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Institute of Medicine (US) Forum on Microbial Threats; Knobler S, Mahmoud A, Lemon S, et al., editors. Learning from SARS: Preparing for the Next Disease Outbreak: Workshop Summary. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2004.

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Learning from SARS: Preparing for the Next Disease Outbreak: Workshop Summary.

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Appendix EGlossary and Acronyms

ACRONYMS

3CL

3C-like

ACH

air changes per hour

AG

access grid

AIDS

acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

AMRO/PAHO

WHO Regional Office for the Americas

APEC

Asian Pacific Economic Community

ASEAN

Association of Southeast Asian Nations

ASTM

American Society for Testing and Materials

ATP

air transport

BCoV

bovine coronavirus

BiPAP

bi-level positive airway pressure

BSL

biosafety laboratory

CBER

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research

CDC

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

cDNA

complementary DNA

CEACAM

carcino-embryonic antigen-cell adhesion molecule

CIA

Central Intelligence Agency

CNS

central nervous system

CoV

coronavirus

CSR

Department of Communicable Disease Surveillance and Response

DARPA

Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency

DHHS

Department of Health and Human Services

DMEM

Dulbeco’s Modified Eagle Medium

DNA

deoxyribonucleic acid

EINET

Emerging Infections Network

EPA

Environmental Protection Agency

ERGIC

endoplasmic-reticulum-golgi-intermediate compartment

FAO

Food and Agriculture Organization

FASS

FailSafe Air Safety Systems

FDA

Food and Drug Administration

FCoV

Group I Feline CoV

FDI

foreign direct investment

FECoV

feline enteric peritonitis virus

FIPV

feline infectious peritonitis virus

GDP

gross domestic product

GHG

global health governance

GOARN

Global Alert and Response Network

GPGH

global public goods for health

GPHIN

Global Public Health Information Network

HAART

Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

HEPA

high efficiency particulate air

HIV

human immunodeficiency virus

IBV

infectious bronchitis virus

ICA

intelligence community assessment

IHR

International Health Regulations

IOM

Institute of Medicine

ITU

International Telecommunications Union

JCAHO

Joint Commission on Accreditation of Health Care Organizations

LPS

lipopolysaccharides

MAbs

monoclonal antibodies

MHV

mouse hepatitis virus

MoH

Ministry of Health

NGO

nongovernmental organization

NIAID

National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases

NIC

National Intelligence Council

NIH

National Institutes of Health

NIOSH

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

OECD

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development

OIE

Office International des Epizooties

OSHA

Occupational Safety and Health Administration

OTP

land transport

PCR

polymerase chain reaction

PRCV

porcine respiratory coronavirus

PEDV

porcine epidemic diarrhea CoV

PHE

public health emergency

PRCV

porcine respiratory coronavirus

PROMED

Program for Monitoring Emerging Diseases

RNA

ribonucleic acid

RSV

respiratory syncytial virus

RT-PCR

reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction

SAIC

Science Applications International Corporation

SARS

severe acute respiratory syndrome

SCoV

severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus

SIV

swine influenza virus

SRP

signal recognition particle

TCID

tissue culture infective dose

TGEV

transmissible gastroenteritis virus

TIGER

triangulation identification for genetic evaluation of risks

TRD

hotels and restaurants

TRS

transcriptional regulatory sequence

UNAIDS

Joint United National Program on HIV/AIDS

USAMRIID

United States Army Medical Research Institute for Infectious Diseases

USDA

United States Department of Agriculture

UV

ultraviolet

UVGI

ultraviolet germicidal irradiation

VN

virus neutralization

WD

winter dysentery

WHO

World Health Organization

WPRO

Western Pacific Regional Office of the World Health Organization

GLOSSARY

Adenovirus

any of a family (Adenoviridae) of DNA viruses shaped like a 20- sided polyhedron, originally identified in human adenoid tissue, causing respiratory diseases (as catarrh), and including some capable of inducing malignant tumors in experimental animals.

Aerosolize

to disperse (as a medicine, bactericide, or insecticide) as an aerosol.

Agalactia

the failure of the secretion of milk from any cause other than the normal ending of the lactation period.

Agent

any power, principle, or substance capable of producing an effect, whether chemical, physical, or biological.

AIDS

acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, the end stage of HIV disease.

Airborne

the dissemination of microbial agents through a suitable portal of entry, usually the respiratory tract. Microbial aerosols are suspensions of particles in the air consisting partially or wholly of microorganisms.

Algae

a plant or plantlike organism of any of several phyla, divisions, or classes of chiefly aquatic usually chlorophyll-containing nonvascular organisms of poly-phyletic origin that usually include the green, yellow-green, brown, and red algae in the eukaryotes and the blue-green algae in the prokaryotes.

Aminopeptidase

an enzyme (as one found in the duodenum) that hydrolyzes peptides by acting on the peptide bond next to a terminal amino acid containing a free amino group.

Angiotensin

either of two forms of a kinin of which one has marked physiological activity and the other is its physiologically inactive precursor; a synthetic amide derivative of angiotensin II used to treat some forms of hypotension.

Antibiotic

chemical substance produced by a microorganism which has the capacity to inhibit the growth of or to kill other microorganisms; antibiotics that are nontoxic to the host are used as chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of infectious diseases.

Antibody

a protein produced by the immune system in response to the introduction of a substance (an antigen) recognized as foreign by the body’s immune system. Antibody interacts with the other components of the immune system and can render the antigen harmless, although for various reasons this may not always occur.

Antigen

a usually protein or carbohydrate substance (as a toxin or enzyme) capable of stimulating an immune response.

Antimicrobial

a drug for killing microorganisms or suppressing their multiplication or growth. For the purposes of this report, antimicrobials include antibiotics and antivirals.

Antiretroviral

substance that stops or suppresses the activity of a retrovirus such as HIV.

Antiviral

drugs, including interferon, which stimulate cellular defenses against viruses, reducing cell DNA synthesis and making cells more resistant to viral genes, enhancing cellular immune responses or suppressing their replication.

Asymptomatic

presenting no symptoms of disease.

Atypical pneumonia

any of a group of pneumonias (as Q fever and psittacosis) caused especially by a virus, mycoplasma, rickettsia, or Chlamydia.

Autophagy

digestion of cellular constituents by enzymes of the same cell.

Avian influenza

any of several highly variable diseases of domestic and wild birds that are caused by orthomyxoviruses and characterized usually by respiratory symptoms but sometimes by gastrointestinal, integumentary, and urogenital symptoms.

Bioinformatics

the collection, classification, storage, and analysis of biochemical and biological information using computers especially as applied in molecular genetics and genomics.

Biomedical

of, relating to, or involving biological, medical, and physical science.

Biomolecule

an organic molecule and especially a macromolecule (as a protein or nucleic acid) in living organisms.

Biosafety

safety with respect to the effects of biological research on humans and the environment.

Biotechnology

applied biological science (as bioengineering or recombinant DNA technology).

Bioterrorism

terrorism involving use of biological warfare agents (as disease-causing viruses or herbicides).

Bronchodilator

relating to or causing expansion of the bronchial air passages.

Bronchoscopy

the use of a bronchoscope in the examination or treatment of the bronchi.

Cholera

any of several diseases of humans and domestic animals usually marked by severe gastrointestinal symptoms: as a: an acute diarrheal disease caused by an enterotoxin produced by a comma-shaped gram-negative bacillus of the genus Vibrio (V. cholerae syn. V. comma) when it is present in large numbers in the proximal part of the human small intestine.

Cloaca

the common chamber into which the intestinal, urinary, and generative canals discharge especially in monotreme mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and elasmobranch fishes b: the terminal part of the embryonic hindgut of a mammal before it divides into rectum, bladder, and genital precursors; a passage in a bone leading to a cavity containing a sequestrum.

Colostrum

milk secreted for a few days after parturition and characterized by high protein and antibody content.

Combinatorial chemistry

a branch of applied chemistry concerned with the rapid synthesis and screening of large numbers of different but related chemical compounds generated from a mixture of known building blocks in order to recover new substances optimally suited for a specific function.

Communicable disease

an infectious disease transmissible (as from person to person) by direct contact with an affected individual or the individual’s discharges or by indirect means (as by a vector).

Computational chemistry

Computer-based modeling and prediction of the structure of chemical compounds most likely to bind a protein drug target. Known properties are used to calculate properties of new molecules and energy minimization is used to adjust the structure.

Coronavirus

any of a family (Coronaviridae) of single-stranded RNA viruses that have a lipid envelope with club-shaped projections and include some causing respiratory symptoms in humans.

Corticosteroid

any of various adrenal-cortex steroids (as corticosterone, cortisone, and aldosterone) that are divided on the basis of their major biological activity into glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids.

Cysteine

a sulfur-containing amino acid C3H7NO2S occurring in many proteins and glutathione and readily oxidizable to cystine.

Cytokine

any of a class of immunoregulatory proteins (as interleukin, tumor necrosis factor, and interferon) that are secreted by cells especially of the immune system.

Cytopathic

of, relating to, characterized by, or producing pathological changes in cells.

Cytotoxic

toxic to cells.

Dexamethasone

a synthetic glucocorticoid C22H29FO5 used especially as an antiinflammatory and antiallergic agent.

Diphtheria

an acute febrile contagious disease marked by the formation of a false membrane especially in the throat and caused by a bacterium of the genus Corynebacterium (C. diphtheriae) which produces a toxin causing inflammation of the heart and nervous system.

Dyspnea

difficult or labored respiration.

Ebola

the hemorrhagic fever caused by the Ebola virus.

E. Coli

a straight rod-shaped gram-negative bacterium (Escherichia coli of the family Enterobacteriaceae) that is used in public health as an indicator of fecal pollution (as of water or food) and in medicine and genetics as a research organism and that occurs in various strains that may live as harmless inhabitants of the human lower intestine or may produce a toxin causing intestinal illness.

Enteric

of, relating to, or affecting the intestines.

Enterovirus

any of a genus (Enterovirus) of picornaviruses (as the causative agent of poliomyelitis) that typically occur in the gastrointestinal tract but may be involved in respiratory ailments, meningitis, and neurological disorders.

Epidemic

the occurrence in a community or region of cases of an illness (or outbreak) with a frequency clearly in excess of normal expectancy.

Epidemiology

branch of science that deals with the incidence, distribution, and control of disease in a population; the sum of the factors controlling the presence or abundance of a disease or pathogen.

Epithelial

of or relating to a membranous cellular tissue that covers a free surface or lines a tube or cavity of an animal body and serves especially to enclose and protect the other parts of the body, to produce secretions and excretions, and to function in assimilation.

Etiology

a branch of medical science dealing with the causes and origin of diseases.

Exonuclease

an enzyme that breaks down a nucleic acid by removing nucleotides one by one from the end of a chain.

Fomite

an inanimate object (as a dish, toy, book, doorknob, or clothing) that may be contaminated with infectious organisms and serve in their transmission.

Fungus

any of the major group Fungi of saprophytic and parasitic spore-producing organisms that lack chlorophyll, are often considered to be plants, and include the ascomyetes, basidiomycetes, phycomycetes, imperfect fungi, and slime molds.

Gastroenteritis

inflammation of the lining membrane of the stomach and the intestines.

Glycoprotein

a conjugated protein in which the nonprotein group is a carbohydrate.

Gnotobiotic

of, relating to, living in, or being a controlled environment containing one or a few kinds of organisms ; free from other living organisms.

Gross Domestic Product

measures the output produced by factors of production located in the domestic country regardless of who owns these factors.

Guillain-Barré syndrome

French neurologists. Guillain published several significant neurological studies concerning the brain and the spinal column. An authority on the spinal column in particular, he made studies of the cerebrospinal fluid and the marrow of the spinal cord. Guillain and Barré published their description of the Guillain-Barré syndrome in 1916.

Hantavirus

any of a genus (Hantavirus) of bunyaviruses (as the Hantaan virus) that are transmitted by rodent feces and urine and cause hantavirus pulmonary syndrome and hemorrhagic fevers marked by renal necrosis.

Hemagglutinin

a molecule, such as an antibody or lectin, that agglutinates red blood cells.

Hemorrhagic fever

an acute destructive disease of warm regions marked by sudden onset, prostration, fever, albuminuria, jaundice, and often hemorrhage and caused by a flavivirus (genus Flavivirus) transmitted especially by a mosquito of the genus Aedes (A. aegypti).

Heterologous

derived from a different species; characterized by cross-reactivity.

HIV disease

the broad spectrum of opportunistic infections and diseases that occur in an individual infected with the human immunodeficiency virus.

Human metapneumovirus

a respiratory viral pathogen that causes a spectrum of illnesses, ranging from asymptomatic infection to severe bronchiolitis.

Hyperplasia

an abnormal or unusual increase in the elements composing a part (as cells composing a tissue).

Immunoassay

a technique or test (as the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) used to detect the presence or quantity of a substance (as a protein) based on its capacity to act as an antigen or antibody.

Immunocompromised

a condition (caused, for example, by the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or irradiation, malnutrition, aging, or a condition such as cancer or HIV disease) in which an individual’s immune system is unable to respond adequately to a foreign substance.

Immunofluorescence

the labeling of antibodies or antigens with fluorescent dyes especially for the purpose of demonstrating the presence of a particular antigen or antibody in a tissue preparation or smear.

Immunology

a science that deals with the immune system and the cell-mediated and humoral aspects of immunity and immune responses.

Immunopathology

a branch of medicine that deals with immune responses associated with disease; the pathology of an organism, organ system, or disease with respect to the immune system, immunity, and immune responses.

Immunosuppression

the retardation or cessation of an immune response as a result of, for example, anticancer drugs.

Index case

an instance of a disease or a genetically determined condition that is discovered first and leads to the discovery of others in a family or population.

Infectious

capable of causing infection; communicable by invasion of the body of a susceptible organism.

Infectious agent

an organism (virus, rickettsia, bacteria, fungus, protozoan, or helminth) that is capable of producing infection or infectious disease.

Influenza

an acute highly contagious virus disease that is caused by various strains of orthomyxoviruses belonging to three major types now considered as three separate genera and that is characterized by sudden onset, fever, prostration, severe aches and pains, and progressive inflammation of the respiratory mucous membrane—often used with the letter A, B, or C to denote disease caused by a virus of a specific one of the three genera; any human respiratory infection of undetermined cause—not used technically; any of numerous febrile usually virus diseases of domestic animals (as shipping fever of horses and swine influenza) marked by respiratory symptoms, inflammation of mucous membranes, and often systemic involvement.

Interstitial pneumonia

any of several chronic lung diseases of unknown etiology that affect interstitial tissues of the lung without filling of the alveolae and that may follow damage to the alveolar walls or involve interstitial histological changes.

Intubation

the introduction of a tube into a hollow organ (as the trachea or intestine) to keep it open or restore its patency if obstructed.

Irradiate

to affect or treat by radiant energy (as heat); specifically to treat by exposure to radiation (as ultraviolet light or gamma rays).

Lassa

a disease especially of Africa that is caused by the Lassa virus and is characterized by a high fever, headaches, mouth ulcers, muscle aches, small hemorrhages under the skin, heart and kidney failure, and a high mortality rate.

Lethal

of, relating to, or causing death; capable of causing death.

Lymphoproliferative

of or relating to the proliferation of lymphoid tissue.

Malaria

an acute or chronic disease caused by the presence of sporozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium in the red blood cells, transmitted from an infected to an uninfected individual by the bite of anopheline mosquitoes, and characterized by periodic attacks of chills and fever that coincide with mass destruction of blood cells and the release of toxic substances by the parasite at the end of each reproductive cycle.

Mass spectrometry

an instrumental method for identifying the chemical constitution of a substance by means of the separation of gaseous ions according to their differing mass and charge—called also mass spectroscopy.

Methyltransferase

any of several transferases that promote transfer of a methyl group from one compound to another.

Microbe

any microorganism or biologic agent that can replicate in humans (including bacteria, viruses, protozoa, fungi, and prions); in other usage, any multi-cellular organism.

Microbiology

a branch of biology dealing especially with microscopic forms of life.

Morbidity

a diseased state or symptom; the incidence of disease : the rate of sickness.

Mortality

the quality or state of being mortal; the number of deaths in a given time or place; the proportion of deaths to population.

Mutation

a transmissible change in the genetic material of an organism, usually in a single gene.

Nasopharyngeal

of, relating to, or affecting the nose and pharynx or the nasopharynx.

Nebulise

to reduce to a fine spray.

Neuraminidase

a substance used (as in detecting or measuring a component, in preparing a product, or in developing photographs) because of its chemical or biological activity.

Nucleocapsid

the nucleic acid and surrounding protein coat of a virus.

Nucleophile

a nucleophilic substance (as an electron-donating reagent).

Oronasal

of or relating to the mouth and nose; especially : connecting the mouth and the nasal cavity.

Outbreak

a sudden rise in the incidence of a disease.

Pandemic

an epidemic that occurs worldwide.

Parainfluenza

any of several paramyxoviruses (genus Paramyxovirus) that are associated with or responsible for some respiratory infections especially in children—called also parainfluenza.

Pathogen

a specific causative agent (as a bacterium or virus) of disease.

Pathogenesis

the origination and development of a disease.

Pathogenic

capable of causing disease.

PCR

see polymerase chain reaction.

Pericardium

of, relating to, or affecting the conical sac of serous membrane that encloses the heart and the roots of the great blood vessels of vertebrates and consists of an outer fibrous coat that loosely invests the heart and is prolonged on the outer surface of the great vessels except the inferior vena cava and a double inner serous coat of which one layer is closely adherent to the heart while the other lines the inner surface of the outer coat with the intervening space being filled with pericardial fluid.

Peritoneal

of, relating to, or affecting the smooth transparent serous membrane that lines the cavity of the abdomen of a mammal, is folded inward over the abdominal and pelvic viscera, and consists of an outer layer closely adherent to the walls of the abdomen and an inner layer that folds to invest the viscera.

Peroxidation

the process of converting (a compound) into a peroxide for a chemical compound.

Pharmacopoeia

a book describing drugs, chemicals, and medicinal preparations; especially : one issued by an officially recognized authority and serving as a standard; a collection or stock of drugs.

Pharyngeal

relating to or located in the region of the pharynx; innervating the pharynx especially by contributing to the formation of the pharyngeal plexus; supplying or draining the pharynx.

Phenotype

the visible properties of an organism that are produced by the interaction of the genotype and the environment.

Phospholipid

any of numerous lipids (as lecithins and sphingomyelin) in which phosphoric acid as well as a fatty acid is esterified to glycerol and which are found in all living cells and in the bilayers of plasma membranes.

Phylogenetic

of or relating to the evolutionary development of organisms.

Physiochemical

of or relating to physiological chemistry.

Picornavirus

any of a family (Picornaviridae) of small single-stranded RNA viruses that have an icosahedral virion with no envelope and that include the enteroviruses, rhinoviruses, and the causative agents of hepatitis A, foot-and-mouth disease, hand-foot-and-mouth disease, and encephalomyocarditis.

Plague

an epidemic disease causing a high rate of mortality; a virulent contagious febrile disease that is caused by a bacterium of the genus Yersinia (Y. pestis syn. Pasteurella pestis), that occurs in bubonic, pneumonic, and septicemic forms, and that is usually transmitted from rats to humans by the bite of infected fleas (as in bubonic plague) or directly from person to person (as in pneumonic plague).

Pleural

of or relating to the pleura or the sides of the thorax.

Pneumonia

a disease of the lungs characterized by inflammation and consolidation followed by resolution and caused by infection or irritants.

Polymerase chain reaction

a laboratory method of amplifying low levels of specific microbial DNA or RNA sequences.

Polymicrobial

of, relating to, or caused by several types of microorganisms.

Polypnea

rapid or panting respiration.

Prophylactic

guarding from or preventing the spread or occurrence of disease or infection; tending to prevent or ward off.

Proteolytic

of, relating to, or producing the hydrolysis of proteins or peptides with formation of simpler and soluble products (as in digestion).

Public health

the art and science of dealing with the protection and improvement of community health by organized community effort and including preventive medicine and sanitary and social health.

Quarantine

the enforced isolation or restriction of free movement imposed to prevent the spread a contagious disease.

Reagent

a substance used (as in detecting or measuring a component, in preparing a product, or in developing photographs) because of its chemical or biological activity.

Reovirus

any of a family (Reoviridae) of double-stranded RNA viruses that have an icosahedral structure, are 60 to 80 nanometers in diameter, have an inner core surrounded by several layers of protein, and include many plant or animal pathogens (as the orbiviruses and the rotaviruses).

Respirator

a device (as a gas mask) worn over the mouth or nose for protecting the respiratory system; a device for maintaining artificial respiration.

Respiratory syncytial virus

a paramyxovirus (genus Pneumovirus) that has numerous strains, forms syncytia in tissue culture, and is responsible for severe respiratory diseases (as bronchopneumonia and bronchiolitis) in children and especially in infants.

Retrovirus

any of large family of RNA viruses that includes lentiviruses and oncoviruses, so called because they carry reverse transcriptase.

Rhinitis

inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose.

Ribosome

any of the RNA- and protein-rich cytoplasmic organelles that are sites of protein synthesis.

Serological

the use of immune serum in any number of tests (agglutination, precipitation, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, etc.) used to measure the response (antibody titer) to infectious disease; the use of serological reactions to detect antigen.

Serology

a science dealing with serums and especially their reactions and properties.

Seronegative

negative result in a serological test; that is, the inability to detect the antibodies or antigens being tested for.

Seropositive

positive results in a serological test.

Seroprevalence

the frequency of individuals in a population that have a particular element (as antibodies to HIV) in their blood serum.

Serotype

the characterization of a microorganism based on the kinds and combinations of constituent antigens present in that organism; a taxonomic subdivision of bacteria based on the above.

Smallpox

an acute contagious febrile disease characterized by skin eruption with pustules, sloughing, and scar formation and caused by a poxvirus (genus Orthopoxvirus) that is believed to exist now only in lab cultures.

Superspreader

highly infective patient.

Syncytial

of, relating to, or constituting a multinucleate mass of protoplasm (as in the plasmodium of a slime mold) resulting from fusion of cells.

Thrombosis

the formation or presence of a blood clot within a blood vessel during life.

Transmissible

capable of being transmitted (as from one person to another).

Tropism

involuntary orientation by an organism or one of its parts that involves turning or curving by movement or by differential growth and is a positive or negative response to a source of stimulation.

Tuberculosis

a usually chronic highly variable disease that is caused by the tubercle bacillus and rarely in the U.S. by a related mycobacterium (Mycobacterium bovis), is usually communicated by inhalation of the airborne causative agent, affects especially the lungs but may spread to other areas (as the kidney or spinal column) from local lesions or by way of the lymph or blood vessels, and is characterized by fever, cough, difficulty in breathing, inflammatory infiltrations, formation of tubercles, caseation, pleural effusion, and fibrosis.

Vaccine

a preparation of purified polypeptide, protein or polysaccharide, or DNA or of killed microorganisms, living attenuated organisms, or living virulent or crude or purified organisms that is administered to produce or artificially in crease immunity to a particular disease.

Viremia

the presence of virus in the blood of a host.

Virology

a branch of science that deals with viruses.

Virulence

the degree of pathogenicity of an organism as evidenced by the severity of resulting disease and the organisms’s ability to invade the host tissues.

West Nile virus

a flavivirus (genus Flavivirus) that causes an illness marked by fever, headache, muscle ache, skin rash, and sometimes encephalitis or meningitis, that is spread chiefly by mosquitoes, and that is closely related to the viruses causing Japanese B encephalitis and Saint Louis encephalitis.

Westphalian system

“westphalian public health” refers to public health governance structured by Westphalian principles. “Post-Westphalian public health” describes public health governance that departs from the Westphalian template

Yellow fever

an acute destructive disease of warm regions marked by sudden onset, prostration, fever, albuminuria, jaundice, and often hemorrhage and caused by a flavivirus (genus Flavivirus) transmitted especially by a mosquito of the genus Aedes (A. aegypti).

Zoonotic

a disease communicable from animals to humans under natural conditions.

Copyright © 2004, National Academy of Sciences.
Bookshelf ID: NBK92457

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