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Institute of Medicine (US) Forum on Emerging Infections; Knobler SL, Lemon SM, Najafi M, et al., editors. The Resistance Phenomenon in Microbes and Infectious Disease Vectors: Implications for Human Health and Strategies for Containment: Workshop Summary. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2003.

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The Resistance Phenomenon in Microbes and Infectious Disease Vectors: Implications for Human Health and Strategies for Containment: Workshop Summary.

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Appendix BIssues of Resistance: Microbes, Vectors, and the Host

February 6–7, 2002

Lecture Room

National Academy of Sciences

2101 Constitution Avenue, NW

Washington, DC 20418



**** A PUBLIC DISSEMINATION PANEL DISCUSSION OF THE BIOLOGICAL THREATS REPORT will take place from 9:00–10:00 am. Breakfast will be served. ****

10:30 amWelcome and Opening Remarks
Adel Mahmoud, Chair, Forum on Emerging Infections
President, Merck Vaccines
10:45Arms Races with Evolving Diseases: Patterns, Costs and Containment
Stephen Palumbi, Harvard University

Session I. Case Studies of Antimicrobial Resistance

Moderator: Carlos Lopez, Eli Lilly
11:15The Cost of Antimicrobial Resistance
Richard Smith, University of East Anglia, United Kingdom
11:45Resistant Strains of Pneumococci, Staphylococci, and Enterococci
Alexander Tomasz, Laboratory of Microbiology, Rockefeller University
12:15 pmLUNCH
1:30Resistance to HIV-1 Drug Therapies
Robert Redfield, The Institute of Human Virology, University of Maryland
2:00Chloroquine-Resistant Malaria
Thomas Wellems, National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH
2:30Schistosomiasis and Antihelminth Resistance
Charles King, Division of Geographic Medicine, Case Western Reserve University
3:00Epitope Escape Variants
Robert Webster, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital and World Health Organization Collaborating Center for Studies on the Ecology of Influenza in Animals and Birds

Session II. Vector Resistance

Moderator: Barry Beaty, Colorado State University
3:30Pesticide Resistance: Implications for Disease Emergence and Control
Janet Hemingway, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, United Kingdom
4:00Studies in Antibiotic Resistance and Insecticide Resistance: Commonalties, Differences, and New Directions
Steven Peck, Zoology Department, Brigham Young University
4:30Managing the Emergence of Pesticide Resistance in Disease Vectors
William Brogdon, Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Session III. Discussion Panel

Moderator: Carole Heilman, National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases
5:00William Jack, Georgetown University
Lynn Marks, GlaxoSmith Kline
Steve Brickner, Pfizer
6:00Adjournment of the first day


8:30 amContinental Breakfast
9:00Opening Remarks / Summary of Day 1
Stanley Lemon, Vice Chair, Forum on Emerging Infections Dean of Medicine, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston
9:15Antibiotic Resistance 1992–2002: A Decade's Journey
Stuart Levy, School of Medicine, Tufts University

Session IV. Factors of Emergence

Moderator: Mary Wilson, Harvard University
9:45Patterns of Use for Antimicrobials in Developing Countries
Iruka Okeke, University of Bradford, United Kingdom
10:15Health Care-Acquired Infections: Hospitals and Long-Term Care Facilities as Breeding Grounds for Antimicrobial Resistance
Lindsay Nicolle, University of Manitoba, Canada
10:45The Use of Antimicrobials in Food-Producing Animals
Thomas Shryock, Elanco Lilly Research
11:15Special Considerations: Anthrax, Large-Scale/Long-Term Prophylaxis or Therapy and the Emergence of Microbial Resistance
Thomas Elliott, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences

Session V. Containing the Development of Resistance

Moderator: James Hughes, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
11:45Emergence of Multiple Mechanisms of Resistance to Antibacterials
Shahriar Mobashery, Department of Biochemistry, Wayne State University
12:15 pmEmerging Technologies to Combat Resistance: Opportunities and Limitations
Vincent Fischetti, Laboratory of Bacterial Pathogenesis, Rockefeller University
1:30Interagency Action Plan to Combat Antimicrobial Resistance
David Bell, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Murray Lumpkin, Office of the Commissioner, Food and Drug Administration
2:15Using Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics to Manage Resistance in the Hospital, at the Bedside, and in Drug Development
Jerome Schentag, University at Buffalo School of Pharmacy
2:45FDA Regulatory Approaches to Controlling Antimicrobial Resistance
Mark Goldberger, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration
3:15CDC's 12-Step Program to Address Antimicrobial Resistance
Julie Gerberding, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
3:45The Challenges to Implementing Global Policy for the Control of Antimicrobial Resistance
Anthony Savelli and Terry Green, Management Sciences for Health

Session VI. Priorities for the Next Steps in Addressing Resistance

Moderator: Fredrick Sparling, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
4:30With the backdrop of the previous days' presentations and discussion, Forum members, panel discussants, and the audience will comment on the issues and next steps that they would identify as priority areas for consideration within industry, academia, public health organizations, and other government sectors. The discussion of priorities will summarize the issues surrounding emerging opportunities for more effective collaboration as well as the remaining research and programmatic needs. The confounding issues of the major obstacles to preparing an optimal response, particularly as it relates to the complexities of interaction between private industry, research and public health agencies, regulatory agencies, policymakers, academic researchers, and the public will be explored with an eye toward innovative responses to such challenges.
Panel Discussants:
Ramanan Laxminarayan, Resources for the Future
Mary Torrence, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Cooperative State Research Education and Extension Service
Donald Roberts, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences
Copyright © 2003, National Academy of Sciences.
Bookshelf ID: NBK97134


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