NCBI Bookshelf. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.

National High Blood Pressure Education Program. The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. Bethesda (MD): National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (US); 2004 Aug.

Cover of The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure

The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure.

Show details

References

1.
Burt VL, Whelton P, Roccella EJ, Brown C, Cutler JA, Higgins M. et al. Prevalence of hypertension in the US adult population. Results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1991. Hypertension. 1995;25:305–13. X. [PubMed: 7875754]
2.
Hajjar I, Kotchen TA. Trends in prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in the United States, 1988–2000. JAMA. 2003;290:199–206. X. [PubMed: 12851274]
3.
World Health Report 2002: Reducing risks, promoting healthy life. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. 2002. http://www​.who.int/whr/2002/. [PubMed: 14741909]
4.
JNC 6. National High Blood Pressure Education Program. The sixth report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. Arch Intern Med. 1997;157:2413–46. PR. [PubMed: 9385294]
5.
Chobanian AV, Bakris GL, Black HR, Cushman WC, Green LA, Izzo JL Jr. et al. The seventh report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure: The JNC 7 Report. JAMA. 2003;289:2560–72. PR. [PubMed: 12748199]
6.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. National High Blood Pressure Education Program. Available at: http://www​.nhlbi.nih​.gov/about/nhbpep/index.htm. Accessed November, 2003.
7.
National High Blood Pressure Education Program. Report of the National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2000;183:S1–22. PR. [PubMed: 10920346]
8.
Roccella E, Kaplan N. Interpretation and evaluation of clinical guidelines. In: Izzo JL Jr, Black HR (editors): Hypertension Primer: The Essentials of High Blood Pressure: Basic Science, Population Science, and Clinical Management. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2003. pp. 126–7. PR.
9.
Sheps SG, Roccella EJ. Reflections on the sixth report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. Curr Hypertens Rep. 1999;1:342–5. PR. [PubMed: 10981088]
10.
Whelton PK, He J, Appel LJ, Cutler JA, Havas S, Kotchen TA. et al. Primary prevention of hypertension: Clinical and public health advisory from The National High Blood Pressure Education Program. JAMA. 2002;288:1882–8. PR. [PubMed: 12377087]
11.
Last JM, Abramson JH. A dictionary of epidemiology. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Oxford University Press;1995.
12.
Shaughnessy AF, Slawson DC, Bennett JH. Becoming an information master: A guidebook to the medical information jungle. J Fam Pract. 1994;39:489–99. PR. [PubMed: 7964548]
13.
Slawson DC, Shaughnessy AF. Obtaining useful information from expert based sources. BMJ. 1997;314:947–9. PR. [PMC free article: PMC2126390] [PubMed: 9099121]
14.
Delbecq A, Van de Ven A, Gustafson D. Group techniques for program planning: A guide to nominal group and delphi process. Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman;1975. PR.
15.
Franklin SS, Gustin W, Wong ND, Larson MG, Weber MA, Kannel WB. et al. Hemodynamic patterns of age-related changes in blood pressure. The Framingham Heart Study. Circulation. 1997;96:308–15. X. [PubMed: 9236450]
16.
Vasan RS, Beiser A, Seshadri S, Larson MG, Kannel WB, D'Agostino RB. et al. Residual lifetime risk for developing hypertension in middle-aged women and men: The Framingham Heart Study. JAMA. 2002;287:1003–10. F. [PubMed: 11866648]
17.
Vasan RS, Larson MG, Leip EP, Kannel WB, Levy D. Assessment of frequency of progression to hypertension in nonhypertensive participants in the Framingham Heart Study: A cohort study. Lancet. 2001;358:1682–6. F. [PubMed: 11728544]
18.
Lewington S, Clarke R, Qizilbash N, Peto R, Collins R. Age-specific relevance of usual blood pressure to vascular mortality: A meta-analysis of individual data for one million adults in 61 prospective studies. Prospective Studies Collaboration. Lancet. 2002;360:1903–13. M. [PubMed: 12493255]
19.
Vasan RS, Larson MG, Leip EP, Evans JC, O'Donnell CJ, Kannel WB. et al. Impact of high-normal blood pressure on the risk of cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med. 2001;345:1291–7. F. [PubMed: 11794147]
20.
Anderson KM, Wilson PWF, Odell PM, Kannel WB. An updated coronary risk profile. A statement for health professionals. Circulation 1991;356–62. PR. [PubMed: 1984895]
21.
Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults. Third report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III): Final Report. Circulation. 2002;106:3143–421. PR. [PubMed: 12485966]
22.
Franklin SS, Larson MG, Khan SA, Wong ND, Leip EP, Kannel WB. et al. Does the relation of blood pressure to coronary heart disease risk change with aging? The Framingham Heart Study. Circulation. 2001;103:1245–9. F. [PubMed: 11238268]
23.
Kostis JB, Davis BR, Cutler J, Grimm RH Jr., Berge KG, Cohen JD. et al. Prevention of heart failure by antihypertensive drug treatment in older persons with isolated systolic hypertension. SHEP Cooperative Research Group. JAMA. 1997;278:212–6. RA. [PubMed: 9218667]
24.
SHEP Cooperative Research Group. Prevention of stroke by antihypertensive drug treatment in older persons with isolated systolic hypertension. Final results of the Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly Program (SHEP). JAMA. 1991;265:3255–64. RA. [PubMed: 2046107]
25.
Staessen JA, Thijs L, Fagard R, O'Brien ET, Clement D, de Leeuw PW. et al. Predicting cardiovascular risk using conventional vs ambulatory blood pressure in older patients with systolic hypertension. Systolic Hypertension in Europe Trial Investigators. JAMA. 1999;282:539–46. RA. [PubMed: 10450715]
26.
Hyman DJ, Pavlik VN. Characteristics of patients with uncontrolled hypertension in the United States. N Engl J Med. 2001;345:479–86. X. [PubMed: 11519501]
27.
Lloyd-Jones DM, Evans JC, Larson MG, O'Donnell CJ, Roccella EJ, Levy D. Differential control of systolic and diastolic blood pressure: Factors associated with lack of blood pressure control in the community. Hypertension. 2000;36:594–9. F. [PubMed: 11040241]
28.
Cushman WC, Ford CE, Cutler JA, Margolis KL, Davis BR, Grimm RH. et al. Success and predictors of blood pressure control in diverse North American settings: The Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT). J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2002;4:393–404. RA. [PubMed: 12461301]
29.
Black HR, Elliott WJ, Neaton JD, Grandits G, Grambsch P, Grimm R. et al. Baseline characteristics and early blood pressure control in the CONVINCE trial. Hypertension. 2001;37:12–8. RA. [PubMed: 11208750]
30.
Hyman DJ, Pavlik VN, Vallbona C. Physician role in lack of awareness and control of hypertension. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2000;2:324–30. X. [PubMed: 11416669]
31.
Berlowitz DR, Ash AS, Hickey EC, Friedman RH, Glickman M, Kader B. et al. Inadequate management of blood pressure in a hypertensive population. N Engl J Med. 1998;339:1957–63. [PubMed: 9869666]
32.
Stamler J, Stamler R, Neaton JD, Wentworth D, Daviglus ML, Garside D. et al. Low risk-factor profile and long-term cardiovascular and noncardiovascular mortality and life expectancy: Findings for 5 large cohorts of young adult and middle-aged men and women. JAMA. 1999;282:2012–8. F. [PubMed: 10591383]
33.
Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Ogden CL, Johnson CL. Prevalence and trends in obesity among US adults, 1999–2000. JAMA. 2002;288:1723–7. X. [PubMed: 12365955]
34.
Cleveland LE, Goldman JD, Borrud LG. Data Tables: Results from USDA's 1994 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals and 1994 Diet and Health Knowledge Survey. Riverdale, MD: Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. 1996. http://www​.barc.usda​.gov/bhnrc/foodsurvey/pdf/Tbs1994.pdf.
35.
James WP, Ralph A, Sanchez-Castillo CP. The dominance of salt in manufactured food in the sodium intake of affluent societies. Lancet. 1987;1:426–9. [PubMed: 2880223]
36.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Physical activity and health: A report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. 1996. http://www​.cdc.gov/nccdphp/sgr/contents​.htm.PR.
37.
Division of Adult and Community Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 5 a day surveillance. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Online Prevalence Data, 1995–2000. Available at: http://apps​.nccd.cdc​.gov/5ADaySurveillance/. Accessed November, 2003.
38.
Stamler R. Implications of the INTERSALT study. Hypertension. 1991;17:I16–20. [PubMed: 1986996]
39.
American Public Health Association. 2002–4 Reducing sodium content in the American diet. Association News. 2002:5–6.
40.
National High Blood Pressure Education Program. Summary Report: The National High Blood Pressure Education Program Coordinating Committee Meeting, December 17–18, 2002, National Press Club and Grand Hyatt Hotel, Washington, DC. Bethesda, MD: National High Blood Pressure Education Program, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. 2002. pp. 1–37. http://www​.nhlbi.nih​.gov/about/nhbpep/nhbp_abs.htm.
41.
Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Healthy People 2010. Available at: http://www​.healthypeople.gov/. Accessed November, 2003.
42.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Facts about the DASH eating plan. Available at: http://www​.nhlbi.nih​.gov/health/public/heart/hbp/dash/index​.htm. Accessed November, 2003.
43.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Your guide to lowering high blood pressure. Available at: http://www​.nhlbi.nih.gov/hbp/index.html. Accessed November, 2003.
44.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National High Blood Pressure Education Program. National High Blood Pressure Education Month. Available at: http://hin​.nhlbi.nih.gov/nhbpep_kit/. Accessed November, 2003.
45.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. The heart truth: A national awareness campaign for women about heart disease. Available at: http://www​.nhlbi.nih​.gov/health/hearttruth/index.htm. Accessed November, 2003.
46.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Office of Prevention, Education, and Control. Mobilizing African American communities to address disparities in cardiovascular health: The Baltimore City Health Partnership Strategy Development Workshop. Summary report. Available at: http://www​.nhlbi.nih​.gov/health/prof/heart/other/balt_rpt​.htm. Accessed November, 2003.
47.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. NHLBI Healthy People 2010 Gateway. Available at: http://hin​.nhlbi.nih.gov/. Accessed November, 2003.
48.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Cardiovascular disease enhanced dissemination and utilization centers (EDUCs) awardees. Available at: http://hin​.nhlbi.nih​.gov/educs/awardees.htm. Accessed November, 2003.
49.
National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Hearts N' Parks. Available at: http://www​.nhlbi.nih​.gov/health/prof/heart​/obesity/hrt_n_pk/index.htm. Accessed November, 2003.
50.
National Institutes of Health. Healthbeat radio network. Available at: http://radiospace​.com/healthbeat.htm. Accessed November, 2003.
51.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Salud para su corazón (For the health of your heart). Available at: http://www​.nhlbi.nih​.gov/health/prof/heart/latino/salud.htm. Accessed November, 2003.
52.
National Institutes of Health. Mad as a hatter? Join our campaign for a mercury free NIH. Available at: http://www​.nih.gov/od/ors/ds/nomercury. Accessed November, 2003.
53.
Jones DW, Appel LJ, Sheps SG, Roccella EJ, Lenfant C. Measuring blood pressure accurately: New and persistent challenges. JAMA. 2003;289:1027–30. PR. [PubMed: 12597757]
54.
Working Meeting on Blood Pressure Measurement: Summary Report. Available at: http://www​.nhlbi.nih​.gov/health/prof/heart/hbp/bpmeasu.pdf. Accessed November, 2003.
55.
Canzanello VJ, Jensen PL, Schwartz GL. Are aneroid sphygmomanometers accurate in hospital and clinic settings? Arch Intern Med. 2001;161:729–31. PR. [PubMed: 11231706]
56.
Perloff D, Grim C, Flack J, Frohlich ED, Hill M, McDonald M. et al. Human blood pressure determination by sphygmomanometry. Circulation. 1993;88:2460–70. PR. [PubMed: 8222141]
57.
Gerin W, Schwartz AR, Schwartz JE, Pickering TG, Davidson KW, Bress J. et al. Limitations of current validation protocols for home blood pressure monitors for individual patients. Blood Press Monit. 2002;7:313–8. [PubMed: 12488651]
58.
World Hypertension League. Measuring your blood pressure. Available at: http://www​.mco.edu/org/whl/bloodpre.html. Accessed November, 2003.
59.
Pickering T. Recommendations for the use of home (self) and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. American Society of Hypertension Ad Hoc Panel. Am J Hypertens. 1996;9:1–11. PR. [PubMed: 8834700]
60.
Kario K, Pickering TG, Umeda Y, Hoshide S, Hoshide Y, Morinari M. et al. Morning surge in blood pressure as a predictor of silent and clinical cerebrovascular disease in elderly hypertensives: A prospective study. Circulation. 2003;107:1401–6. F. [PubMed: 12642361]
61.
Pickering TG, Coats A, Mallion JM, Mancia G, Verdecchia P. Blood pressure monitoring. Task force V: White-coat hypertension. Blood Press Monit. 1999;4:333–41. PR. [PubMed: 10602537]
62.
Verdecchia P. Prognostic value of ambulatory blood pressure: Current evidence and clinical implications. Hypertension. 2000;35:844–51. PR. [PubMed: 10720605]
63.
Clement DL, De Buyzere ML, De Bacquer DA, de Leeuw PW, Duprez DA, Fagard RH. et al. Prognostic value of ambulatory blood-pressure recordings in patients with treated hypertension. N Engl J Med. 2003;348:2407–15. F. [PubMed: 12802026]
64.
Gillman MW, Kannel WB, Belanger A, D'Agostino RB. Influence of heart rate on mortality among persons with hypertension: The Framingham Study. Am Heart J. 1993;125:1148–54. F. [PubMed: 8465742]
65.
Tsuji H, Venditti FJ Jr., Manders ES, Evans JC, Larson MG, Feldman CL. et al. Reduced heart rate variability and mortality risk in an elderly cohort. The Framingham Heart Study. Circulation. 1994;90:878–83. F. [PubMed: 8044959]
66.
GFR/1.73 M2 by MDRD (± SUN and SAlb) Calculator. Available at: http://www​.hdcn.com/calcf/gfr.htm. Accessed November, 2003.
67.
Mann JF, Gerstein HC, Pogue J, Bosch J, Yusuf S. Renal insufficiency as a predictor of cardiovascular outcomes and the impact of ramipril: The HOPE randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2001;134:629–36. RA. [PubMed: 11304102]
68.
Beddhu S, Allen-Brady K, Cheung AK, Horne BD, Bair T, Muhlestein JB. et al. Impact of renal failure on the risk of myocardial infarction and death. Kidney Int. 2002;62:1776–83. RE. [PubMed: 12371979]
69.
Levey AS, Bosch JP, Lewis JB, Greene T, Rogers N, Roth D. A more accurate method to estimate glomerular filtration rate from serum creatinine: A new prediction equation. Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study Group. Ann Intern Med. 1999;130:461–70. X. [PubMed: 10075613]
70.
Jensen JS, Feldt-Rasmussen B, Strandgaard S, Schroll M, Borch-Johnsen K. Arterial hypertension, microalbuminuria, and risk of ischemic heart disease. Hypertension. 2000;35:898–903. X. [PubMed: 10775558]
71.
Gerstein HC, Mann JF, Yi Q, Zinman B, Dinneen SF, Hoogwerf B. et al. Albuminuria and risk of cardiovascular events, death, and heart failure in diabetic and nondiabetic individuals. JAMA. 2001;286:421–6. F. [PubMed: 11466120]
72.
Garg JP, Bakris GL. Microalbuminuria: Marker of vascular dysfunction, risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Vasc Med. 2002;7:35–43. PR. [PubMed: 12083733]
73.
Ridker PM, Rifai N, Rose L, Buring JE, Cook NR. Comparison of C-reactive protein and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the prediction of first cardiovascular events. N Engl J Med. 2002;347:1557–65. F. [PubMed: 12432042]
74.
Ridker PM, Hennekens CH, Buring JE, Rifai N. C-reactive protein and other markers of inflammation in the prediction of cardiovascular disease in women. N Engl J Med. 2000;342:836–43. F. [PubMed: 10733371]
75.
Boden-Albala B, Sacco RL. Lifestyle factors and stroke risk: Exercise, alcohol, diet, obesity, smoking, drug use, and stress. Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2000;2:160–6. PR. [PubMed: 11122740]
76.
Parsons DS, Reaveley DA, Pavitt DV, Brown EA. Relationship of renal function to homocysteine and lipoprotein(a) levels: The frequency of the combination of both risk factors in chronic renal impairment. Am J Kidney Dis. 2002;40:916–23. C. [PubMed: 12407635]
77.
Manger WM, Gifford RW. Pheochromocytoma. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2002;4:62–72. [PubMed: 11821644]
78.
Textor SC. Revascularization in atherosclerotic renal artery disease. Kidney Int. 1998;53:799–811. [PubMed: 9507232]
79.
Pohl MA. Renovascular hypertension and ischemic nephropathy. In: Wilcox CS (editor): Atlas of Diseases of the Kidney. Philadelphia, PA: Developed by Current Medicine, Inc.; 1999.
80.
Biglieri EG. Primary aldosteronism. Curr Ther Endocrinol Metab. 1997;6:170–2. [PubMed: 9174730]
81.
National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group. 1995 update of the working group reports on chronic renal failure and renovascular hypertension. Arch Intern Med. 1996;156:1938–47. PR. [PubMed: 8823147]
82.
Lifton RP, Gharavi AG, Geller DS. Molecular mechanisms of human hypertension. Cell. 2001;104:545–56. PR. [PubMed: 11239411]
83.
Bray MS, Li L, Turner ST, Kardia SL, Boerwinkle E. Association and linkage analysis of the alpha-adducin gene and blood pressure. Am J Hypertens. 2000;13:699–703. F. [PubMed: 10912756]
84.
Beeks E, Janssen RG, Kroon AA, Keulen ET, Geurts JM, de Leeuw PW. et al. Association between the alpha-adducin Gly460Trp polymorphism and systolic blood pressure in familial combined hyperlipidemia. Am J Hypertens. 2001;14:1185–90. C. [PubMed: 11775124]
85.
Psaty BM, Smith NL, Heckbert SR, Vos HL, Lemaitre RN, Reiner AP. et al. Diuretic therapy, the alpha-adducin gene variant, and the risk of myocardial infarction or stroke in persons with treated hypertension. JAMA. 2002;287:1680–9. RE. [PubMed: 11926892]
86.
Cooper-DeHoff RM, Bristol HA, Pepine CJ. Ethnic Differences in systolic blood pressure control in hypertensive patients with coronary artery disease. American Journal of Hypertension. 2003;16:27A.
87.
Hansson L, Zanchetti A, Carruthers SG, Dahlof B, Elmfeldt D, Julius S. et al. Effects of intensive blood-pressure lowering and low-dose aspirin in patients with hypertension: Principal results of the Hypertension Optimal Treatment (HOT) randomised trial. HOT Study Group. Lancet. 1998;351:1755–62. RA. [PubMed: 9635947]
88.
American Diabetes Association. Treatment of hypertension in adults with diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2003;26:S80–2. PR. [PubMed: 12502624]
89.
National Kidney Foundation Guideline. K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines for chronic kidney disease: Evaluation, classification, and stratification. Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative. Am J Kidney Dis. 2002;39:S1–246. PR. [PubMed: 11904577]
90.
Neal B, MacMahon S, Chapman N. Effects of ACE inhibitors, calcium antagonists, and other blood-pressure-lowering drugs: Results of prospectively designed overviews of randomised trials. Blood Pressure Lowering Treatment Trialists' Collaboration. Lancet. 2000;356:1955–64. M. [PubMed: 11130523]
91.
Ogden LG, He J, Lydick E, Whelton PK. Long-term absolute benefit of lowering blood pressure in hypertensive patients according to the JNC VI risk stratification. Hypertension. 2000;35:539–43. X. [PubMed: 10679494]
92.
The Trials of Hypertension Prevention Collaborative Research Group. Effects of weight loss and sodium reduction intervention on blood pressure and hypertension incidence in overweight people with high-normal blood pressure. The Trials of Hypertension Prevention, phase II. Arch Intern Med. 1997;157:657–67. RA. [PubMed: 9080920]
93.
He J, Whelton PK, Appel LJ, Charleston J, Klag MJ. Long-term effects of weight loss and dietary sodium reduction on incidence of hypertension. Hypertension. 2000;35:544–9. F. [PubMed: 10679495]
94.
Sacks FM, Svetkey LP, Vollmer WM, Appel LJ, Bray GA, Harsha D. et al. Effects on blood pressure of reduced dietary sodium and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet. DASH-Sodium Collaborative Research Group. N Engl J Med. 2001;344:3–10. RA. [PubMed: 11136953]
95.
Vollmer WM, Sacks FM, Ard J, Appel LJ, Bray GA, Simons-Morton DG. et al. Effects of diet and sodium intake on blood pressure: Subgroup analysis of the DASH-sodium trial. Ann Intern Med. 2001;135:1019–28. RA. [PubMed: 11747380]
96.
Chobanian AV, Hill M. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Workshop on Sodium and Blood Pressure: A critical review of current scientific evidence. Hypertension. 2000;35:858–63. PR. [PubMed: 10775551]
97.
Kelley GA, Kelley KS. Progressive resistance exercise and resting blood pressure: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Hypertension. 2000;35:838–43. M. [PubMed: 10720604]
98.
Whelton SP, Chin A, Xin X, He J. Effect of aerobic exercise on blood pressure: A meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials. Ann Intern Med. 2002;136:493–503. M. [PubMed: 11926784]
99.
Xin X, He J, Frontini MG, Ogden LG, Motsamai OI, Whelton PK. Effects of alcohol reduction on blood pressure: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Hypertension. 2001;38:1112–7. M. [PubMed: 11711507]
100.
Appel LJ, Champagne CM, Harsha DW, Cooper LS, Obarzanek E, Elmer PJ. et al. Effects of comprehensive lifestyle modification on blood pressure control: Main results of the PREMIER clinical trial. Writing Group of the PREMIER Collaborative Research Group. JAMA. 2003;289:2083–93. RA. [PubMed: 12709466]
101.
Black HR, Elliott WJ, Grandits G, Grambsch P, Lucente T, White WB. et al. Principal results of the Controlled Onset Verapamil Investigation of Cardiovascular End Points (CONVINCE) Trial. JAMA. 2003;289:2073–82. RA. [PubMed: 12709465]
102.
Dahlof B, Devereux RB, Kjeldsen SE, Julius S, Beevers G, Faire U. et al. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint Reduction in Hypertension Sudy (LIFE): A randomised trial against atenolol. Lancet. 2002;359:995–1003. RA. [PubMed: 11937178]
103.
Materson BJ, Reda DJ, Cushman WC, Massie BM, Freis ED, Kochar MS. et al. Single-drug therapy for hypertension in men. A comparison of six antihypertensive agents with placebo. The Department of Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group on Antihypertensive Agents. N Engl J Med. 1993;328:914–21. RA. [PubMed: 8446138]
104.
Cutler JA, MacMahon SW, Furberg CD. Controlled clinical trials of drug treatment for hypertension review. Hypertension. 1989;13:I36–44. PR. [PubMed: 2490827]
105.
Collins R, Peto R, Godwin J, MacMahon S. Blood pressure and coronary heart disease. Lancet. 1990;336:370–1. [PubMed: 1975346]
106.
Chalmers J, Zanchetti A. The 1996 report of a World Health Organization expert committee on hypertension control. J Hypertens. 1996;14:929–33. PR. [PubMed: 8884546]
107.
Psaty BM, Smith NL, Siscovick DS, Koepsell TD, Weiss NS, Heckbert SR. et al. Health outcomes associated with antihypertensive therapies used as first-line agents. A systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA. 1997;277:739–45. M. [PubMed: 9042847]
108.
Psaty BM, Lumley T, Furberg CD, Schellenbaum G, Pahor M, Alderman MH. et al. Health outcomes associated with various antihypertensive therapies used as first-line agents: A network meta-analysis. JAMA. 2003;289:2534–44. M. [PubMed: 12759325]
109.
The ALLHAT Officers and Coordinators for the ALLHAT Collaborative Research Group. Major outcomes in high-risk hypertensive patients randomized to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or calcium channel blocker vs diuretic: The Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT). JAMA. 2002;288:2981–97. RA. [PubMed: 12479763]
110.
Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation Study Investigators. Effects of an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor, ramipril, on cardiovascular events in high-risk patients. N Engl J Med. 2000;342:145–53. RA. [PubMed: 10639539]
111.
PROGRESS Collaborative Group. Randomised trial of a perindopril-based blood-pressure-lowering regimen among 6,105 individuals with previous stroke or transient ischaemic attack. Lancet. 2001;358:1033–41. RA. [PubMed: 11589932]
112.
Wing LM, Reid CM, Ryan P, Beilin LJ, Brown MA, Jennings GL. et al. A comparison of outcomes with angiotensin-converting—enzyme inhibitors and diuretics for hypertension in the elderly. N Engl J Med. 2003;348:583–92. RA. [PubMed: 12584366]
113.
Staessen JA, Fagard R, Thijs L, Celis H, Arabidze GG, Birkenhager WH. et al. Randomised double-blind comparison of placebo and active treatment for older patients with isolated systolic hypertension. The Systolic Hypertension in Europe (Syst-Eur) Trial Investigators. Lancet. 1997;350:757–64. RA. [PubMed: 9297994]
114.
The European Trial on Reduction of Cardiac Events with Perindopril in Stable Coronary Artery Disease Investigators. Efficacy of perindopril in reduction of cardiovascular events among patients with stable coronary artery disease: Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial (the EUROPA study). Lancet. 2003;362:782–8. RA. [PubMed: 13678872]
115.
Hansson L, Lindholm LH, Niskanen L, Lanke J, Hedner T, Niklason A. et al. Effect of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibition compared with conventional therapy on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hypertension: The Captopril Prevention Project (CAPPP) randomised trial. Lancet. 1999;353:611–6. RA. [PubMed: 10030325]
116.
Hansson L, Lindholm LH, Ekbom T, Dahlof B, Lanke J, Schersten B. et al. Randomised trial of old and new antihypertensive drugs in elderly patients: Cardiovascular mortality and morbidity the Swedish Trial in Old Patients with Hypertension-2 study. Lancet. 1999;354:1751–6. RA. [PubMed: 10577635]
117.
Hansson L, Hedner T, Lund-Johansen P, Kjeldsen SE, Lindholm LH, Syvertsen JO. et al. Randomised trial of effects of calcium antagonists compared with diuretics and beta-blockers on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hypertension: The Nordic Diltiazem (NORDIL) study. Lancet. 2000;356:359–65. RA. [PubMed: 10972367]
118.
Brown MJ, Palmer CR, Castaigne A, de Leeuw PW, Mancia G, Rosenthal T. et al. Morbidity and mortality in patients randomised to double-blind treatment with a long-acting calcium-channel blocker or diuretic in the International Nifedipine GITS study: Intervention as a Goal in Hypertension Treatment (INSIGHT). Lancet. 2000;356:366–72. RA. [PubMed: 10972368]
119.
Black HR. The evolution of low-dose diuretic therapy: the lessons from clinical trials. Am J Med. 1996;101:47S–52S. PR. [PubMed: 8876474]
120.
Materson BJ, Cushman WC, Goldstein G, Reda DJ, Freis ED, Ramirez EA. et al. Department of Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group on Antihypertensive Agents: Treatment of hypertension in the elderly. I. Blood pressure and clinical changes. Results of a Department of Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study. Hypertension. 1990;15:348–60. [PubMed: 2318517]
121.
Siscovick DS, Raghunathan TE, Psaty BM, Koepsell TD, Wicklund KG, Lin X. et al. Diuretic therapy for hypertension and the risk of primary cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med. 1994;330:1852–7. RE. [PubMed: 8196728]
122.
Flack JM, Cushman WC. Evidence for the efficacy of low-dose diuretic monotherapy. Am J Med. 1996;101:53S–60S. PR. [PubMed: 8876475]
123.
Grimm RH Jr, Grandits GA, Prineas RJ, McDonald RH, Lewis CE, Flack JM. et al. Long-term effects on sexual function of five antihypertensive drugs and nutritional hygienic treatment in hypertensive men and women. Treatment of Mild Hypertension Study (TOMHS). Hypertension. 1997;29:8–14. RA. [PubMed: 9039073]
124.
Moser M. Why are physicians not prescribing diuretics more frequently in the management of hypertension? JAMA. 1998;279:1813–6. [PubMed: 9628713]
125.
Lakshman MR, Reda DJ, Materson BJ, Cushman WC, Freis ED. Diuretics and beta-blockers do not have adverse effects at 1 year on plasma lipid and lipoprotein profiles in men with hypertension. Department of Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group on Antihypertensive Agents. Arch Intern Med. 1999;159:551–8. RA. [PubMed: 10090111]
126.
Franse LV, Pahor M, Di Bari M, Somes GW, Cushman WC, Applegate WB. Hypokalemia associated with diuretic use and cardiovascular events in the Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly Program. Hypertension. 2000;35:1025–30. RA. [PubMed: 10818057]
127.
Papademetriou V, Burris JF, Notargiacomo A, Fletcher RD, Freis ED. Thiazide therapy is not a cause of arrhythmia in patients with systemic hypertension. Arch Intern Med. 1988;148:1272–6. C. [PubMed: 2454086]
128.
Psaty BM, Manolio TA, Smith NL, Heckbert SR, Gottdiener JS, Burke GL. et al. Time trends in high blood pressure control and the use of antihypertensive medications in older adults: The Cardiovascular Health Study. Arch Intern Med. 2002;162:2325–32. X. [PubMed: 12418946]
129.
Sica DA. Rationale for fixed-dose combinations in the treatment of hypertension: The cycle repeats. Drugs. 2002;62:443–62. PR. [PubMed: 11827559]
130.
Law MR, Wald NJ, Morris JK, Jordan RE. Value of low dose combination treatment with blood pressure lowering drugs: Analysis of 354 randomised trials. BMJ. 2003;326:1427–34. M. [PMC free article: PMC162261] [PubMed: 12829555]
131.
Antithrombotic Trialists' Collaboration. Collaborative meta-analysis of randomised trials of antiplatelet therapy for prevention of death, myocardial infarction, and stroke in high risk patients. BMJ. 2002;324:71–86. RA. [PMC free article: PMC64503] [PubMed: 11786451]
132.
Hunt SA, Baker DW, Chin MH, Cinquegrani MP, Feldman AM, Francis GS. et al. ACC/AHA guidelines for the evaluation and management of chronic heart failure in the adult: Executive summary. A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Committee to Revise the 1995 Guidelines for the Evaluation and Management of Heart Failure): Developed in collaboration with the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation; endorsed by the Heart Failure Society of America. Circulation. 2001;104:2996–3007. PR. [PubMed: 11739319]
133.
Tepper D. Frontiers in congestive heart failure: Effect of Metoprolol CR/XL in chronic heart failure: Metoprolol CR/XL Randomised Intervention Trial in Congestive Heart Failure (MERIT-HF). MERIT-HF Study Group. Congest Heart Fail. 1999;5:184–5. RA. [PubMed: 12189311]
134.
Packer M, Coats AJ, Fowler MB, Katus HA, Krum H, Mohacsi P. et al. Effect of carvedilol on survival in severe chronic heart failure. N Engl J Med. 2001;344:1651–8. RA. [PubMed: 11386263]
135.
CIBIS Investigators and Committees. A randomized trial of beta-blockade in heart failure. The Cardiac Insufficiency Bisoprolol Study (CIBIS). Circulation. 1994;90:1765–73. RA. [PubMed: 7923660]
136.
The SOLVD Investigators. Effect of enalapril on survival in patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fractions and congestive heart failure. N Engl J Med. 1991;325:293–302. RA. [PubMed: 2057034]
137.
The Acute Infarction Ramipril Efficacy (AIRE) Study Investigators. Effect of ramipril on mortality and morbidity of survivors of acute myocardial infarction with clinical evidence of heart failure. Lancet. 1993;342:821–8. RA. [PubMed: 8104270]
138.
Kober L, Torp-Pedersen C, Carlsen JE, Bagger H, Eliasen P, Lyngborg K. et al. A clinical trial of the angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor trandolapril in patients with left ventricular dysfunction after myocardial infarction. Trandolapril Cardiac Evaluation (TRACE) Study Group. N Engl J Med. 1995;333:1670–6. RA. [PubMed: 7477219]
139.
Cohn JN, Tognoni G. A randomized trial of the angiotensin-receptor blocker valsartan in chronic heart failure. The Valsartan Heart Failure Trial Investigators. N Engl J Med. 2001;345:1667–75. RA. [PubMed: 11759645]
140.
Pitt B, Zannad F, Remme WJ, Cody R, Castaigne A, Perez A. et al. The effect of spironolactone on morbidity and mortality in patients with severe heart failure. Randomized Aldactone Evaluation Study Investigators. N Engl J Med. 1999;341:709–17. RA. [PubMed: 10471456]
141.
McMurray J, Ostergren J, Pfeffer M, Swedberg K, Granger C, Yusuf S. et al. Clinical features and contemporary management of patients with low and preserved ejection fraction heart failure: Baseline characteristics of patients in the Candesartan in Heart Failure-Assessment of Reduction in Mortality and Morbidity (CHARM) programme. Eur J Heart Fail. 2003;5:261–70. [PubMed: 12798823]
142.
Gibbons RJ, Abrams J, Chatterjee K, Daley J, Deedwania PC, Douglas JS. et al. ACC/AHA 2002 guideline update for the management of patients with chronic stable angina—summary article: A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on practice guidelines (Committee on the Management of Patients with Chronic Stable Angina). J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003;41:159–68. PR. [PubMed: 12570960]
143.
ß-Blocker Heart Attack Trial Research Group. A randomized trial of propranolol in patients with acute myocardial infarction. I. Mortality results. JAMA. 1982;247:1707–14. RA. [PubMed: 7038157]
144.
Pfeffer MA, Braunwald E, Moye LA, Basta L, Brown EJ Jr., Cuddy TE. et al. Effect of captopril on mortality and morbidity in patients with left ventricular dysfunction after myocardial infarction. Results of the Survival and Ventricular Enlargement Trial. The SAVE Investigators. N Engl J Med. 1992;327:669–77. RA. [PubMed: 1386652]
145.
The Capricorn Investigators. Effect of carvedilol on outcome after myocardial infarction in patients with left-ventricular dysfunction: The CAPRICORN randomised trial. Lancet. 2001;357:1385–90. RA. [PubMed: 11356434]
146.
Pitt B, Remme W, Zannad F, Neaton J, Martinez F, Roniker B. et al. Eplerenone, a selective aldosterone blocker, in patients with left ventricular dysfunction after myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med. 2003;348:1309–21. [PubMed: 12668699]
147.
Pepine C, Handberg E, Cooper-DeHoff R, Marks RG, Kowey P, Messerli F. et al. for the INVEST Investigators. A calcium antagonist vs a noncalcium antagonist hypertension treatment strategy for patients with coronary artery disease. The International Verapamil-Trandolapril Study (INVEST): A Randomized Controlled Trial. JAMA. 2003;290:2805–16. [PubMed: 14657064]
148.
UKPDS 39. Efficacy of atenolol and captopril in reducing risk of macrovascular and microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes: UKPDS 39. UK Prospective Diabetes Study Group. BMJ 1998;317:713–20. RA. [PMC free article: PMC28660] [PubMed: 9732338]
149.
Lewis EJ, Hunsicker LG, Bain RP, Rohde RD. The effect of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibition on diabetic nephropathy. The Collaborative Study Group. N Engl J Med. 1993;329:1456–62. RA. [PubMed: 8413456]
150.
Brenner BM, Cooper ME, de Zeeuw D, Keane WF, Mitch WE, Parving HH. et al. Effects of losartan on renal and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy. N Engl J Med. 2001;345:861–9. RA. [PubMed: 11565518]
151.
Lewis EJ, Hunsicker LG, Clarke WR, Berl T, Pohl MA, Lewis JB. et al. Renoprotective effect of the angiotensin-receptor antagonist irbesartan in patients with nephropathy due to type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2001;345:851–60. RA. [PubMed: 11565517]
152.
The GISEN Group (Gruppo Italiano di Studi Epidemiologici in Nefrologia). Randomised placebo-controlled trial of effect of ramipril on decline in glomerular filtration rate and risk of terminal renal failure in proteinuric, non-diabetic nephropathy. Lancet. 1997;349:1857–63. RA. [PubMed: 9217756]
153.
Wright JT Jr., Agodoa L, Contreras G, Greene T, Douglas JG, Lash J. et al. Successful blood pressure control in the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension. Arch Intern Med. 2002;162:1636–43. RA. [PubMed: 12123409]
154.
Rosendorff C. Treatment of hypertension patients with ischemic heart disease. In: Izzo JL, Jr., Black HR (editors): Hypertension Primer: The Essentials of High Blood Pressure: Basic Science, Population Science, and Clinical Management. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2003. pp. 456–9. PR.
155.
Somes GW, Pahor M, Shorr RI, Cushman WC, Applegate WB. The role of diastolic blood pressure when treating isolated systolic hypertension. Arch Intern Med. 1999;159:2004–9. RA. [PubMed: 10510985]
156.
Chrysant GS, Oparil S. Treatment of hypertension in the patient with cardiovascular disease. In: Antman EM (editor): Cardiovascular Therapeutics: A Companion to Braunwald's Heart Disease. Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders; 2001. pp. 768–95. PR.
157.
Senni M, Redfield MM. Heart failure with preserved systolic function. A different natural history? J Am Coll Cardiol. 2001;38:1277–82. PR. [PubMed: 11691495]
158.
Levy D, Kenchaiah S, Larson MG, Benjamin EJ, Kupka MJ, Ho KK. et al. Long-term trends in the incidence of and survival with heart failure. N Engl J Med. 2002;347:1397–402. F. [PubMed: 12409541]
159.
American Heart Association. Heart disease and stroke statistics—2003 update. Dallas, TX: American Heart Association. 2002.
160.
The Digitalis Investigation Group. The effect of digoxin on mortality and morbidity in patients with heart failure. N Engl J Med. 1997;336:525–33. RA. [PubMed: 9036306]
161.
Mokdad AH, Ford ES, Bowman BA, Nelson DE, Engelgau MM, Vinicor F. et al. Diabetes trends in the U.S.: 1990–1998. Diabetes Care. 2000;23:1278–83. X. [PubMed: 10977060]
162.
Prevalence of Diabetes and Impaired Fasting Glucose in Adults—United States, 1999–2000. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2003;52:833–7. [PubMed: 12966357]
163.
Collins AJ, Kasiske B, Herzog C, Chen S-C, Everson S, Constantini E. et al. Excerpts from the United States Renal Data System 2001 Annual Data Report: Atlas of End-Stage Renal Disease in the United States. Am J Kidney Dis. 2001;38:S7–247. [PubMed: 15640975]
164.
American Diabetes Association. Diabetic nephropathy. Diabetes Care. 2002;25:S85–9. PR.
165.
Bakris GL, Williams M, Dworkin L, Elliott WJ, Epstein M, Toto R. et al. Preserving renal function in adults with hypertension and diabetes: A consensus approach. National Kidney Foundation Hypertension and Diabetes Executive Committees Working Group. Am J Kidney Dis. 2000;36:646–61. PR. [PubMed: 10977801]
166.
Haffner SM, Lehto S, Ronnemaa T, Pyorala K, Laakso M. Mortality from coronary heart disease in subjects with type 2 diabetes and in nondiabetic subjects with and without prior myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med. 1998;339:229–34. F. [PubMed: 9673301]
167.
Assman G, Cullen P, Schulte H. The Munster Heart Study (PROCAM). Results of follow-up at 8 years. European Heart Journal. 1998;19:A2–11. F. [PubMed: 9519336]
168.
Fagan TC, Sowers J. Type 2 diabetes mellitus: Greater cardiovascular risks and greater benefits of therapy. Arch Intern Med. 1999;159:1033–4. [PubMed: 10335678]
169.
Davis TM, Millns H, Stratton IM, Holman RR, Turner RC. Risk factors for stroke in type 2 diabetes mellitus: United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) 29. Arch Intern Med. 1999;159:1097–103. RA. [PubMed: 10335687]
170.
Grundy SM, Benjamin IJ, Burke GL, Chait A, Eckel RH, Howard BV. et al. Diabetes and cardiovascular disease: A statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 1999;100:1134–46. PR. [PubMed: 10477542]
171.
Sowers JR, Haffner S. Treatment of cardiovascular and renal risk factors in the diabetic hypertensive. Hypertension. 2002;40:781–8. [PubMed: 12468556]
172.
Gress TW, Nieto FJ, Shahar E, Wofford MR, Brancati FL. Hypertension and antihypertensive therapy as risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. N Engl J Med. 2000;342:905–12. F. [PubMed: 10738048]
173.
Sowers JR, Bakris GL. Antihypertensive therapy and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med. 2000;342:969–70. [PubMed: 10738057]
174.
Adler AI, Stratton IM, Neil HA, Yudkin JS, Matthews DR, Cull CA. et al. Association of systolic blood pressure with macrovascular and microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 36): Prospective observational study. BMJ. 2000;321:412–9. RA. [PMC free article: PMC27455] [PubMed: 10938049]
175.
UKPDS 38. Tight blood pressure control and risk of macrovascular and microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes: UKPDS 38. UK Prospective Diabetes Study Group. BMJ. 1998;317:703–13. RA. [PMC free article: PMC28659] [PubMed: 9732337]
176.
Goldstein LB, Adams R, Becker K, Furberg CD, Gorelick PB, Hademenos G. et al. Primary prevention of ischemic stroke: A statement for health-care professionals from the Stroke Council of the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2001;103:163–82. PR. [PubMed: 11136703]
177.
Maki DD, Ma JZ, Louis TA, Kasiske BL. Long-term effects of antihypertensive agents on proteinuria and renal function. Arch Intern Med. 1995;155:1073–80. M. [PubMed: 7748051]
178.
Nelson RG, Bennett PH, Beck GJ, Tan M, Knowler WC, Mitch WE. et al. Development and progression of renal disease in Pima Indians with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Diabetic Renal Disease Study Group. N Engl J Med. 1996;335:1636–42. C. [PubMed: 8929360]
179.
Kohner EM, Aldington SJ, Stratton IM, Manley SE, Holman RR, Matthews DR. et al. United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study, 30: Diabetic retinopathy at diagnosis of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and associated risk factors. Arch Ophthalmol. 1998;116:297–303. RA. [PubMed: 9514482]
180.
Tuomilehto J, Rastenyte D, Birkenhager WH, Thijs L, Antikainen R, Bulpitt CJ. et al. Effects of calcium-channel blockade in older patients with diabetes and systolic hypertension. Systolic Hypertension in Europe Trial Investigators. N Engl J Med. 1999;340:677–84. RA. [PubMed: 10053176]
181.
Remuzzi G, Schieppati A, Ruggenenti P. Clinical practice. Nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2002;346:1145–51. [PubMed: 11948275]
182.
Parving HH, Andersen AR, Smidt UM, Hommel E, Mathiesen ER, Svendsen PA. Effect of antihypertensive treatment on kidney function in diabetic nephropathy. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1987;294:1443–7. F. [PMC free article: PMC1246607] [PubMed: 3111583]
183.
Mogensen CE, Keane WF, Bennett PH, Jerums G, Parving HH, Passa P. et al. Prevention of diabetic renal disease with special reference to microalbuminuria. Lancet. 1995;346:1080–4. PR. [PubMed: 7564792]
184.
Sowers JR, Reed J. 1999 Clinical Advisory Treatment of Hypertension and Diabetes. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2000;2:132–3. PR. [PubMed: 11416636]
185.
Weinberger MH. Blood pressure and metabolic responses to hydrochlorothiazide, captopril, and the combination in black and white mild-to-moderate hypertensive patients. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1985;7:S52–5. RA. [PubMed: 2580177]
186.
Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation Study Investigators. Effects of ramipril on cardiovascular and microvascular outcomes in people with diabetes mellitus: Results of the HOPE Study and MICRO-HOPE Substudy. Lancet. 2000;355:253–9. RA. [PubMed: 10675071]
187.
Lindholm LH, Ibsen H, Dahlof B, Devereux RB, Beevers G, de Faire U. et al. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes in the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint Reduction in Hypertension Study (LIFE): A randomised trial against atenolol. Lancet. 2002;359:1004–10. RA. [PubMed: 11937179]
188.
Estacio RO, Jeffers BW, Hiatt WR, Biggerstaff SL, Gifford N, Schrier RW. The effect of nisoldipine as compared with enalapril on cardiovascular outcomes in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes and hypertension. N Engl J Med. 1998;338:645–52. RA. [PubMed: 9486993]
189.
Schrier RW, Estacio RO, Esler A, Mehler P. Effects of aggressive blood pressure control in normotensive type 2 diabetic patients on albuminuria, retinopathy and strokes. Kidney Int. 2002;61:1086–97. RA. [PubMed: 11849464]
190.
Manjunath G, Tighiouart H, Ibrahim H, MacLeod B, Salem DN, Griffith JL. et al. Level of kidney function as a risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular outcomes in the community. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003;41:47–55. F. [PubMed: 12570944]
191.
Hillege HL, Fidler V, Diercks GF, van Gilst WH, de Zeeuw D, van Veldhuisen DJ. et al. Urinary albumin excretion predicts cardiovascular and noncardiovascular mortality in general population. Circulation. 2002;106:1777–82. F. [PubMed: 12356629]
192.
Franklin SS, Jacobs MJ, Wong ND, L'Italien GJ, Lapuerta P. Predominance of isolated systolic hypertension among middle-aged and elderly US hypertensives: Analysis based on National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III. Hypertension. 2001;37:869–74. X. [PubMed: 11244010]
193.
Coresh J, Wei GL, McQuillan G, Brancati FL, Levey AS, Jones C. et al. Prevalence of high blood pressure and elevated serum creatinine level in the United States: Findings from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988–1994). Arch Intern Med. 2001;161:1207–16. X. [PubMed: 11343443]
194.
Jafar TH, Schmid CH, Landa M, Giatras I, Toto R, Remuzzi G. et al. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and progression of nondiabetic renal disease. A meta-analysis of patient-level data. Ann Intern Med. 2001;135:73–87. M. [PubMed: 11453706]
195.
Jafar TH, Stark PC, Schmid CH, Landa M, Maschio G, de Jong PE. et al. Progression of chronic kidney disease: The role of blood pressure control, proteinuria, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition: a patient-level meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med. 2003;139:244–52. M. [PubMed: 12965979]
196.
Wright JT Jr., Bakris G, Greene T, Agodoa LY, Appel LJ, Charleston J. et al. Effect of blood pressure lowering and antihypertensive drug class on progression of hypertensive kidney disease: Results from the AASK trial. JAMA. 2002;288:2421–31. RA. [PubMed: 12435255]
197.
Tzourio C, Anderson C, Chapman N, Woodward M, Neal B, MacMahon S. et al. Effects of blood pressure lowering with perindopril and indapamide therapy on dementia and cognitive decline in patients with cerebrovascular disease. Arch Intern Med. 2003;163:1069–75. RA. [PubMed: 12742805]
198.
Adams HP Jr., Adams RJ, Brott T, del Zoppo GJ, Furlan A, Goldstein LB. et al. Guidelines for the early management of patients with ischemic stroke: A scientific statement from the Stroke Council of the American Stroke Association. Stroke. 2003;34:1056–83. PR. [PubMed: 12677087]
199.
The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke rt-PA Stroke Study Group. Tissue plasminogen activator for acute ischemic stroke. N Engl J Med. 1995;333:1581–7. RA. [PubMed: 7477192]
200.
Cooper R, Rotimi C. Hypertension in Blacks. Am J Hypertens. 1997;10:804–12. PR. [PubMed: 9234837]
201.
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Strong Heart Study Data Book: A Report to American Indians Communities. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. NIH Publication No. 01–3285, 2001. pp. 19. http://www​.nhlbi.nih​.gov/resources/docs/shs_db.pdf.
202.
Crespo CJ, Loria CM, Burt VL. Hypertension and other cardiovascular disease risk factors among Mexican Americans, Cuban Americans, and Puerto Ricans from the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Public Health Rep. 1996;111:7–10. [PMC free article: PMC1381652] [PubMed: 8898761]
203.
Douglas JG, Bakris GL, Epstein M, Ferdinand KC, Ferrario C, Flack JM. et al. Management of high blood pressure in African Americans: Consensus statement of the Hypertension in African Americans Working Group of the International Society on Hypertension in Blacks. Arch Intern Med. 2003;163:525–541. PR. [PubMed: 12622600]
204.
Hypertension Detection and Follow-up Program Cooperative Group. Persistence of reduction in blood pressure and mortality of participants in the Hypertension Detection and Follow-up Program. JAMA. 1988;259:2113–22. F. [PubMed: 3346988]
205.
United States Department of Health and Human Services. With understanding and improving health and objectives for improving health. Healthy People 2010. Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office; 2000. pp. 19–31.
206.
Jamerson K, DeQuattro V. The impact of ethnicity on response to antihypertensive therapy. Am J Med. 1996;101:22S–32S. PR. [PubMed: 8876472]
207.
Saunders E, Weir MR, Kong BW, Hollifield J, Gray J, Vertes V. et al. A comparison of the efficacy and safety of a beta-blocker, a calcium channel blocker, and a converting enzyme inhibitor in hypertensive blacks. Arch Intern Med. 1990;150:1707–1713. RA. [PubMed: 2200382]
208.
Cushman WC, Reda DJ, Perry HM, Williams D, Abdellatif M, Materson BJ. Regional and racial differences in response to antihypertensive medication use in a randomized controlled trial of men with hypertension in the United States. Department of Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group on Antihypertensive Agents. Arch Intern Med. 2000;160:825–31. RA. [PubMed: 10737282]
209.
Brown NJ, Ray WA, Snowden M, Griffin MR. Black Americans have an increased rate of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor-associated angioedema. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1996;60:8–13. RE. [PubMed: 8689816]
210.
Lawrence J, Stockbridge N, Hung HMJ, Chi G. Joint statistical-clinical review: NDA resubmssion dated 14 December 2001, including the results of the OCTAVE study. FDA, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Division of Cardio-Renal Drug Products. NDA: 21-188 (omapatrilat for hypertension), June 2002. pp. 1–31. http://www​.fda.gov/ohrms​/dockets/ac/02/briefing​/3877B2_03_FDA-Medial-Statistical.doc.
211.
Elliott WJ. Higher incidence of discontinuation of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors due to cough in Black subjects. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1996;60:582–8. X. [PubMed: 8941032]
212.
Gottlieb SS, McCarter RJ, Vogel RA. Effect of beta-blockade on mortality among high-risk and low-risk patients after myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med. 1998;339:489–97. RE. [PubMed: 9709041]
213.
Reaven GM. Pathophysiology of insulin resistance in human disease. Physiol Rev. 1995;75:473–86. PR. [PubMed: 7624391]
214.
Esposito K, Pontillo A, Di Palo C, Giugliano G, Masella M, Marfella R. et al. Effect of weight loss and lifestyle changes on vascular inflammatory markers in obese women: A randomized trial. JAMA. 2003;289:1799–804. RA. [PubMed: 12684358]
215.
Bastard JP, Pieroni L, Hainque B. Relationship between plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 and insulin resistance. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2000;16:192–201. PR. [PubMed: 10867719]
216.
Kunsch C, Medford RM. Oxidative stress as a regulator of gene expression in the vasculature. Circ Res. 1999;85:753–66. PR. [PubMed: 10521248]
217.
Facchini FS, Hua NW, Reaven GM, Stoohs RA. Hyperinsulinemia: The missing link among oxidative stress and age-related diseases? Free Radic Biol Med. 2000;29:1302–6. [PubMed: 11118820]
218.
Rowley K, O'Dea K, Best JD. Association of albuminuria and the metabolic syndrome. Curr Diab Rep. 2003;3:80–6. PR. [PubMed: 12643150]
219.
Egan BM. Insulin resistance and the sympathetic nervous system. Curr Hypertens Rep. 2003;5:247–54. PR. [PubMed: 12724058]
220.
Licata G, Scaglione R, Corrao S, Ganguzza A, Mazzola G, Arnone S. et al. Heredity and obesity-associated hypertension: Impact of hormonal characteristics and left ventricular mass. J Hypertens. 1995;13:611–8. C. [PubMed: 7594417]
221.
Ford ES, Giles WH, Dietz WH. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among US adults: Findings from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. JAMA. 2002;287:356–9. X. [PubMed: 11790215]
222.
Park YW, Zhu S, Palaniappan L, Heshka S, Carnethon MR, Heymsfield SB. The metabolic syndrome: Prevalence and associated risk factor findings in the US population from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994. Arch Intern Med. 2003;163:427–36. X. [PMC free article: PMC3146257] [PubMed: 12588201]
223.
Lakka HM, Laaksonen DE, Lakka TA, Niskanen LK, Kumpusalo E, Tuomilehto J. et al. The metabolic syndrome and total and cardiovascular disease mortality in middle-aged men. JAMA. 2002;288:2709–16. F. [PubMed: 12460094]
224.
Hsia J, Bittner V, Tripputi M, Howard BV. Metabolic syndrome and coronary angiographic disease progression: The Women's Angiographic Vitamin & Estrogen trial. Am Heart J. 2003;146:439–45. [PubMed: 12947360]
225.
Laaksonen DE, Lakka HM, Niskanen LK, Kaplan GA, Salonen JT, Lakka TA. Metabolic syndrome and development of diabetes mellitus: Application and validation of recently suggested definitions of the metabolic syndrome in a prospective cohort study. Am J Epidemiol. 2002;156:1070–7. F. [PubMed: 12446265]
226.
Wilson PWF, D'Agostino RB, Parise H, Meigs JB. The metabolic syndrome as a precursor of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes. 2002;51:A242. F.
227.
U S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Clinical guidelines on the identification, evaluation, and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults—the evidence report. Obes Res. 1998;6(Suppl 2):51S–209S. PR. [PubMed: 9813653]
228.
Laaksonen DE, Lakka HM, Salonen JT, Niskanen LK, Rauramaa R, Lakka TA. Low levels of leisure-time physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness predict development of the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes Care. 2002;25:1612–8. [PubMed: 12196436]
229.
Knowler WC, Barrett-Connor E, Fowler SE, Hamman RF, Lachin JM, Walker EA. et al. Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin. Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. N Engl J Med. 2002;346:393–403. RA. [PMC free article: PMC1370926] [PubMed: 11832527]
230.
American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care for patients with diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 2002;25:S33–49. PR.
231.
Field AE, Coakley EH, Must A, Spadano JL, Laird N, Dietz WH. et al. Impact of overweight on the risk of developing common chronic diseases during a 10-year period. Arch Intern Med. 2001;161:1581–6. F. [PubMed: 11434789]
232.
Gidding SS, Falkner B. Are we losing the game? Cardiovascular health in minority children. Ethn Dis. 2002;12:171–3. [PubMed: 12019923]
233.
Strauss RS, Pollack HA. Epidemic increase in childhood overweight, 1986–1998. JAMA. 2001;286:2845–8. X. [PubMed: 11735760]
234.
He J, Ogden LG, Vupputuri S, Bazzano LA, Loria C, Whelton PK. Dietary sodium intake and subsequent risk of cardiovascular disease in overweight adults. JAMA. 1999;282:2027–34. F. [PubMed: 10591385]
235.
Wilson PW, Kannel WB, Silbershatz H, D'Agostino RB. Clustering of metabolic factors and coronary heart disease. Arch Intern Med. 1999;159:1104–9. F. [PubMed: 10335688]
236.
Lee IM, Rexrode KM, Cook NR, Manson JE, Buring JE. Physical activity and coronary heart disease in women: Is "no pain, no gain" passe? JAMA. 2001;285:1447–54. F. [PubMed: 11255420]
237.
Gregg EW, Cauley JA, Stone K, Thompson TJ, Bauer DC, Cummings SR. et al. Relationship of changes in physical activity and mortality among older women. JAMA. 2003;289:2379–86. F. [PubMed: 12746361]
238.
Stevens J, Cai J, Evenson KR, Thomas R. Fitness and fatness as predictors of mortality from all causes and from cardiovascular disease in men and women in the lipid research clinics study. Am J Epidemiol. 2002;156:832–41. F. [PubMed: 12397001]
239.
Simons-Morton DG, Hogan P, Dunn AL, Pruitt L, King AC, Levine BD. et al. Characteristics of inactive primary care patients: Baseline data from the activity counseling trial. For the Activity Counseling Trial Research Group. Prev Med. 2000;31:513–21. [PubMed: 11071831]
240.
Devereux R. Management of hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction. In: Izzo J, Jr., Black H (editors): Hypertension Primer: The Essentials of High Blood Pressure: Basic Science, Population Science, and Clinical Management. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2003. pp. 460–3.
241.
Levy D, Garrison RJ, Savage DD, Kannel WB, Castelli WP. Prognostic implications of echocardiographically determined left ventricular mass in the Framingham Heart Study. N Engl J Med. 1990;322:1561–6. F. [PubMed: 2139921]
242.
Okin PM, Wright JT, Nieminen MS, Jern S, Taylor AL, Phillips R. et al. Ethnic differences in electrocardiographic criteria for left ventricular hypertrophy: The LIFE study. For the LIFE Study Investigators. Am J Hypertens. 2002;15:663–71. [PubMed: 12160187]
243.
Koren MJ, Mensah GA, Blake J, Laragh JH, Devereux RB. Comparison of left ventricular mass and geometry in Black and White patients with essential hypertension. Am J Hypertens. 1993;6:815–23. [PubMed: 8267936]
244.
Schmieder RE, Schlaich MP, Klingbeil AU, Martus P. Update on reversal of left ventricular hypertrophy in essential hypertension (a meta-analysis of all randomized double-blind studies until December 1996). Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1998;13:564–9. M. [PubMed: 9550628]
245.
Liebson PR, Grandits GA, Dianzumba S, Prineas RJ, Grimm RH Jr., Neaton JD. et al. Comparison of five antihypertensive monotherapies and placebo for change in left ventricular mass in patients receiving nutritional-hygienic therapy in the Treatment of Mild Hypertension Study (TOMHS). Circulation. 1995;91:698–706. RA. [PubMed: 7828296]
246.
Gottdiener JS, Reda DJ, Massie BM, Materson BJ, Williams DW, Anderson RJ. Effect of single-drug therapy on reduction of left ventricular mass in mild to moderate hypertension: Comparison of six antihypertensive agents. The Department of Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group on Antihypertensive Agents. Circulation. 1997;95:2007–14. RA. [PubMed: 9133508]
247.
Coffman JD. Drug therapy: Vasodilator drugs in peripheral vascular disease. N Engl J Med. 1979;300:713–7. PR. [PubMed: 368637]
248.
Roberts DH, Tsao Y, McLoughlin GA, Breckenridge A. Placebo-controlled comparison of captopril, atenolol, labetalol, and pindolol in hypertension complicated by intermittent claudication. Lancet. 1987;2:650–3. RA. [PubMed: 2887941]
249.
Solomon SA, Ramsay LE, Yeo WW, Parnell L, Morris-Jones W. Beta blockade and intermittent claudication: Placebo controlled trial of atenolol and nifedipine and their combination. BMJ. 1991;303:1100–4. RA. [PMC free article: PMC1671261] [PubMed: 1747577]
250.
Radack K, Deck C. Beta-adrenergic blocker therapy does not worsen intermittent claudication in subjects with peripheral arterial disease. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arch Intern Med. 1991;151:1769–76. M. [PubMed: 1679624]
251.
Haynes WG, Lopez JAG, Mark AL. Treatment of hypertension combined with cardiovascular disease. In: Smith TW (editor): Cardiovascular Therapeutics: A Companion to Braunwald's Heart Disease. Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders; 1996. pp. 503–4. PR.
252.
Heart Protection Study Collaborative Group. MRC/BHF Heart Protection Study of cholesterol lowering with simvastatin in 20,536 high-risk individuals: A randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2002;360:7–22. [PubMed: 12114036]
253.
Olin JW. Treatment of hypertensive patients with peripheral arterial disease. In: Izzo JL Jr, Black HR (editors): Hypertension Primer: The Essentials of High Blood Pressure: Basic Science, Population Science, and Clinical Management. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2003. pp. 467–9.
254.
Hiatt WR, Regensteiner JG, Hargarten ME, Wolfel EE, Brass EP. Benefit of exercise conditioning for patients with peripheral arterial disease. Circulation. 1990;81:602–9. [PubMed: 2404633]
255.
U.S. Census Bureau. Persons 65 Years Old and Over—Characteristics by Sex: 1980 to 2000. Statistical Abstracts of the United States: 2002. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau; 2001. pp. 43.
256.
Izzo JL Jr, Levy D, Black HR. Clinical Advisory Statement. Importance of systolic blood pressure in older Americans. Hypertension. 2000;35:1021–4. PR. [PubMed: 10818056]
257.
Burt VL, Cutler JA, Higgins M, Horan MJ, Labarthe D, Whelton P. et al. Trends in the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in the adult US population. Data from the health examination surveys, 1960 to 1991. Erratum in: Hypertension 1996 May;27(5):1192. Hypertension. 1995;26:60–9. X. [PubMed: 7607734]
258.
Staessen JA, Gasowski J, Wang JG, Thijs L, Den Hond E, Boissel JP. et al. Risks of untreated and treated isolated systolic hypertension in the elderly: Meta-analysis of outcome trials. Lancet. 2000;355:865–72. M. [PubMed: 10752701]
259.
Gueyffier F, Bulpitt C, Boissel JP, Schron E, Ekbom T, Fagard R. et al. Antihypertensive drugs in very old people: A subgroup meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. INDANA Group. Lancet. 1999;353:793–6. M. [PubMed: 10459960]
260.
Jonsson PV, Lipsitz LA, Kelley M, Koestner J. Hypotensive responses to common daily activities in institutionalized elderly. A potential risk for recurrent falls. Arch Intern Med. 1990;150:1518–24. C. [PubMed: 2114834]
261.
Spence JD, Sibbald WJ, Cape RD. Pseudohypertension in the elderly. Clin Sci Mol Med Suppl. 1978;55:399s–402s. C. [PubMed: 282097]
262.
Nally J, Jr. Management of renovascular hypertension. In: Izzo J, Jr., Black H (editors): Hypertension Primer: The Essentials of High Blood Pressure: Basic Science, Population Science, and Clinical Management. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2003. pp. 500–2.
263.
Koch-Weser J. The therapeutic challenge of systolic hypertension. N Engl J Med. 1973;289:481–3. [PubMed: 4763416]
264.
Appel LJ, Espeland MA, Easter L, Wilson AC, Folmar S, Lacy CR. Effects of reduced sodium intake on hypertension control in older individuals: Results from the Trial of Nonpharmacologic Interventions in the Elderly (TONE). Arch Intern Med. 2001;161:685–93. [PubMed: 11231700]
265.
Masaki KH, Schatz IJ, Burchfiel CM, Sharp DS, Chiu D, Foley D. et al. Orthostatic hypotension predicts mortality in elderly men: The Honolulu Heart Program. Circulation. 1998;98:2290–5. F. [PubMed: 9826316]
266.
Mukai S, Lipsitz LA. Orthostatic hypotension. Clin Geriatr Med. 2002;18:253–68. [PubMed: 12180246]
267.
Ooi WL, Hossain M, Lipsitz LA. The association between orthostatic hypotension and recurrent falls in nursing home residents. Am J Med. 2000;108:106–11. [PubMed: 11126303]
268.
Oster JR, Materson BJ. Pseudohypertension: A diagnostic dilemma. J Clin Hypertens. 1986;4:307–13. [PubMed: 3543228]
269.
Staessen JA, Wang J. Blood-pressure lowering for the secondary prevention of stroke. Lancet. 2001;358:1026–7. [PubMed: 11589927]
270.
Di Bari M, Pahor M, Franse LV, Shorr RI, Wan JY, Ferrucci L. et al. Dementia and disability outcomes in large hypertension trials: Lessons learned from the systolic hypertension in the elderly program (SHEP) trial. Am J Epidemiol. 2001;153:72–8. [PubMed: 11159149]
271.
Reed DM, Resch JA, Hayashi T, MacLean C, Yano K. A prospective study of cerebral artery atherosclerosis. Stroke. 1988;19:820–5. F. [PubMed: 3388454]
272.
Furuta A, Ishii N, Nishihara Y, Horie A. Medullary arteries in aging and dementia. Stroke. 1991;22:442–6. C. [PubMed: 2024272]
273.
Dozono K, Ishii N, Nishihara Y, Horie A. An autopsy study of the incidence of lacunes in relation to age, hypertension, and arteriosclerosis. Stroke. 1991;22:993–6. RE. [PubMed: 1866767]
274.
Leung SY, Ng TH, Yuen ST, Lauder IJ, Ho FC. Pattern of cerebral atherosclerosis in Hong Kong Chinese. Severity in intracranial and extracranial vessels. Stroke. 1993;24:779–86. PR. [PubMed: 8506547]
275.
Schmidt R, Fazekas F, Koch M, Kapeller P, Augustin M, Offenbacher H. et al. Magnetic resonance imaging cerebral abnormalities and neuropsychologic test performance in elderly hypertensive subjects. A case-control study. Arch Neurol. 1995;52:905–10. RE. [PubMed: 7661729]
276.
Longstreth WT Jr, Manolio TA, Arnold A, Burke GL, Bryan N, Jungreis CA. et al. Clinical correlates of white matter findings on cranial magnetic resonance imaging of 3301 elderly people. The Cardiovascular Health Study Collaborative Research Group. Stroke. 1996;27:1274–82. F. [PubMed: 8711786]
277.
Awada A, Omojola MF. Leukoaraiosis and stroke: A case-control study. Acta Neurol Scand. 1996;94:415–8. RE. [PubMed: 9017030]
278.
Swan GE, DeCarli C, Miller BL, Reed T, Wolf PA, Jack LM. et al. Association of midlife blood pressure to late-life cognitive decline and brain morphology. Neurology. 1998;51:986–93. F. [PubMed: 9781518]
279.
Koga H, Yuzuriha T, Yao H, Endo K, Hiejima S, Takashima Y. et al. Quantitative MRI findings and cognitive impairment among community dwelling elderly subjects. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2002;72:737–41. C. [PMC free article: PMC1737917] [PubMed: 12023416]
280.
Del Bigio MR, Yan HJ, Kozlowski P, Sutherland GR, Peeling J. Serial magnetic resonance imaging of rat brain after induction of renal hypertension. Stroke. 1999;30:2440–7. [PubMed: 10548682]
281.
Awad IA, Johnson PC, Spetzler RF, Hodak JA. Incidental subcortical lesions identified on magnetic resonance imaging in the elderly. II. Postmortem pathological correlations. Stroke. 1986;17:1090–7. [PubMed: 3810706]
282.
Marshall VG, Bradley WG Jr., Marshall CE, Bhoopat T, Rhodes RH. Deep white matter infarction: Correlation of MR imaging and histopathologic findings. Radiology. 1988;167:517–22. F. [PubMed: 3357964]
283.
Estes ML, Chimowitz MI, Awad IA, McMahon JT, Furlan AJ, Ratliff NB. Sclerosing vasculopathy of the central nervous system in nonelderly demented patients. Arch Neurol. 1991;48:631–6. RE. [PubMed: 2039386]
284.
Chimowitz MI, Estes ML, Furlan AJ, Awad IA. Further observations on the pathology of subcortical lesions identified on magnetic resonance imaging. Arch Neurol. 1992;49:747–52. RE. [PubMed: 1497503]
285.
Baloh RW, Vinters HV. White matter lesions and disequilibrium in older people. II. Clinicopathologic correlation. Arch Neurol. 1995;52:975–81. F. [PubMed: 7575225]
286.
Petersen RC, Doody R, Kurz A, Mohs RC, Morris JC, Rabins PV. et al. Current concepts in mild cognitive impairment. Arch Neurol. 2001;58:1985–92. PR. [PubMed: 11735772]
287.
Glynn RJ, Beckett LA, Hebert LE, Morris MC, Scherr PA, Evans DA. Current and remote blood pressure and cognitive decline. JAMA. 1999;281:438–45. F. [PubMed: 9952204]
288.
Sacktor N, Gray S, Kawas C, Herbst J, Costa P, Fleg J. Systolic blood pressure within an intermediate range may reduce memory loss in an elderly hypertensive cohort. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol. 1999;12:1–6. F. [PubMed: 10447147]
289.
Kivipelto M, Helkala EL, Hanninen T, Laakso MP, Hallikainen M, Alhainen K. et al. Midlife vascular risk factors and late–life mild cognitive impairment: A population-based study. Neurology. 2001;56:1683–9. RE. [PubMed: 11425934]
290.
Dufouil C, de Kersaint-Gilly A, Besancon V, Levy C, Auffray E, Brunnereau L. et al. Longitudinal study of blood pressure and white matter hyperintensities: The EVA MRI Cohort. Neurology. 2001;56:921–6. F. [PubMed: 11294930]
291.
Yamaguchi S, Kobayashi S, Okada K, Koide H, Bokura H, Tsuchiya H. et al. Cognitive decline associated with worsening of white matter lesions: A 6-year follow-up study. Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases. 1996;6:106–9. F.
292.
Schmidt R, Fazekas F, Kapeller P, Schmidt H, Hartung HP. MRI white matter hyperintensities: Three-year follow-up of the Austrian Stroke Prevention Study. Neurology. 1999;53:132–9. F. [PubMed: 10408549]
293.
Forette F, Seux ML, Staessen JA, Thijs L, Birkenhager WH, Babarskiene MR. et al. Prevention of dementia in randomised double-blind placebo-controlled Systolic Hypertension in Europe (Syst-Eur) trial. Lancet. 1998;352:1347–51. RA. [PubMed: 9802273]
294.
Rosenthal T, Oparil S. Hypertension in women. J Hum Hypertens. 2000;14:691–704. PR. [PubMed: 11095160]
295.
Wolz M, Cutler J, Roccella EJ, Rohde F, Thom T, Burt V. Statement from the National High Blood Pressure Education Program: Prevalence of hypertension. Am J Hypertens. 2000;13:103–4. X. [PubMed: 10678279]
296.
Staessen J, Bulpitt CJ, Fagard R, Lijnen P, Amery A. The influence of menopause on blood pressure. J Hum Hypertens. 1989;3:427–33. RA. [PubMed: 2607517]
297.
Staessen JA, Ginocchio G, Thijs L, Fagard R. Conventional and ambulatory blood pressure and menopause in a prospective population study. J Hum Hypertens. 1997;11:507–14. F. [PubMed: 9322832]
298.
Calhoun DA, Oparil S. Gender and blood pressure. In: Izzo JL, Jr., Black HR (editors): Hypertension Primer: The Essentials of High Blood Pressure: Basic Science, Population Science, and Clinical Management. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2003. pp. 253–7. PR.
299.
Manson JE, Hsia J, Johnson KC, Rossouw JE, Assaf AR, Lasser NL. et al. Estrogen plus progestin and the risk of coronary heart disease. N Engl J Med. 2003;349:523–34. RA. [PubMed: 12904517]
300.
Wassertheil-Smoller S, Anderson G, Psaty BM, Black HR, Manson J, Wong N. et al. Hypertension and its treatment in postmenopausal women: Baseline data from the Women's Health Initiative. Hypertension. 2000;36:780–9. [PubMed: 11082143]
301.
The Writing Group for the PEPI Trial. Effects of estrogen or estrogen/progestin regimens on heart disease risk factors in postmenopausal women. The Postmenopausal Estrogen/Progestin Interventions (PEPI) Trial. JAMA 1995;273:199–208. RA. [PubMed: 7807658]
302.
Chasan-Taber L, Willett WC, Manson JE, Spiegelman D, Hunter DJ, Curhan G. et al. Prospective study of oral contraceptives and hypertension among women in the United States. Circulation. 1996;94:483–9. F. [PubMed: 8759093]
303.
Gueyffier F, Boutitie F, Boissel JP, Pocock S, Coope J, Cutler J. et al. Effect of antihypertensive drug treatment on cardiovascular outcomes in women and men. A meta-analysis of individual patient data from randomized, controlled trials. The INDANA Investigators. Ann Intern Med. 1997;126:761–7. M. [PubMed: 9148648]
304.
Staessen JA, Fagard R, Thijs L, Celis H, Birkenhager WH, Bulpitt CJ. et al. Subgroup and per-protocol analysis of the randomized European Trial on Isolated Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly. Arch Intern Med. 1998;158:1681–91. RA. [PubMed: 9701103]
305.
Lewis CE, Grandits A, Flack J, McDonald R, Elmer PJ. Efficacy and tolerance of antihypertensive treatment in men and women with stage 1 diastolic hypertension. Results of the Treatment of Mild Hypertension Study. Arch Intern Med. 1996;156:377–85. RA. [PubMed: 8607723]
306.
Taler SJ. Treatment of pregnant hypertensive patients. In: Izzo JL, Jr., Black HR (editors): Hypertension Primer: The Essentials of High Blood Pressure: Basic Science, Population Science, and Clinical Management. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2003. pp. 491–3. PR.
307.
von Dadelszen P, Ornstein MP, Bull SB, Logan AG, Koren G, Magee LA. Fall in mean arterial pressure and fetal growth restriction in pregnancy hypertension: A meta-analysis. Lancet. 2000;355:87–92. M. [PubMed: 10675164]
308.
Buchbinder A, Sibai BM, Caritis S, Macpherson C, Hauth J, Lindheimer MD. et al. Adverse perinatal outcomes are significantly higher in severe gestational hypertension than in mild preeclampsia. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2002;186:66–71. RE. [PubMed: 11810087]
309.
ACOG Practice Bulletin. Chronic hypertension in pregnancy. ACOG Committee on Practice Bulletins. Obstet Gynecol. 2001;98:177–85. PR. [PubMed: 11508256]
310.
Sibai BM. Treatment of hypertension in pregnant women. N Engl J Med. 1996;335:257–65. PR. [PubMed: 8657243]
311.
National High Blood Pressure Education Program. Update on the 1987 Task Force Report on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents: A working group report from the National High Blood Pressure Education Program. National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on Hypertension Control in Children and Adolescents. Pediatrics. 1996;98:649–58. PR. [PubMed: 8885941]
312.
Calhoun DA. Hypertensive crisis. In: Oparil S, Weber MA (editors): Hypertension: A Companion to Brenner and Recot's The Kidney. Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders Co.; 2000. pp. 715–8. PR.
313.
Vidt DG. Management of hypertensive urgencies and emergencies. In: Izzo JL, Jr., Black HR (editors): Hypertension Primer: The Essentials of High Blood Pressure. Dallas, TX: American Heart Association; 1999. pp. 437–40. PR.
314.
Vidt DG. Emergency room management of hypertensive urgencies and emergencies. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2001;3:158–64. PR. [PubMed: 11416701]
315.
Zampaglione B, Pascale C, Marchisio M, Cavallo-Perin P. Hypertensive urgencies and emergencies. Prevalence and clinical presentation. Hypertension. 1996;27:144–7. X. [PubMed: 8591878]
316.
Bacon CG, Mittleman MA, Kawachi I, Giovannucci E, Glasser DB, Rimm EB. Sexual function in men older than 50 years of age: Results from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. Ann Intern Med. 2003;139:161–8. F. [PubMed: 12899583]
317.
Della Chiesa A, Pfiffner D, Meier B, Hess OM. Sexual activity in hypertensive men. J Hum Hypertens. 2003;17:515–21. RA. [PubMed: 12874608]
318.
Fogari R, Zoppi A, Poletti L, Marasi G, Mugellini A, Corradi L. Sexual activity in hypertensive men treated with valsartan or carvedilol: A crossover study. Am J Hypertens. 2001;14:27–31. RA. [PubMed: 11206674]
319.
Kloner RA, Brown M, Prisant LM, Collins M. Effect of sildenafil in patients with erectile dysfunction taking antihypertensive therapy. Sildenafil Study Group. Am J Hypertens. 2001;14:70–3. RA. [PubMed: 11206684]
320.
Kirby RS. Doxazosin in benign prostatic hyperplasia: Effects on blood pressure and urinary flow in normotensive and hypertensive men. Urology. 1995;46:182–6. RA. [PubMed: 7542819]
321.
Eagle KA, Berger PB, Calkins H, Chaitman BR, Ewy GA, Fleischmann KE. et al. ACC/AHA guideline update for perioperative cardiovascular evaluation for noncardiac surgery—executive summary. A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Committee to Update the 1996 Guidelines on Perioperative Cardiovascular Evaluation for Noncardiac Surgery). Circulation. 2002;105:1257–67. PR. [PubMed: 11889023]
322.
Mangano DT, Layug EL, Wallace A, Tateo I. Effect of atenolol on mortality and cardiovascular morbidity after noncardiac surgery. Multicenter Study of Perioperative Ischemia Research Group. N Engl J Med. 1996;335:1713–20. RA. [PubMed: 8929262]
323.
Vidt DG. Treatment of hypertensive emergencies and urgencies. In: Izzo JL Jr, Black HR, Goodfriend TL (editors): Hypertension Primer: The Essentials of High Blood Pressure: Basic Science, Population Science, and Clinical Management. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2003. pp. 452–9. PR.
324.
Alper A, Calhoun D. Hypertensive emergencies. In: Antman EM (editor): Cardiovascular Therapeutics: A Companion to Braunwald's Heart Disease. Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders Co.; 2002. pp. 817–31. PR.
325.
Bader JD, Bonito AJ, Shugars DA. A systematic review of cardiovascular effects of epinephrine on hypertensive dental patients. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2002;93:647–53. PR. [PubMed: 12142870]
326.
Young T, Palta M, Dempsey J, Skatrud J, Weber S, Badr S. The occurrence of sleep-disordered breathing among middle-aged adults. N Engl J Med. 1993;328:1230–5. X. [PubMed: 8464434]
327.
Peppard PE, Young T, Palta M, Skatrud J. Prospective study of the association between sleep-disordered breathing and hypertension. N Engl J Med. 2000;342:1378–84. F. [PubMed: 10805822]
328.
Nieto FJ, Young TB, Lind BK, Shahar E, Samet JM, Redline S. et al. Association of sleep-disordered breathing, sleep apnea, and hypertension in a large community-based study. Sleep Heart Health Study. JAMA. 2000;283:1829–36. X. [PubMed: 10770144]
329.
Young T, Peppard P, Palta M, Hla KM, Finn L, Morgan B. et al. Population-based study of sleep-disordered breathing as a risk factor for hypertension. Arch Intern Med. 1997;157:1746–52. F. [PubMed: 9250236]
330.
Bradley TD, Floras JS. Sleep apnea and heart failure: Part I: Obstructive sleep apnea. Circulation. 2003;107:1671–8. PR. [PubMed: 12668504]
331.
Dart RA, Gregoire JR, Gutterman DD, Woolf SH. The association of hypertension and secondary cardiovascular disease with sleep-disordered breathing. Chest. 2003;123:244–60. M. [PubMed: 12527627]
332.
Wolk R, Kara T, Somers VK. Sleep-disordered breathing and cardiovascular disease. Circulation. 2003;108:9–12. [PubMed: 12847053]
333.
Morgan BJ. Pathophysiology of sleep apnea. In: Izzo JL Jr, Black H (editors): Hypertension Primer: The Essentials of High Blood Pressure: Basic Science, Population Science, and Clinical Management. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2003. pp. 156–8. PR.
334.
Somers VK, Dyken ME, Clary MP, Abboud FM. Sympathetic neural mechanisms in obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Invest. 1995;96:1897–1904. [PMC free article: PMC185826] [PubMed: 7560081]
335.
Shamsuzzaman AS, Winnicki M, Lanfranchi P, Wolk R, Kara T, Accurso V. et al. Elevated C-reactive protein in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Circulation. 2002;105:2462–4. C. [PubMed: 12034649]
336.
Vgontzas AN, Papanicolaou DA, Bixler EO, Hopper K, Lotsikas A, Lin HM. et al. Sleep apnea and daytime sleepiness and fatigue: Relation to visceral obesity, insulin resistance, and hypercytokinemia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000;85:1151–8. C. [PubMed: 10720054]
337.
Punjabi NM, Sorkin JD, Katzel LI, Goldberg AP, Schwartz AR, Smith PL. Sleep-disordered breathing and insulin resistance in middle-aged and overweight men. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002;165:677–82. C. [PubMed: 11874813]
338.
Kato M, Roberts-Thomson P, Phillips BG, Haynes WG, Winnicki M, Accurso V. et al. Impairment of endothelium-dependent vasodilation of resistance vessels in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Circulation. 2000;102:2607–10. C. [PubMed: 11085964]
339.
Javaheri S, Parker TJ, Liming JD, Corbett WS, Nishiyama H, Wexler L. et al. Sleep apnea in 81 ambulatory male patients with stable heart failure. Types and their prevalences, consequences, and presentations. Circulation. 1998;97:2154–9. F. [PubMed: 9626176]
340.
Kaneko Y, Floras JS, Usui K, Plante J, Tkacova R, Kubo T. et al. Cardiovascular effects of continuous positive airway pressure in patients with heart failure and obstructive sleep apnea. N Engl J Med. 2003;348:1233–41. RA. [PubMed: 12660387]
341.
Leung RS, Bradley TD. Sleep apnea and cardiovascular disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001;164:2147–65. PR. [PubMed: 11751180]
342.
Shahar E, Whitney CW, Redline S, Lee ET, Newman AB, Nieto F. J., et al. Sleep-disordered breathing and cardiovascular disease: Cross-sectional results of the Sleep Heart Health Study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001;163:19–25. X. [PubMed: 11208620]
343.
Kanagala R, Murali NS, Friedman PA, Ammash NM, Gersh BJ, Ballman KV. et al. Obstructive sleep apnea and the recurrence of atrial fibrillation. Circulation. 2003;107:2589–94. F. [PubMed: 12743002]
344.
Dyken ME, Somers VK, Yamada T, Ren ZY, Zimmerman MB. Investigating the relationship between stroke and obstructive sleep apnea. Stroke. 1996;27:401–7. F. [PubMed: 8610303]
345.
Levinson PD, McGarvey ST, Carlisle CC, Eveloff SE, Herbert PN, Millman RP. Adiposity and cardiovascular risk factors in men with obstructive sleep apnea. Chest. 1993;103:1336–42. C. [PubMed: 8486007]
346.
Millman RP, Carlisle CC, McGarvey ST, Eveloff SE, Levinson PD. Body fat distribution and sleep apnea severity in women. Chest. 1995;107:362–6. C. [PubMed: 7842762]
347.
Newman AB, Nieto FJ, Guidry U, Lind BK, Redline S, Shahar E. et al. Relation of sleep-disordered breathing to cardiovascular disease risk factors: The Sleep Heart Health Study. Am J Epidemiol. 2001;154:50–9. X. [PubMed: 11434366]
348.
Peppard PE, Young T, Palta M, Dempsey J, Skatrud J. Longitudinal study of moderate weight change and sleep-disordered breathing. JAMA. 2000;284:3015–21. F. [PubMed: 11122588]
349.
Phillips BG, Kato M, Narkiewicz K, Choe I, Somers VK. Increases in leptin levels, sympathetic drive, and weight gain in obstructive sleep apnea. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2000;279:H234–7. C. [PubMed: 10899061]
350.
Chin K, Shimizu K, Nakamura T, Narai N, Masuzaki H, Ogawa Y. et al. Changes in intra-abdominal visceral fat and serum leptin levels in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome following nasal continuous positive airway pressure therapy. Circulation. 1999;100:706–12. C. [PubMed: 10449691]
351.
Kato M, Phillips BG, Sigurdsson G, Narkiewicz K, Pesek CA, Somers VK. Effects of sleep deprivation on neural circulatory control. Hypertension. 2000;35:1173–5. C. [PubMed: 10818083]
352.
Spiegel K, Leproult R, Van Cauter E. Impact of sleep debt on metabolic and endocrine function. Lancet. 1999;354:1435–9. C. [PubMed: 10543671]
353.
Faccenda JF, Mackay TW, Boon NA, Douglas NJ. Randomized placebo-controlled trial of continuous positive airway pressure on blood pressure in the sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001;163:344–8. RA. [PubMed: 11179104]
354.
Somers VK. Management of sleep apnea. In: Izzo JL Jr, Black HR (editors): Hypertension Primer: The Essentials of High Blood Pressure: Basic Science, Population Science, and Clinical Management. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2003. pp. 512–6. PR.
355.
Becker HF, Jerrentrup A, Ploch T, Grote L, Penzel T, Sullivan CE. et al. Effect of nasal continuous positive airway pressure treatment on blood pressure in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Circulation. 2003;107:68–73. RA. [PubMed: 12515745]
356.
Franklin KA, Nilsson JB, Sahlin C, Naslund U. Sleep apnoea and nocturnal angina. Lancet. 1995;345:1085–7. C. [PubMed: 7715342]
357.
Peled N, Abinader EG, Pillar G, Sharif D, Lavie P. Nocturnal ischemic events in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and ischemic heart disease: Effects of continuous positive air pressure treatment. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1999;34:1744–9. C. [PubMed: 10577565]
358.
Wang JJ, Mitchell P, Leung H, Rochtchina E, Wong TY, Klein R. Hypertensive retinal vessel wall signs in a general older population: The Blue Mountains Eye Study. Hypertension. 2003;42:534–41. [PubMed: 12939235]
359.
Wong TY, Klein R, Sharrett AR, Manolio TA, Hubbard LD, Marino EK. et al. The prevalence and risk factors of retinal microvascular abnormalities in older persons: The Cardiovascular Health Study. Ophthalmology. 2003;110:658–66. [PubMed: 12689883]
360.
American Academy of Ophthalmology. Basic and Clinical Science Course, Section 12, 19992000. San Francisco, CA: American Academy of Ophthalmology; 1999. pp. 68–70.
361.
Textor SC. Hypertension and transplantation. In: Izzo JL, Jr., Black HR (editors): Hypertension Primer: The Essentials of High Blood Pressure: Basic Science, Population Science, and Clinical Management. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2003. pp. 163–5. PR.
362.
Canzanello VJ. Management of posttransplant hypertension. In: Izzo JL, Jr., Black HR (editors): Hypertension Primer: The Essentials of High Blood Pressure: Basic Science, Population Science, and Clinical Management. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2003. pp. 519–22. PR.
363.
Textor SC. Renal failure related to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Semin Nephrol. 1997;17:67–76. PR. [PubMed: 9000551]
364.
Appel RG, Bleyer AJ, Reavis S, Hansen KJ. Renovascular disease in older patients beginning renal replacement therapy. Kidney Int. 1995;48:171–6. [PubMed: 7564074]
365.
Bonelli FS, McKusick MA, Textor SC, Kos PB, Stanson AW, Johnson CM. et al. Renal artery angioplasty: Technical results and clinical outcome in 320 patients. Mayo Clin Proc. 1995;70:1041–52. RE. [PubMed: 7475333]
366.
Sos TA. Angioplasty for the treatment of azotemia and renovascular hypertension in atherosclerotic renal artery disease. Circulation. 1991;83:I162–6. F. [PubMed: 1825044]
367.
Harden PN, MacLeod MJ, Rodger RS, Baxter GM, Connell JM, Dominiczak AF. et al. Effect of renal-artery stenting on progression of renovascular renal failure. Lancet. 1997;349:1133–6. C. [PubMed: 9113012]
368.
Johnson AG, Nguyen TV, Day RO. Do non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs affect blood pressure? A meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med. 1994;121:289–300. M. [PubMed: 8037411]
369.
Whelton A. Nephrotoxicity of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: Physiologic foundations and clinical implications. Am J Med. 1999;106:13S–24S. PR. [PubMed: 10390124]
370.
Whelton A, White WB, Bello AE, Puma JA, Fort JG. Effects of celecoxib and rofecoxib on blood pressure and edema in patients > or =65 years of age with systemic hypertension and osteoarthritis. Am J Cardiol. 2002;90:959–63. RA. [PubMed: 12398962]
371.
White WB, Kent J, Taylor A, Verburg KM, Lefkowith JB, Whelton A. Effects of celecoxib on ambulatory blood pressure in hypertensive patients on ACE inhibitors. Hypertension. 2002;39:929–34. RA. [PubMed: 11967252]
372.
Whelton A, Fort JG, Puma JA, Normandin D, Bello AE, Verburg KM. Cyclooxygenase-2–specific inhibitors and cardiorenal function: A randomized, controlled trial of celecoxib and rofecoxib in older hypertensive osteoarthritis patients. Am J Ther. 2001;8:85–95. RA. [PubMed: 11304662]
373.
Sowers JR, White WB, Pitt B, Whelton A, Simon L, van Ingen H. et al. Rofecoxib, but not celecoxib or naproxen, increases mean 24-hour systolic blood pressure in treated hypertensive patients with osteoarthritis and type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003;41:320A. RA.
374.
Barrier PA, Li JT, Jensen NM. Two words to improve physician-patient communication: What else? Mayo Clin Proc. 2003;78:211–4. PR. [PubMed: 12583531]
375.
Herzlinger RE. Market-Driven Health Care: Who Wins, Who Loses in the Transformation of America's Largest Service Industry. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Co.; 1997. pp. 65–75, 231.
376.
Phillips LS, Branch WT, Cook CB, Doyle JP, El-Kebbi IM, Gallina DL. et al. Clinical inertia. Ann Intern Med. 2001;135:825–34. [PubMed: 11694107]
377.
Balas EA, Weingarten S, Garb CT, Blumenthal D, Boren SA, Brown GD. Improving preventive care by prompting physicians. Arch Intern Med. 2000;160:301–8. C. [PubMed: 10668831]
378.
Boulware LE, Daumit GL, Frick KD, Minkovitz CS, Lawrence RS, Powe NR. An evidence-based review of patient-centered behavioral interventions for hypertension. Am J Prev Med 2001;21:221–32. PR, M. [PubMed: 11567845]
379.
Hill MN, Miller NH. Compliance enhancement: A call for multidisciplinary team approaches. Circulation. 1996;93:4–6. [PubMed: 8616938]
380.
Maue SK, Rivo ML, Weiss B, Farrelly EW, Brower-Stenger S. Effect of a primary care physician-focused, population-based approach to blood pressure control. Fam Med. 2002;34:508–13. F. [PubMed: 12144004]
381.
Shih SC, Bost JE, Pawlson LG. Standardized health plan reporting in four areas of preventive health care. Am J Prev Med. 2003;24:293–300. [PubMed: 12726866]
382.
Betancourt JR, Carrillo JE, Green AR. Hypertension in multicultural and minority populations: Linking communication to compliance. Curr Hypertens Rep. 1999;1:482–8. [PubMed: 10981110]
383.
Weir MR, Maibach EW, Bakris GL, Black HR, Chawla P, Messerli FH. et al. Implications of a health lifestyle and medication analysis for improving hypertension control. Arch Intern Med. 2000;160:481–90. X. [PubMed: 10695688]
384.
Emmons KM, Rollnick S. Motivational interviewing in health care settings. Opportunities and limitations. Am J Prev Med. 2001;20:68–74. [PubMed: 11137778]
385.
Bandura A. Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall; 1977.
386.
Pignone MP, Ammerman A, Fernandez L, Orleans CT, Pender N, Woolf S. et al. Counseling to promote a healthy diet in adults: A summary of the evidence for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Am J Prev Med. 2003;24:75–92. PR. [PubMed: 12554027]
Bookshelf ID: NBK9623

Views

  • PubReader
  • Print View
  • Cite this Page
  • PDF version of this title (955K)

Related information

  • PMC
    PubMed Central citations
  • PubMed
    Links to PubMed

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...