TABLE 3.1Classes and Selected Examples of Phytochemicals in Aloe vera

Anthraquinones/anthronesAloe-emodin, aloetic-acid, anthranol, aloin A and B (or collectively known as barbaloin), isobarbaloin, emodin, and ester of cinnamic acid
CarbohydratesPure mannan, acetylated mannan, acetylated glucomannan, glucogalactomannan, galactan, galactogalacturan, arabinogalactan, galactoglucoarabinomannan, pectic substance, xylan, and cellulose
Chromones8-C-glucosyl-(2’-O-cinnamoyl)-7-O-methylaloediol A, 8-C-glucosyl-(S)-aloesol, 8-C-glucosyl-7-O-methyl-(S)- aloesol, 8-C-glucosyl-7-O-methylaloediol, 8-C-glucosylnoreugenin, isoaloeresin D, isorabaichromone, and neoaloesin A
EnzymesAlkaline phosphatase, amylase, carboxypeptidase, catalase, cyclooxidase, cyclooxygenase, lipase, oxidase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, and superoxide dismutase
Inorganic mineralsCalcium, chlorine, chromium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, phosphorous, sodium, and zinc
VitaminsB1, B2, B6, C, E, and folic acid
Miscellaneous, including organic compounds and lipidsArachidonic acid, γ-linolenic acid, steroids (campesterol, cholesterol, β-sitosterol, triglycerides, triterpenoid, gibberellin, lignins, potassium sorbate, salicylic acid, uric acid, β-carotene, and choline
Amino acidsAlanine, arginine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycine, histidine, hydroxyproline, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, threonine, tyrosine, and valine
ProteinsLectins and lectin-like substance
SaccharidesMannose, glucose, L-rhamnose, and aldopentose

Sources: Vogler, B., and E. Ernst. 1999. Br J Gen Pract 49:823–28; Dagne, E., D. Bisrat, A. Viljoen, and B. E. Van Wyk. 2000. Curr Org Chem 4:1055–78; Choi, S., and M. H. Chung. 2003. Semin Integr Med 1:53–62; International Aloe Science Council. 2004. http://www​ (accessed August 18, 2009); Ni, Y., D. Turner, K. M. Yates, and I. Tizard. 2004. Int immunopharmacol 4:1745–55; Hamman, J. H. 2008. Molecules 13:1599–616.

From: Chapter 3, Evaluation of the Nutritional and Metabolic Effects of Aloe vera

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Herbal Medicine: Biomolecular and Clinical Aspects. 2nd edition.
Benzie IFF, Wachtel-Galor S, editors.
Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press/Taylor & Francis; 2011.
Copyright © 2011 by Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

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