation related to biomedical research and public health. Dr. Cassell has received several national and international awards and an honorary degree for her research on infectious diseases.

GARY CHRISTOPHERSON, is Senior Adviser for Force Health Protection at the U.S. Department of Defense, Reserve Affairs. Previously, as Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Health Affairs, he managed policy, the Defense Health Program budget, and performance for the Military Health System, including the $16 billion TRICARE health care system and force health protection. In that role, he also launched the U.S. Department of State’s infectious disease surveillance and response system and served as cochair on the White House’s Infectious Disease Surveillance and Response Subcommittee. He has also been a key figure in the Department’s Force Health Protection Initiative against anthrax. In early 1998, he served as the Acting Assistant Secretary of Defense for Health Affairs. Joining the U.S. Department of Defense in 1994, he has served as Health Affairs’ Acting Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary and Senior Adviser, where he provided advice on a wide range of health issues and managed the relationships with the White House and other federal agencies. Previously, he served 2 years (1992–1994) with the Office of Presidential Personnel at the White House and the Presidential Transition Office. As Associate Director, he managed the President’s appointments (PAS/PA/SES level) to the U.S. Departments of Health and Human Services and Defense as well as 10 other departments. Before that he served in a number of senior health positions with the Congress and with public and private public health agencies.

GORDON DeFRIESE, Ph.D., is Professor of Social Medicine, Epidemiology, and Health Policy and Administration and Director of the Cecil G. Sheps Center for Health Services Research at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Kentucky College of Medicine. Some of his research interests are in the areas of health promotion and disease prevention, medical sociology, primary health care, rural health care, cost-benefit analysis, and cost-effectiveness. He is a member of the Global Advisory Group on Health Systems Research of the World Health Organization in Geneva, Switzerland, past president of the Association for Health Services Research and the Foundation for Health Services Research, and a fellow of the New York Academy of Medicine. He is founder of the Partnership for Prevention, a coalition of private-sector business and industry organizations, voluntary health organizations, and state and federal public health agencies based in Washington, D.C., that have joined together to work toward the elevation of disease prevention among the nation’s health policy priorities.

CEDRIC E. DUMONT, M.D., is Medical Director for the Office of Medical Services (MED) at the U.S. Department of State. Dr. Dumont graduated from Columbia University with a B.A. in 1975 and obtained his medical degree from Tufts University School of Medicine in 1980. Dr. Dumont is a board-certified internist with subspecialty training in infectious diseases. He completed his internal medicine residency in 1983 and infectious diseases fellowship in 1988 at Georgetown University Hospital in Washington, D.C. Dr. Dumont has been a medical practitioner for more than 19 years, 2 of which included service in the Peace Corps. Since joining the U.S. Department of State in 1990, he has had substantial experience overseas in Dakar, Senegal; Bamako, Mali; Kinshasa, Zaire; and Brazzaville, Congo. For the past 3 years, as the Medical Director for the U.S. Department of State, Dr. Dumont has promoted the health of all United States Government employees serving overseas by encouraging their participation in a comprehensive health maintenance program and by facilitating their access to high- quality medical care. Dr. Dumont is a very strong supporter of the professional development and advancement of MED’s highly qualified professional staff. In addition, he has supported and encouraged the use of an electronic medical record, which will be able to monitor the health of all its beneficiaries, not only during a specific assignment but also throughout their career in the Foreign Service.

JESSE GOODMAN, M.D., M.P.H., was Professor of Medicine and Chief of Infectious Diseases at the University of Minnesota and is now serving as Deputy Medical Director for the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA’s) Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, where he is active in a broad range of policy issues. After joining the FDA Commissioner’s office, he has worked closely with several centers and helped coordinate FDA’s response to the anti-microbial resistance problem. He is also cochair of a recently formed federal interagency task force to develop a national action plan on antimicrobial resistance. He graduated from Harvard College and attended the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, followed by internal medicine, hematology, oncology, and infectious diseases training at the University of Pennsylvania and University of California, Los Angeles, where he was also Chief Medical Resident. He received his master’s of public health degree from the University of Minnesota. In recent years, his laboratory’s research has focused on the molecular pathogenesis of tick-borne diseases. His laboratory isolated the etiological intracellular agent of the emerging tick- borne infection human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, and has recently identified its leukocyte receptor. He has also been an active clinician and teacher and has directed or participated in major multicenter clinical studies. He has been active in community public health activities, including an environmental health partnership in St. Paul, Minnesota. Among several honors, he has been elected to the American Society for Clinical Investigation.

RENU GUPTA, M.D., holds two positions at Novartis Pharmaceuticals: Head of U.S. Research and Development and Head of Global Cardiovascular, Metabolic and Endocrine G.I. Disorders. As an infectious disease specialist, Dr. Gupta is active in a number of professional societies, including the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the American Society for Microbiology, where she is a member of the committee on education. She is a frequent presenter at the Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy and other major infectious disease congresses, and has been published in leading infectious disease periodicals such as the Journal of Virology, the Journal of Infectious Diseases, and Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. Dr. Gupta received her M.B., Ch.B. from the University of Zambia. Subsequently, she served as Chief Resident in Pediatrics at the Albert Einstein Medical Center and as a Fellow in Infectious Diseases at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia. She was also a Postdoctoral Fellow in Microbiology at the University of Pennsylvania and the Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, where she conducted research on the pathogenesis of infectious diseases. From 1989 to mid-1998, Dr. Gupta was with Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, where she directed clinical research as well as strategic planning for the Infectious Diseases and Immunology Division. For the past several years, her work has focused on a better understanding of the problem of emerging infections. Dr. Gupta currently chairs the steering committee for the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program.

MARGARET A. HAMBURG, M.D., is the immediate past Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Previously, she was the Health Commissioner for the City of New York. She holds appointments as Adjunct Assistant Professor of Medicine at the Cornell University Medical Center and Assistant Professor of Public Health at the Columbia University School of Public Health. In her previous position as special assistant to National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Director Anthony Fauci, M.D., she played a major role in research administration and policy development in the area of infectious diseases. She serves on the Board of Scientific Counselors of the National Center for Infectious Diseases at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. She received her M.D. from Harvard Medical School and completed her internship and residency in internal medicine at New York Hospital/Cornell Medical Center and is board certified in internal medicine. Dr. Hamburg is the author of many scientific articles and is the recipient of numerous awards for distinguished public service.

CAROLE A. HEILMAN, Ph.D., is Director of the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (DMID) of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). Dr. Heilman received her bachelor’s degree in biology from Boston University in 1972 and earned her master’s degree and doctorate in microbiology from Rutgers University in 1976 and 1979. Dr. Heilman began her career at the National Institutes of Health as a postdoctoral research associate with the National Cancer Institute, where she carried out research on the regulation of gene expression during cancer development. In 1986, she came to NIAID as the Influenza and Viral Respiratory Diseases Program Officer in DMID, and in 1988 she was appointed Chief of the Respiratory Diseases branch, where she coordinated the development of acellular pertussis vaccines. She joined the Division of AIDS as Deputy Director in 1997 and was responsible for developing the Innovation Grant Program for Approaches in human immunodeficiency virus vaccine research. She is the recipient of several notable awards for outstanding achievement. Throughout her extramural career, Dr. Heilman has contributed articles on vaccine design and development to many scientific journals and has served as a consultant to the World Bank and the World Health Organization in this area. She is also a member of several professional societies, including the Infectious Diseases Society of America, the American Society for Microbiology, and the American Society of Virology.

JAMES M. HUGHES, M.D., is Assistant Surgeon General and Director of the National Center for Infectious Diseases (NCID) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). He was named Deputy Director of NCID in 1988 and became Director of the Center in 1992. He joined CDC as an Epidemic Intelligence Service Officer in 1973, during which time he focused on the epidemiology of food-borne, water- borne, and other diarrheal diseases. Dr. Hughes received his M.D. in 1971 from Stanford University. He is board certified in internal medicine, infectious diseases, and preventive medicine. He is a fellow of the American College of Physicians and the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

SAMUEL L. KATZ, M.D., is the Wilburt C. Davison Professor and chairman emeritus of pediatrics at Duke University Medical Center, and is the immediate past Chairman of the Board of the Burroughs Wellcome Fund. He has concentrated his research on infectious diseases, focusing primarily on vaccine research and development. He is a past chair and a member of the Public Policy Council of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Dr. Katz has served on a number of scientific advisory committees and is the recipient of many prestigious awards and honorary fellowships in international organizations. Dr. Katz received his M.D. from Harvard Medical School. After his medical internship at Beth Israel Hospital, he completed his pediatrics residency training at the Massachusetts General Hospital and the Boston Children’s Hospital. He then became a staff member at Boston Children’s Hospital, working with Nobel Laureate John F. Enders, during which time they developed the attenuated measles virus vaccine now used throughout the world. He has chaired the Committee on Infectious Diseases of the American Academy of Pediatrics (the Redbook Committee), the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Vaccine Priorities Study of the Institute of Medicine (IOM), and several World Health Organization (WHO) and Children’s Vaccine Initiative panels on vaccines and human immunodeficiency virus infections. He is a member of many scientific advisory committees and boards including those of the National Institutes of Health, IOM, and WHO. Dr. Katz’s published studies include more than 100 original scientific articles, 60 chapters in textbooks, and many abstracts, editorials, and reviews. He is the coeditor of a textbook on pediatric infectious diseases and has given more than 70 named lectures in the United States and abroad.

MARCELLE LAYTON, M.D., is the Assistant Commissioner for the Bureau of Communicable Diseases at the New York City Department of Health. This bureau is responsible for the surveillance and control of 51 infectious diseases and conditions reportable under the New York City Health Code. Current areas of concern include antibiotic resistance; food-borne, water-borne, and tick-borne diseases; hepatitis C; and biological disaster planning for the potential threats of bioterrorism and pandemic influenza. Dr. Layton received her medical degree from Duke University. She completed an internal medicine residency at the University Health Science Center in Syracuse, New York, and an infectious disease fellowship at Yale University. In addition, Dr. Layton spent 2 years with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as a fellow in the Epidemic Intelligence Service, where she was assigned to the New York City Department of Health. In the past, she has volunteered or worked with the Indian Health Service, the Alaskan Native Health Service, and clinics in northwestern Thailand and central Nepal.

CARLOS LOPEZ, Ph.D., is Research Fellow, Research Acquisitions, Eli Lilly Research Laboratories. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Minnesota in 1970. Dr. Lopez was awarded the NTRDA postdoctoral fellowship. After his fellowship he was appointed assistant professor of pathology at the University of Minnesota, where he did his research on cytomegalovirus infections in renal transplant recipients and the consequences of those infections. He was also appointed assistant member and head of the Laboratory of Herpesvirus Infections at the Sloan Kettering Institute for Cancer Research, where his research focused on herpesvirus infections and the mechanisms involved. Dr. Lopez’s laboratory contributed to the immunological analysis of the earliest AIDS patients at the beginning of the AIDS epidemic in New York. He is coauthor of one of the seminal publications on this disease as well as many scientific papers and is coeditor of six books. Dr. Lopez has held consultancies with numerous agencies and organizations including the National Institutes of Health, the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, and the American Cancer Society.

STEPHEN S. MORSE, Ph.D., is a Professor of Epidemiology at the Columbia University School of Public Health. He was previously a program manager in the Defense Sciences Office at the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). Dr. Morse was formerly Assistant Professor of Virology at The Rockefeller University. Dr. Morse is a virologist and immunologist with research interests in viral effects on T- lymphocyte development and function, viral zoonoses, and methods for studying viral evolution. He was principal organizer and Chair of the 1989 Conference on Emerging Viruses at the National Institutes of Health and was a member of the Institute of Medicine Committee on Emerging Infections (1990–1992), a member of the Institute of Medicine Committee on Xenograft Transplantation, and Chair of the Microbiology Section of the New York Academy of Sciences. He was Chair of ProMed (Program for Monitoring Emerging Infections), formed in January 1993 to encourage development of initiatives for anticipating and responding to worldwide emerging infections.

MICHAEL T. OSTERHOLM, Ph.D., M.P.H., is the Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of the Infection Control Advisory Network of Minnesota. Previously, Dr. Osterholm was the State Epidemiologist and Chief of the Acute Disease Epidemiology Section for the Minnesota Department of Health. He is also an adjunct professor of the Division of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, at the University of Minnesota. He has received numerous research awards from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). He serves as principal investigator for the CDC-sponsored Emerging Infections Program in Minnesota. He has published more than 140 articles on various emerging infectious disease problems. He is past president of the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists and chairs its Committee on Public Health, is a member of the Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Infectious Diseases, CDC, and is a member of the National Advisory Committee on Microbial Criteria for Foods, U.S. Department of Agriculture. He recently served as a member of the Committee on the Department of Defense Persian Gulf War Syndrome Comprehensive Clinical Evaluation Program of the Institute of Medicine.

MARC RUBIN, M.D., joined Glaxo Inc. in 1990 as Director of Anti-Infectives. From 1991 to 1995 he was Director of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Research, and from 1995 to 1997 was International Director and Vice President of Infectious Diseases and Rheumatology. In 1997, he became Vice President of U.S. Clinical Research and in 1998 became Vice President, Infectious Diseases and Hepatitis, Therapeutic Development and Product Strategy, Glaxo Medical, Regulatory and Product Strategy. He received his B.A. in biology from Cornell University and his medical degree from Cornell University Medical School. Dr. Rubin completed his internship and residency at The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, and his fellowship and postdoctoral work at the National Cancer Institute. He is board certified in internal medicine, oncology, and infectious diseases.

DAVID M. SHLAES, M.D., Ph.D., is Vice President for Infectious Diseases Research at Wyeth-Ayerst Research. Before joining Wyeth-Ayerst, Dr. Shlaes was professor of medicine at the Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine and Chief of the Infectious Diseases Section and the Clinical Microbiology Unit at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center in Cleveland, Ohio. He has served as a grant reviewer for the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Infectious Diseases Merit Review Board and the National Institutes of Health Special Study Section on the Biology of Mycobacteria. He has published widely in peer reviewed journals, and his interest is in antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy and antibiotic resistance.

JANET SHOEMAKER, is Director of the American Society for Microbiology’s Public Affairs Office, a position she has held since 1989. She is responsible for managing the legislative and regulatory affairs of this 42,000-member organization, the largest single biological science society in the world. She has served as principal investigator for a project funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) to collect and disseminate data on the job market for recent doctorates in microbiology and has played a key role in American Society for Microbiology (ASM) projects, including the production of the ASM Employment Outlook in the Microbiological Sciences and The Impact of Managed Care and Health System Change on Clinical Microbiology. Previously, she held positions as Assistant Director of Public Affairs for ASM, as ASM coordinator of the U.S./USSR Exchange Program in Microbiology, a program sponsored and coordinated by the National Science Foundation and the U.S. Department of State, and as a freelance editor and writer. She received her baccalaureate, cum laude, from the University of Massachusetts and is a graduate of the George Washington University programs in public policy and in editing and publications. She has served as commissioner to the Commission on Professionals in Science and Technology and as the ASM representative to the ad hoc Group for Medical Research Funding, and she is a member of Women in Government Relations, the Association of Society Executives, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. She has coauthored published articles on research funding, biotechnology, biological weapons control, and public policy issues related to microbiology.

JOHN D. SIEGFRIED, M.D., is Associate Vice President for Medical, Regulatory and Scientific Affairs at Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America. Dr. Siegfried is a pediatrician with 25 years in clinical practice and for the past decade has been involved with pharmaceutical research and development in the medical and regulatory affairs section of the R. W. Johnson Pharmaceutical Research Institute. He began his career with the U.S. Public Health Service as a medical officer on the Rosebud and the Redlake Indian Reservations and completed his active pediatric practice as Chief of Pediatrics and Chief of the Medical Staff at the Al Hada Hospital and Rehabilitation Center in Taif, Saudi Arabia. As a volunteer physician, Dr. Siegfried regularly staffs the Whitman-Walker AIDS Clinic in the District of Columbia as well as its clinic for sexually transmitted diseases.

P. FREDERICK SPARLING, M.D., is the J. Herbert Bate Professor of Medicine, Microbiology and Immunology at the University of North Carolina (UNC) at Chapel Hill and is Director of the North Carolina Sexually Transmitted Infections Research Center. Previously he served as Chair of the Department of Medicine and Chair of the Department of Microbiology and Immunology at UNC. He was President of the Infectious Disease Society of American in 1996– 1997. He was also a member of the Institute of Medicine’s Committee on Microbial Threats to Health (1991–1992). Dr. Sparling’s laboratory research is in the molecular biology of bacterial outer membrane proteins involved in pathogenesis, with a major emphasis on gonococci and meningococci. His current studies focus on the biochemistry and genetics of iron- scavenging mechanisms used by gonococci and meningococci and the structure and function of the gonococcal prion proteins. He is pursuing the goal of a vaccine for gonorrhea.

C. DOUGLAS WEBB, JR., Ph.D., received his bachelor’s degree in biology from Emory University and his master’s degree and doctorate in microbiology from the University of Georgia. He served in the Public Health Service at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as both a research microbiologist and supervisory microbiologist. After his work at CDC, Dr. Webb went to Pfizer Pharmaceuticals and was involved in the development of ampicillinsulbactam, carbenicillin, cefoperazone, fluconazole, azithromycin, and trovafloxacin. Dr. Webb is Senior Medical Director in Infectious Diseases Global Marketing at Bristol-Myers Squibb, working on the strategy and development for the anti-infective portfolio including human immunodeficiency virus products.

CATHERINE E. WOTEKI, Ph.D, is immediate former Undersecretary for Food Safety for the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Before receiving Senate confirmation to her present position on July 31, 1997, she served as Acting Undersecretary for Research, Education, and Economics. From 1994 to 1995, she was Deputy to the Associate Director of Science of the Office of Science and Technology Policy. From 1990 to 1994, she was Director of the Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences. A biology and chemistry major at Mary Washington College in Fredericksburg, Virginia, she pursued graduate studies in human nutrition at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia, and received a Ph.D. in human nutrition. She is a registered dietitian. For 2 years, she performed clinical research in the Department of Medicine of the University of Texas Medical School at San Antonio. She was appointed assistant professor in the Department of Nutrition and Food Science at Drexel University in Philadelphia in 1975. In July 1977, she joined the congressional Office of Technology Assessment as Nutrition Project Director. From 1980 to 1983, she worked for the U.S. Department of Agriculture in two capacities: as leader of the Food and Diet Appraisal Research Group in the Consumer Nutrition Center and as Acting Associate Administrator of the Human Nutrition Information Service. Dr. Woteki was Deputy Director of the Division of Health Examination Statistics, National Center for Health Statistics, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, from 1983 to 1990. Dr. Woteki has published 48 articles and numerous technical reports and books on food and nutrition policy and nutrition monitoring. She is the coeditor of Eat for Life: The Food and Nutrition Board’s Guide to Reducing Your Risk of Chronic Disease. Dr. Woteki is a member of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies.


JONATHAN R. DAVIS, Ph.D., M.S., is a senior program officer at the Institute of Medicine (IOM). His primary charge is as the Study Director of IOM’s Forum on Emerging Infections. Dr. Davis was formerly the Science Officer for the Emerging Infectious Diseases and Human Immunodeficiency Virus/AIDS Program in the U.S. Department of State’s Bureau of Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs. Before his work at the State Department, Dr. Davis was an assistant professor of medicine and head of the Malaria Laboratory at the University of Maryland School of Medicine, where he was the principal and co-principal investigator on grants investigating the fundamental biology of malaria transmission and on the development and testing of candidate malaria vaccines in human volunteers. Dr. Davis has a M.S. in medical entomology from Clemson University and a Ph.D. in immunology and infectious diseases from The Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health. Dr. Davis is an ad hoc reviewer for several professional scientific journals and currently holds adjunct faculty appointments at The Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health, the University of Maryland School of Medicine, and the Uniformed Services University School of the Health Sciences.

VIVIAN P. NOLAN, M.A., is the Research Associate for the Forum on Emerging Infections and for the Roundtable on Research and Development of Drugs, Biologics, and Medical Devices. Before joining the Institute of Medicine (IOM), Ms. Nolan was a Science Assistant in the Division of Environmental Biology at the National Science Foundation (NSF), where she worked on grants administration, research projects, and policy analyses on environmental and conservation biology issues. Ms. Nolan is a recipient of a NSF Directors Award for the policy-oriented, interdisciplinary Water and Watersheds collaborative NSF-U.S. Environmental Protection Agency grants program. Ms. Nolan is pursuing her doctorate degree in environmental science and public policy from George Mason University. Her graduate work has included research and policy analysis on issues including environmental, biodiversity conservation, sustainable development, human health, and emerging and reemerging infectious diseases. In August 1998, she participated in an educational program in Kenya that studied the relationship between ecological degradation and emerging infectious diseases. Ms. Nolan was awarded an M.A. in science, technology, and public policy in 1994 from the George Washington University, and in 1987 she simultaneously earned two bachelor’s degrees in international studies and Latin American studies.