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National Research Council (US) Chemical Sciences Roundtable. Challenges in Characterizing Small Particles: Exploring Particles from the Nano- to Microscale: A Workshop Summary. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2012.

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Challenges in Characterizing Small Particles: Exploring Particles from the Nano- to Microscale: A Workshop Summary.

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CParticipant Biographies

SPEAKERS

Pedro Alvarez, Ph.D., is the George R. Brown Professor of Engineering and the chair of the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Rice University. He received a B. Eng. in civil engineering from McGill University and M.S. and Ph.D. in environmental engineering from the University of Michigan. His research focuses on environmental sustainability through bioremediation of contaminated aquifers, fate and transport of toxic chemicals, the water footprint of biofuels, microbial-plant interactions, medical bioremediation, and environmental implications and applications of nanotechnology. Dr. Alvarez is a diplomate of the American Academy of Environmental Engineers and a fellow of American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). Past honors include president of Association of Environmental Engineering and Science Professors (AEESP), Honorary Consul of Nicaragua, the Malcom Pirnie-AEESP Frontiers in Research Award, the Water Environment Federation (WEF) McKee Medal for Groundwater Protection, the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) Cleanup Project of the Year Award, the Button of the City of Valencia, the Collegiate Excellence in Teaching Award from the University of Iowa, the Alejo Zuloaga Medal from the Universidad de Carabobo, Venezuela, a Career Award from the National Science Foundation, a Rackham Fellowship, and best paper awards from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Hazardous Substance Research Center (HSRC) for Regions 7 and 8, WEF, and the Battelle Bioremediation Symposium. Dr. Alvarez currently serves on the editorial board of Environmental Science and Technology and as honorary professor at Nankai and Kunming Universities in China and as adjunct professor at the Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina in Florianopolis, Brazil.

Jennifer S. Curtis, Ph.D., is a professor in the Chemical Engineering Department at the University of Florida (UF). Prior to this, she held administrative roles as department chair of chemical engineering at UF and associate dean of engineering and department head of freshman engineering at Purdue University. Dr. Curtis received a B.S. in chemical engineering from Purdue University (1983) and a Ph.D. in chemical engineering from Princeton University (1989). She has an internationally recognized research program in the development and validation of numerical models for the prediction of particle flow phenomena. She is the co-author of more than 100 publications and has given more than 160 invited lectures at universities, companies, government laboratories, and technical conferences. Professor Curtis is a recipient of a Fulbright Research Scholar Award, a National Science Foundation (NSF) Presidential Young Investigator Award, the American Society of Engineering Education’s (ASEE) Chemical Engineering Lectureship Award, the Eminent Overseas Lectureship Award by the Institution of Engineers in Australia, the ASEE’s Sharon Keillor Award for Women in Engineering, and the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) Fluidization Lectureship Award. She currently serves as associate editor of AIChE Journal and on the editorial advisory board of Powder Technology and Chemical Engineering Education. She has served on the National Academy of Engineering’s (NAE) Committee on Engineering Education and has participated in two NAE Frontiers of Research Symposiums (2003 and 2008). Currently, she is a board member of the National Academies’ Chemical Science Roundtable, as well as the Council for Chemical Research and the American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

Abhaya Datye, Ph.D., has been on the faculty at the University of New Mexico since 1984. He is presently distinguished professor of chemical and nuclear engineering and director of the Center for Microengineered Materials. He also directs the graduate program in nanoscience and microsystems. Dr. Datye received a B.S. in chemical engineering from the Indian Institute of Technology, an M.S. in chemical engineering from the University of Cincinnati, and a Ph.D. in chemical engineering from the University of Michigan. His research interests are in heterogeneous catalysis, materials characterization, and nanomaterials synthesis. His research group has pioneered the development of electron microscopy tools for the study of catalysts. By developing model catalysts for this work, they have shown that the metal and oxide surfaces and interfaces in catalytic materials can be studied at near atomic resolution. His current work involves fundamental studies of catalyst sintering, low temperature methanol reforming into H2 for portable power applications, and synthesis of novel nanostructured heterogeneous catalysts.

Vicki H. Grassian, Ph.D., received her B.S. in chemistry from the State University of New York at Albany (1981), and she did her graduate studies at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (M.S., 1982) and the University of California-Berkeley (Ph.D., 1987). Dr. Grassian is currently the F. Wendell Miller Professor in the Department of Chemistry and holds appointments in the Departments of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering and Occupational and Environmental Health. At the University of Iowa, Dr. Grassian has been the recipient of a Faculty Scholar Award (1999–2001), a Distinguished Achievement Award (2002), a James Van Allen Natural Sciences Faculty Fellowship (2004), the Regents Award for Faculty Excellence (2006), and the Outstanding Graduate Student Mentoring Award (2008). In 2006, she was appointed as the director of the Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Institute at the University of Iowa by the vice president for research. Her research interests are in the areas of environmental molecular surface science, heterogeneous atmospheric chemistry, climate impact of atmospheric aerosols, and environmental and health aspects of nanoscience and nanotechnology. She has more than 180 peer-reviewed publications and 15 book chapters and she has edited 3 books, the most recent being Environmental Catalysis published by CRC Press in 2005 and Nanoscience and Nanotechnology: Environmental and Health Impacts published in 2008 by John Wiley and Sons. In 2003, Dr. Grassian received a U.S.-National Science Foundation Creativity Award, and in 2005, she was elected as a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. She was named fellow of both the Royal Society of Chemistry and the American Vacuum Society in 2010. She currently serves on the editorial boards of the Journal of Physical Chemistry, Surface Science, Atmospheric Environment, and Aerosol Science and Technology. She also serves on the Publications Committee of the American Association of Aerosol Research, Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Users Advisory Committee, and the Executive Committee of the Physical Chemistry Division of the American Chemical Society. She currently chairs the standing symposium Interfacial Environmental Chemistry for the Colloid and Surface Chemistry Division of the American Chemical Society and was recently elected chair of the Division to serve in 2012. In 2006, Dr. Grassian co-chaired a National Science Foundation-sponsored workshop on sustainability and chemistry. She was the primary organizer and editor of the workshop report titled Chemistry for a Sustainable Future. The report for that workshop was reprinted in 2009 for the National Science Foundation as a result of a renewed national interest in energy and the environment.

Michael Hochella, Jr., Ph.D., is university distinguished professor at Virginia Tech, concentrating in the area of nanogeoscience. He received his B.S. and M.S. from Virginia Tech in 1975 and 1977, respectively, and his Ph.D. from Stanford University in 1981. He has been a professor at Stanford and Virginia Tech for a total of 21 years. He has been a Fulbright Scholar, a Humboldt Award winner, and Virginia Scientist of the Year. He is a fellow of six international scientific societies including the American Geophysical Union (AGU) and the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), a Dana Medal winner (Mineralogical Society of America), and a former president of the Geochemical Society. He is currently president of the Mineralogical Society of America (MSA) as of October 2011. He has also won the Brindley Lecture Award (Clay Minerals Society) and the Distinguished Service Medal of the Geochemical Society. He has served on high-level advisory boards at the National Science Foundation and the Department of Energy. He has an h-index of 40 with more than 4,000 citations. He has raised $16.4 million in research funding. Fourteen of his former advisees are now professors at leading institutions around the world, while others hold prominent positions in publishing, national labs, and industry.

Morton Lippmann, Ph.D., is a professor of environmental medicine at the New York University (NYU) School of Medicine, where he has been a faculty member since 1967. He holds a Ph.D. (NYU, 1967) in environmental health science, an S.M. (Harvard University, 1955) in industrial hygiene, and a B.Ch.E. (The Cooper Union, 1954) in chemical engineering. He has been the recipient of numerous awards, including Stokinger and Meritorious Achievement from the American Conference of Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cummings from the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA), Sinclair from American Association for Aerosol Research (AAAR), Smythe from American Academy of Industrial Hygiene (AAIH), and Career Achievement in Respiratory and Inhalation Toxicology from the Society of Toxicology (SOT). Much of this research has been focused on particulate matter (PM) in ambient air, and on specific airborne agents, notably ozone, sulfuric acid, and asbestos. Dr. Lippmann is a past chairman of the ACGIH (1982–1983); past president of the International Society of Exposure Analysis (1994–1995); and past member of the EPA Science Advisory Board’s Executive Committee (2000–2001), EPA’s Advisory Committee on Indoor Air Quality and Total Human Exposure (1987–1993), EPA’s Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (1983–1987), and the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Board of Scientific Counselors (1991–1993). He has been chair of the External Scientific Advisory Committee of the Children’s Health Study of air pollution effects in Southern California at the University of Southern California (1993–2003). He currently serves as chair of the External Scientific Advisory Committees of the study of the inhalation toxicology of complex air pollutant mixtures at the National Environmental Respiratory Center in Albuquerque (1997–2007) and the EPA-supported PM Health Effects Research Center at Harvard. He has also chaired National Research Council committees on the Airliner Cabin Environment and the Health of Passengers and Crew and on Synthetic Vitreous Fibers, and he served on NRC Committees on Measurement and Control of Respirable Dust in Mines, Indoor Pollutants, Toxicity Data Elements, and In-Vivo Toxicity Testing of Complex Mixtures. His publications include more than 300 research and review papers in the scientific literature and 2 reference texts on environmental health science.

Jim Litster, Ph.D., holds a joint appointment as professor of chemical engineering and professor of industrial and physical pharmacy at Purdue University, where he is a research thrust leader in the NSF-funded Engineering Research Center for Structured Organic Composite Systems (CSOPS). Prior to his appointment in 2007, he spent 20 years at The University of Queensland (UQ), most recently as head of the School of Engineering (2005–2007) and director of the Particle and Systems Design Centre (2001–2007). Dr. Litster is an internationally recognized leader in particle science and technology. He has a Ph.D. from The University of Queensland and spent several years working for BHP at its Newcastle Research Laboratories. From 1987 till 2007 he held a faculty appointment at The University of Queensland in chemical engineering, which included 5 years as chair of the department. He also has held a regular appointment as distinguished visiting professor at the University of Delaware (2001–2005). Dr. Litster’s main research interests focus on particle design and formulation engineering—the production of particles and particulate delivery forms with well-controlled size and morphology from submicron to millimeter scale. The products of interest are many and varied, including proteins and other biological materials, pharmaceuticals, detergents and consumer goods, food, ceramics and high-value materials, fertilizers and agricultural chemicals, and minerals. He is particularly well known for his work on granulation, through which he has helped move this ubiquitous and troublesome process from a black art to an engineering science. He is the co-author of the well-known text in this area, The Science and Engineering of Granulation Processes, and his approaches are now widely used in engineering practice in industry. More recently, with collaborators at UQ and Purdue, he has established a major research focus on the recovery and delivery of bioactives for food and pharmaceutical applications particularly by crystallization and precipitation. In 2009, Dr. Litster was awarded the Achievement Award for Excellence in Granulation Research, 9th International Symposium on Agglomeration, and he has recently been elected a fellow of the Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering.

Gerry McDermott, Ph.D., is a senior scientist at the National Center for X-ray Tomography, Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and is also affiliated with the Department of Anatomy, University of California, San Francisco.

Ralph Nuzzo, Ph.D., a recognized leader in the chemistry of materials, is director of the Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory and the Center for Microanalysis of Materials at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. He also serves as the William H. and Janet Lycan Professor of Chemistry and professor of materials science and engineering at the university. Dr. Nuzzo received his B.S. in chemistry from Rutgers University and his Ph.D. in organic chemistry from Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). After completing his graduate studies, he accepted a position at Bell Laboratories, then a part of AT&T, where he held the title of distinguished member of the technical staff in materials research.

Michael T. Postek, Ph.D., is the chief of the Mechanical Metrology Division within the Physical Measurement Laboratory at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). He has been involved with electron microscopy for more than 30 years and micro- and nano-scale scanning electron microscope-based length metrology for more than 20 years, and he has published more than 250 papers, articles, and book chapters on this and related topics. Dr. Postek received his B.A. from the University of South Florida (1973); M.S. from Texas A&M University (1974); Ph.D. from Louisiana State University (1980); and an Executive M.S. in technology management from the University of Maryland (1997).

Yi Qiao, Ph.D., is currently a research specialist at the Corporate Research Laboratory, 3M Company. Dr. Qiao obtained his Ph.D. in mechanical engineering in 2006 from Northwestern University. His main research interest is in developing techniques for various industrial process measurement and diagnosis.

Stephen E. Schwartz, Ph.D., is a senior scientist and group leader at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). His current research interest centers on the influence of energy-related emissions on climate, with a focus on the role of atmospheric aerosols. Dr. Schwartz is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and of the American Geophysical Union, and he is recipient of the 2003 Haagen-Smith Award for an “outstanding paper” published in the journal Atmospheric Environment. In 2006 he received the BNL Science and Technology Award for distinguished contributions to the laboratory’s science and technology mission. In his research at BNL, Dr. Schwartz developed methods to describe the rate of reactions in clouds that lead to production of acid rain. More recently, Dr. Schwartz has been focusing on microscopic and submicroscopic aerosol particles, which influence a variety of atmospheric processes, from precipitation to climate change. Dr. Schwartz is author or co-author of more than 100 papers published in peer-reviewed scientific journals. He was editor of Trace Atmospheric Constituents, published by Wiley in 1983, and was co-editor of a three volume series Precipitation Scavenging and Atmosphere-Surface Exchange, published by Hemisphere in 1992. He is co-author of Sea Salt Aerosol Production: Mechanisms, Methods, Measurements, and Models—A Critical Review, published by the American Geophysical Union in 2004. Dr. Schwartz’s research has been quite influential. He served as chief scientist of the Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Science Program from 2004 through 2009. He also served on the management team that developed and led the Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. Dr. Schwartz received his bachelor’s degree in chemistry from Harvard University in 1963 and his Ph.D. in chemistry from the University of California, Berkeley, in 1968. After postdoctoral research at the University of Cambridge, England, Dr. Schwartz joined the Chemistry Department at Stony Brook University. He joined Brookhaven National Laboratory in 1975.

Lee Silverman, Ph.D., received his B.S. from MIT in materials science and engineering in 1981. He then worked for 2 years doing process development for optical waveguide materials for telecommunication at Corning. Dr. Lee then went back to MIT and graduated with a Ph.D. in ceramic science and engineering in 1987. Following graduate school, Dr. Lee started work for DuPont, where he has been for the past 23 years. At DuPont, he has worked on materials intended for uses in structural, electronic, optical, and sensing applications, as well as others. Dr. Lee is currently research manager for nanocomposite technologies in DuPont’s Central Research and Development Laboratory in Wilmington, Delaware.

James (Jim) Smith, Ph.D., is a scientist and head of the Ultrafine Aerosols Research Group at the Atmospheric Chemistry Division of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), and he is currently visiting professor of aerosol physics at the University of Eastern Finland. Dr. Smith received his Ph.D. degree in environmental science and engineering at the California Institute of Technology. His thesis research included one of the first applications of molecular modeling to the elucidation of the photo-oxidation of tropospheric pollutants, as well as in situ measurements of the evolution of the size and charge of highly charged droplets emitted from electrosprayed solutions. Dr. Smith’s work at NCAR involves performing laboratory and field measurements in order to understand and quantify the mechanisms of atmospheric nanoparticle formation and growth. This research is important because the formation of nanoparticles by nucleation and their subsequent growth are poorly understood processes that have significant implications for human health and climate. Dr. Smith’s accomplishments include the development of the Thermal Desorption Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (TDCIMS), which 10 years after its introduction remains the only instrument that can measure the molecular composition of 6- to 30-nm-diameter particles at ambient levels. His achievements include both the development of this novel instrument and its application to address key scientific questions. His observations of the importance of organic compounds in particle formation are currently being incorporated into global climate models to achieve better estimates of the impacts of aerosols on climate. Dr. Smith is the recipient of the 2009 Kenneth T. Whitby Award, given annually by the American Association for Aerosol Research (AAAR). This award recognizes outstanding technical contributions to aerosol science and technology by a young scientist. He is active in national and international research organizations and projects. He has organized or led several workshops and field campaigns devoted to atmospheric aerosol formation and physico-chemical properties, and he currently serves as a member of the board of directors of the AAAR.

Douglas Tobias, Ph.D., obtained his B.S. and M.S. in chemistry at the University of California (UC), Riverside, in 1984 and 1985, respectively, and his Ph.D. in chemistry and biophysics at Carnegie Mellon University in 1991. He received a National Research Service Award from the National Institutes of Health for his post-doctoral research in the Department of Chemistry at the University of Pennsylvania from 1991 to 1995, and he was a guest researcher at the Center for Neutron Research at the National Institute of Standards and Technology from 1995 to 1997. He was appointed to the faculty in the Department of Chemistry at UC Irvine in 1997, promoted to associate professor in 2003 and to full professor in 2005. He was elected fellow of the American Association of the Advancement of Science in 2006. His research interests include the development and application of molecular simulation techniques to the study of membrane biophysics, heterogeneous atmospheric chemistry, and the chemical dynamics of aqueous interfaces.

Angela Violi, Ph.D., is an assistant professor at the University of Michigan in the Department of Mechanical Engineering and the Department of Chemical Engineering. Her current research interests include multiscale simulation of nanoparticle growth and self assembly, applied chemical kinetics, ab initio methods for reaction chemistry, aerosols and molecular modeling of complex systems using atomistic models. She has published 28 papers in these fields in peer-reviewed journals and more than 40 conference papers and peer-reviewed proceedings. Among the awards she received is the International Bernard Lewis Fellowship from the Combustion Institute for “High Quality Research in Combustion.” Dr. Violi has served as a reviewer for more than 10 journals and government foundations, such as the National Science Foundation. She received her Ph.D. in chemical engineering from the University of Naples Federico II.

Alla Zelenyuk, Ph.D., is a physical chemist with expertise in real-time characterization of physical and chemical properties of individual aerosol particles. Her current research projects include (1) development and application of unique tools to study fundamental properties and chemical/microphysical transformations of size-selected nanoparticles; (2) field studies to understand “aerosol life cycle”; (3) laboratory studies of secondary organic aerosol formation; (4) laboratory/field studies of effect of particle size, internal composition, shape, and morphology on particle hygroscopicity, cloud condensation nuclei, and ice nucleation activity used for model development; (5) formation, transformations, and properties of fractal particles, including combustion-related aerosols; and (6) multidimensional data analysis and visualization. She received her Ph.D. in chemical physics from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology.

WORKSHOP ORGANIZING COMMITTEE

Barbara Finlayson-Pitts, Ph.D. (NAS), is a professor of chemistry in the School of Physical Sciences at the University of California where she studies chemical reactions in the lower atmosphere to better understand air pollution in urban and remote areas. She directs AirUCI—Atmospheric Integrated Research Using Chemistry at Interfaces—a multi-investigator effort to better understand how air and water interact in the atmosphere and how those processes affect air quality and global climate change. Dr. Finlayson-Pitts has studied the effects of sea salt on urban smog formation and on remote atmospheres, as well as how chemical reactions on the surfaces of buildings and roads affect urban air quality and models of air pollution. Dr. Finlayson-Pitts received a B.S. from Trent University in 1970, an M.S. from the University of California, Riverside, in 1971, and a Ph.D. from the University of California, Riverside, in 1973. Her research interests include atmospheric, physical, and analytical chemistry.

Douglas Ray, Ph.D., is the associate laboratory director for the Fundamental & Computational Sciences Directorate at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Dr. Ray is responsible for PNNL’s research programs conducted for the Department of Energy’s Office of Science and for the National Institutes of Health. He directs more than 500 staff members in four research divisions: Atmospheric Sciences & Global Change, Biological Sciences, Chemical and Materials Science, and Computational Sciences & Mathematics. Dr. Ray joined PNNL in 1990. A laser spectroscopist, Dr. Ray’s research interests include the effects of weak intermolecular interactions on chemical phenomena in condensed phases, at interfaces, in clusters and in supra-molecular complexes. He earned a B.S. degree in physics from Kalamazoo College and a Ph.D. in chemistry at the University of California at Berkeley. Dr. Ray is a member of the American Chemical Society, American Physical Society, American Geophysical Union, and American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Levi T. Thompson, Ph.D., is the Richard Balzhiser Professor of Chemical Engineering at the University of Michigan. Other honors and awards include the National Science Foundation Presidential Young Investigator Award, Union Carbide Innovation Recognition Award, Dow Chemical Good Teaching Award, College of Engineering Service Excellence Award, and Harold Johnson Diversity Award. He is co-founder, with his wife Maria, of T/J Technologies, a developer of nanomaterials for advanced batteries and fuel cells. He is also consulting editor for the AIChE Journal and a member of the external advisory committee for the Center of Advanced Materials for Purification of Water with Systems (NSF Science and Technology Center at the University of Illinois) and AIChE Chemical Engineering Technology Operating Council. Dr. Thompson earned his B.ChE. from the University of Delaware and M.S.E. degrees in chemical engineering and nuclear engineering and a Ph.D. in chemical engineering from the University of Michigan. Research in Dr. Thompson’s group focuses primarily on defining relationships between the structure, composition, and function of nanostructured catalytic and electrochemical materials. In addition, he has distinguished himself in the use of micromachining and self-assembly methods to fabricate micro-reactor, hydrogen production, and micro-fuel cell systems. Dr. Thompson leads a large multidisciplinary team developing compact devices to convert gasoline and natural resources into hydrogen. Recently, he was appointed founding director of the Hydrogen Energy Technology Laboratory.

Copyright © 2012, National Academy of Sciences.
Bookshelf ID: NBK98076

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