Table 2.5Studies assessing association between smoking and body weight

508-Compliant Version

Measures
StudyDesign/populationAverage age (years)Age groupsMean difference in body mass index (kg/m2)Mean kg differenceHeight/weightSmoking statusComments
Barrett-Connor and Khaw 1989Cross-sectional survey
1,933 adults
Rancho Bernardo, California
NR50–79 yearsaNRMeasuredSelf-reportSmoking status not defined
Smokers24.0
Nonsmokers25.2
−1.2
Marti et al. 1989Cross-sectional survey
15,281 adults
Finland
NR25–64 yearsbNRMeasuredSelf-reportSmoker: daily use for 1 year
Smokers25.6
Nonsmokers26.5
−0.9
Shimokata et al. 1989Cross-sectional analysis
3-year Baltimore Longitudinal
Study of Aging
1,122 men
Maryland
M = 51.719–44 yearsNRMeasuredSelf-reportSmoker: daily use; 19–44 years; not included in Figure 2.1
Smokers24.5
Nonsmokers25.2
−0.7
≥45 yearsa
Smokers25.3
Nonsmokers25.2
+0.1
Townsend et al. 1991Cross-sectional study
491 adolescents
United Kingdom
NR13–17 yearscNRMeasuredSaliva cotinineSmoker: ≥1 cigarette/week
Smokers23.1
Nonsmokers20.6
+2.5
Lissner et al. 1992Cross-sectional analysis
Prospective population study (1974–1975)
1,291 women
Sweden
NR≥44 yearsaNRMeasuredNRSmoking status not defined; smokers who quit ≥1 year classified as nonsmokers
Smokers23.8
Nonsmokers25.1
−1.3
Crawley and While 1995Cross-sectional analysis
1970 longitudinal birth cohort
1,592 adolescents
NR16–17 yearscNRMeasuredSelf-reportSmoker: >1 cigarette/week
Smokers21.4
Nonsmokers21.1
+0.3
Elisaf et al. 1996Cross-sectional study
590 female adolescents
M = 1716–18 yearscMeasuredSelf-reportSmoker: daily use
Smokers21.257.0
Nonsmokers22.660.0
−1.4−3.0
Freedman et al. 1997Cross-sectional survey
160 Navajo adolescents
M = 16.212–19 yearscNRMeasuredSelf-reportSmoking status not defined
Smokers23.5
Nonsmokers22.6
+0.9
Fulton and Shekelle 1997Cross-sectional analysis
Chicago Western Electric Study
1,531 men
M = 48.640–59 yearsaMeasured Self-reported weight for age 20Self-reportSmoking status not defined

Retrospective—participants were asked to recall weight at age 20
Smokers25.577.8
Nonsmokers26.580.5
−1.0−2.7
Smokers22.2
Nonsmokers22.2
0.0
Molarius et al. 1997Cross-sectional study
WHO MONICA Project
67,981 adults
21 countries
NR35–64 yearsNRMeasuredSelf-reportSmoker: daily use; not included in Figure 2.1 (unable to weight nonsmoker mean)
Smokers25.7
Nonsmokers26.7
−1.0
Klesges et al. 1998aCross-sectional study
6,751 7th graders
M = 13~13 yearscNRSelf-reportSelf-reportSmoker: daily use
Smokers21.3
Nonsmokers20.9
+0.4
Klesges et al. 1998bBaseline
7-year prospective study
CARDIA study
5,115 adults
M = 24.818–30 yearsNRMeasuredBaseline: Serum cotinineSmoker: ≥5 cigarettes/week; not included in Figure 2.1
Smokers69.6
Nonsmokers72.2
−2.6
Klesges et al. 1998cRandomized controlled trial
32,144 recruits
Lackland Air Force Base, Texas
M = 19.817–35 yearsNRSelf-reportSelf-reportSmoker: ≥1 cigarette/day; not included in Figure 2.1
Smokers71.56
Nonsmokers72.52
−0.98
Laaksonen et al. 1998Cross-sectional surveys
National Public Health Institute
Finland
NR≥25 yearsbNRSelf-reportSelf-reportSmoker: use in past month
Smokers24.8
Nonsmokers24.5
+0.3
Al-Riyami and Afifi 2003Cross-sectional study
3,506 adult men
Oman
M = 38.4>20 yearsNRMeasuredSelf-reportSmoker: daily use; not included in Figure 2.1
Smokers24.7
Nonsmokers25.2
−0.5
Copeland and Carney 2003Cross-sectional study
441 female undergraduates
Louisiana State University
M = 19.9 (SD = 1.6)>25 yearscNRSelf-reportCarbon monoxide analysisSmoking status not defined
Smokers22.1
Nonsmokers22.2
−0.1
Bamia et al. 2004Cross-sectional analysis
Population-based cohort study
22,059 adults
Greek EPIC cohort
NR25–44 yearsbNRMeasuredSelf-reportSmoker: daily use
Smokers27.0
Nonsmokers27.1
−0.1
≥45 years
Smokers27.9
Nonsmokers30.0
−2.1
Saarni et al. 2004Cross-sectional study
4,521 twins
Finland
M = 24.423–27 yearsNRSelf-reportSelf-reportSmoker: daily use; not included in Figure 2.1
Smokers22.8
Nonsmokers23.1
−0.3
Akbartabartoori et al. 2005Cross-sectional study
Scottish Health Survey
9,047 adults
Scotland
NR16–24 yearscNRMeasuredSelf-reportSmoking status not defined; weights estimated from available data
Smokers23.5
Nonsmokers23.0
+0.5
25–44 yearsb
Smokers25.1
Nonsmokers26.1
−1.0
≥45 yearsa
Smokers25.7
Nonsmokers27.7
−2.0
Carroll et al. 2006Cross-sectional study
300 students
University of Kansas
NR18–24 yearscNRMeasuredSelf-reportSmoker: self-reported current smoker and smoked in past 30 days; nonsmokers include those who reported having ever smoked
Smokers25.9
Nonsmokers24.2
+1.7
Jitnarin et al. 2006Cross-sectional study
1,027 adults
Thailand
NR>35 yearsNRMeasuredSelf-reportSmoking status not defined
Smokers22.6
Nonsmokers24.8
−2.2
Fidler et al. 2007Cross-sectional analysis
5-year longitudinal study
2,665 students
HABITS
South London, England
NR15–16 yearscNRMeasuredSaliva cotinineSmoker: >6 cigarettes/week; all nonsmokers at baseline
Smokers22.0
Nonsmokers22.2
−0.2
O’Loughlin et al. 2008Cross-sectional analysis
NDIT
755 students
Montreal, Canada
NR17–18 yearscNRMeasuredSelf-reportSmoker: ≥30 cigarettes/month; nonsmoker: <30 cigarettes/month
Smokers22.8
Nonsmokers22.4
+0.4
Sneve and Jorde 2008Cross-sectional analysis
2001 Tromsø Study
5,102 adults
Norway
M = 53.7>29 yearsbNRMeasuredSelf-reportSmoker: ≥1 cigarette/day
Smokers24.7
Nonsmokers25.8
−1.1
Stavropoulos-Kalinoglou et al. 2008Cross-sectional study
392 rheumatoid arthritis patients
United Kingdom
Md = 63.1>55 yearsaMeasuredSelf-reportSmoking status not defined
Smokers26.070.0
Nonsmokers27.572.5
−1.5−2.5

Note: CARDIA = Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults; EPIC = European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition; HABITS = Health and Behaviour in Teenagers Study; kg = kilograms; m2 = square meters; M = mean; Md = median; NDIT = Nicotine Dependence in Teens; NR = not reported; WHO MONICA = World Health Organization Multinational Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease.

a

Categorized as ≥35 years.

b

Categorized as ≥25 years.

c

Categorized as <25 years.

From: 2, The Health Consequences of Tobacco Use Among Young People

Cover of Preventing Tobacco Use Among Youth and Young Adults
Preventing Tobacco Use Among Youth and Young Adults: A Report of the Surgeon General.
National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (US) Office on Smoking and Health.

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