NCBI Bookshelf. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.

Institute of Medicine (US) Forum on Emerging Infections; Knobler SL, Lemon SM, Najafi M, et al., editors. The Resistance Phenomenon in Microbes and Infectious Disease Vectors: Implications for Human Health and Strategies for Containment: Workshop Summary. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2003.

Cover of The Resistance Phenomenon in Microbes and Infectious Disease Vectors

The Resistance Phenomenon in Microbes and Infectious Disease Vectors: Implications for Human Health and Strategies for Containment: Workshop Summary.

Show details

Appendix CInformation Resources



  • Coast J, Smith RD, Millar MR. An economic perspective on policy to reduce antimicrobial resistance. Social Science and Medicine. 1998;46(1):29–38. [PubMed: 9464666]
  • Phillips M, Phillips-Howard PA. Economic implications of resistance to antimalarial drugs. Pharmacoeconomics. 1996;10(3):225–238. [PubMed: 10163571]
  • Smith RD, Coast J, Millar MR. Over-the-counter antimicrobials: the hidden costs of resistance. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 1996;37(5):1031–1032. [PubMed: 8737155]





  • Barnes EH, Dobson RJ, Stein PA, Le Jambre LF, Lenane IJ. Selection of different genotype larvae and adult worms for anthelmintic resistance by persistent and short-acting avermectin/milbemycins. International Journal for Parasitology. 2001;31(7):720–727. [PubMed: 11336754]
  • Gryseels B, Mbaye A, De Vlas SJ, Stelma FF, Guisse F, Van Lieshout L, Faye D, Diop M, Ly A, Tchuem-Tchuente LA, Engels D, Polman K. Are poor responses to praziquantel for the treatment of Schistosoma mansoni infections in Senegal due to resistance? An overview of the evidence. Tropical Medicine and International Health. 2001;6(11):864–873. [PubMed: 11703840]
  • King CH, Muchiri EM, Ouma JH. Evidence against rapid emergence of praziquantel resistance in Schistosoma haematobium, Kenya. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000. pp. 585–594. Available at: http://www​​/eid/vol6no6/king.htm. [PMC free article: PMC2640915] [PubMed: 11076716]
  • Sturrock RF. Schistosomiasis epidemiology and control: how did we get here and where should we go? Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. 2001;96(Suppl):17–27. [PubMed: 11586422]
  • Yu DB, Li Y, Sleigh AC, Yu XL, Li YS, Wei WY, Liang YS, McManus DP. Efficacy of praziquantel against Schistosoma japonicum: field evaluation in an area with repeated chemotherapy compared with a newly identified endemic focus in Hunan, China. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2001;95(5):537–541. [PubMed: 11706669]



  • Bennish ML. Animals, humans, and antibiotics: implications of the veterinary use of antibiotics on human health. Advances in Pediatric Infectious Disease. 1999;14:269–290. [PubMed: 10079857]
  • Boyce JM. Consequences of inaction: importance of infection control practices. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2001;33 Suppl 3:S133–S137. [PubMed: 11524710]
  • Gerberding JL, McGowan JE Jr, Tenover FC. Emerging nosocomial infections and antimicrobial resistance. Current Clinical Topics in Infectious Disease. 1999;19:83–98. [PubMed: 10472481]
  • Gross R, Morgan AS, Kinky DE, Weiner M, Gibson GA, Fishman NO. Impact of a hospital-based antimicrobial management program on clinical and economic outcomes. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2001;33(3):289–295. Available at: http://www​.journals.uchicago​.edu/CID/journal​/issues/v33n3/001003/001003.html. [PubMed: 11438891]
  • Hryniewicz W, Grzesiowski P, Ozorowski T. Hospital infection control in Poland. Journal of Hospital Infection. 2001;49(2):94–98. [PubMed: 11567553]
  • Nicolle LE. Preventing infections in non-hospital settings: long-term care. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001. pp. 205–207. Available at: http://www​​/eid/vol7no2/nicolle.htm. [PMC free article: PMC2631702] [PubMed: 11294707]
  • Nicolle LE, Bentley DW, Garibaldi R, Neuhaus EG, Smith PW. Antimicrobial use in long-term-care facilities. SHEA Long-Term-Care Committee. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology. 2000;21(8):537–545. [PubMed: 10968724]
  • Okeke IN, Lamikanra A, Edelman R. Socioeconomic and behavioral factors leading to acquired bacterial resistance to antibiotics in developing countries. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1999. pp. 18–27. Available at: http://www​​/eid/vol5no1/okeke.htm. [PMC free article: PMC2627681] [PubMed: 10081668]
  • Pechere JC. Patients' interviews and misuse of antibiotics. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2001;33 Suppl 3:S170–S173. [PubMed: 11524715]
  • Roberts R, Cordell R, Scott RD. Issues Concerning Studies on the Impact of Health Care Associated Infections with Antimicrobial Resistant Pathogens. Available at: http://www​​/Cost/study1/cost_study_1.htm.
  • Schierholz JM, Beuth J. Implant infections: a haven for opportunistic bacteria. Journal of Hospital Infection. 2001;49(2):87–93. [PubMed: 11567552]
  • Shryock TR. Relationship between usage of antibiotics in food-producing animals and the appearance of antibiotic resistant bacteria. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents. 1999;12(4):275–278. [PubMed: 10493602]
  • Strausbaugh LJ, Crossley KB, Nurse BA, Thrupp LD. Antimicrobial resistance in long-term-care facilities. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology. 1996;17(2):129–140. [PubMed: 8835450]
  • Teuber M. Veterinary use and antibiotic resistance. Current Opinion in Microbiology. 2001;4(5):493–499. [PubMed: 11587923]
  • Thamlikitkul V, Jintanothaitavorn D, Sathitmethakul R, Vaithayaphichet S, Trakulsomboon S, Danchaivijitr S. Bacterial infections in hospitalized patients in Thailand in 1997 and 2000. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand. 2001;84(5):666–673. [PubMed: 11560216]
  • Weinstein RA. Controlling antimicrobial resistance in hospitals: infection control and use of antibiotics. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001. pp. 188–192. Available at: http://www​​/eid/vol7no2/weinstein.htm. [PMC free article: PMC2631704] [PubMed: 11294703]


  • Gratz NG, Jany WC. What role for insecticides in vector control programs? American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 1994;50(6 Suppl):11–20. [PubMed: 8024077]
  • Gubler DJ. Resurgent vector-borne diseases as a global health problem. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998. pp. 442–450. Available at: http://www​​/eid/vol4no3/gubler.htm. [PMC free article: PMC2640300] [PubMed: 9716967]
  • Guillet P, N'Guessan R, Darriet F, Traore-Lamizana M, Chandre F, Carnevale P. Combined pyrethroid and carbamate ‘two-in-one’ treated mosquito nets: field efficacy against pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus. Medical and Veterinary Entomology. 2001;15(1):105–112. [PubMed: 11297094]
  • Hemingway J, Ranson H. Insecticide resistance in insect vectors of human disease. Annual Review of Entomology. 2000;45:371–391. [PubMed: 10761582]
  • Pittendrigh BR, Gaffney PJ. Pesticide resistance: can we make it a renewable resource? Journal of Theoretical Biology. 2001;211(4):365–375. [PubMed: 11476620]
  • Regis L, Silva-Filha MH, Nielsen-LeRoux C, Charles JF. Bacteriological larvicides of dipteran disease vectors. Trends in Parasitology. 2001;17(8):377–380. [PubMed: 11685898]
  • Roberts DR, Andre RG. Insecticide resistance issues in vector-borne disease control. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 1994;50(6 Suppl):21–34. [PubMed: 8024082]
  • Roberts DR, Laughlin LL, Hsheih P, Legters LJ. DDT, global strategies, and a malaria control crisis in South America. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1997. pp. 295–302. Available at: http://www​​/eid/vol3no3/roberts.htm. [PMC free article: PMC2627649] [PubMed: 9284373]


    Research and Technology


    • Bax R, Bywater R, Cornaglia G, Goossens H, Hunter P, Isham V, Jarlier V, Jones R, Phillips I, Sahm D, Senn S, Struelens M, Taylor D, White A. Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance—what, how and whither? Clinical Microbiology and Infection. 2001;7(6):316–325. [PubMed: 11442565]
    • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Laboratory capacity to detect antimicrobial resistance, 1998. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2000;48(51-52):1167–1171. [PubMed: 11266245]
    • Guan J, Fan C, Liao L. Protein secretion from drug-resistant bacteria—a suitable target for new antibiotics. Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao. 2000;11(6):947–950. [PubMed: 11767579]
    • Kristinsson KG. Mathematical models as tools for evaluating the effectiveness of interventions: a comment on Levin. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2001;33 Suppl 3:S174–S179. [PubMed: 11524716]
    • Laxminarayan R, Brown GM. Economics of antibiotic resistance: a theory of optimal use. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management. 2001;42(2):183–206.
    • Peck SL. Antibiotic and insecticide resistance modeling—is it time to start talking? Trends in Microbiology. 2001;9(6):286–292. [PubMed: 11390244]
    • Simpson JA, Watkins ER, Price RN, Aarons L, Kyle DE, White NJ. Mefloquine pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic models: implications for dosing and resistance. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 2000;44(12):3414–3424. Available at: http://aac​​/content/full/44/12​/3414?view=full&pmid=11083649. [PMC free article: PMC90214] [PubMed: 11083649]
    • Vacek V. Antibacterial chemotherapy—are we really at the end of the antibiotic era? Casopís lékar°u ceskych. 2001;140(19):592–595. [PubMed: 11715728]


Copyright © 2003, National Academy of Sciences.
Bookshelf ID: NBK97139


  • PubReader
  • Print View
  • Cite this Page
  • PDF version of this title (9.0M)

Related information

  • PMC
    PubMed Central citations
  • PubMed
    Links to PubMed

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...