NCBI Bookshelf. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.

Lapage SP, Sneath PHA, Lessel EF, et al., editors. International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria: Bacteriological Code, 1990 Revision. Washington (DC): ASM Press; 1992.

Cover of International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria

International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria: Bacteriological Code, 1990 Revision.

Show details

Chapter 4Advisory Notes

A. Suggestions for Authors and Publishers

Publishers of periodicals and books are requested to indicate the year, month, and day of publication either on the publication itself or, in the case of a periodical, on the succeeding number. This information, as well as the tide of the periodical or book from which the paper is reproduced, should also be printed on separates, tear sheets, or reprints.

Separates or reprints should always bear the pagination of the periodical of which they form a part.

An author who describes and names a new taxon should indicate the rank of the taxon concerned and where possible the rank and name of the next higher taxon (e.g., the name of the family to which a new genus is allocated or the name of the order in which a new family is placed). The title of the work concerned should indicate that a new name is published even if the name itself is not quoted in the title.

Note. Valid publication of a new name or combination requires announcement in the IJSB (Rule 27).

It is important that descriptions and illustrations of new species be as complete as possible and conform to the minimal standards when available (see Recommendation 30b).

For scientific names of taxa, conventions shall be used which are appropriate to the language of the country and to the relevant journal and publishing house concerned. These should preferably indicate scientific names by a different type face, e.g., italic, or by some other device to distinguish them from the rest of the text.

The name of a genus should be spelled without abbreviation the first time it is used with a specific epithet in a publication and in the summary of that publication.

Example: Bacillus subtilis.

In a series of species names all belonging to the same genus, it is customary to abbreviate the name of the genus in all but the first species, even if it is the first mention of the succeeding species.

Example: Bacillus subtilis, B. polymyxa.

Later use of the name of the species previously cited usually has the name of the genus abbreviated, commonly to the first letter of the generic name.

Example: B. subtilis.

If, however, species are listed belonging to two or more genera which have the same initial letter, the generic name should he used in full.

B. Quotations of Authors and Names

  1. Multiple authorship (et al.). When the new name of a taxon is published under two authors, both are cited; when there are more than two authors and when there is no definite designation of a single individual as the author of the name, the citation may be made by listing the names of all the authors or by giving the name of the first author, followed by the abbreviation "et al." (et alii).
  2. Publication in the work of another author (in). When a new name or combination by one author is published in a work of another author, the word "in" should be used in the literature cited to connect the names of the two authors. The name of the author of the name of the taxon precedes the name of the author in whose work it is contained.
    Example: Streptomyces reticuli Waksman, S. A., and A. T. Henrici in Breed, R. S., et al., Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 6th ed., 1948, The Williams & Wilkins Co., Baltimore.
  3. Use of "pro synon.," "ex," "non," and "sic."
    1. When citing a name published as a synonym, the words "as synonym" or "pro synon." should be added to the citation. (For types of synonym, see Rule 24a.)
      Example: Pseudomonas pyocyanea pro synon. Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
    2. When an author publishes a name from a manuscript of another author, or revives another author's name (Rule 33c, Note 2), whether as a synonym or not, the word "ex" should be used to connect the names of the two authors. The name of the author who publishes the name precedes that of the original author.
      Example: Bacillus caryocyaneus Dupaix 1930 ex Beijerinck (see Dupaix, 1930, Trav. Lab. Fac. Pharm., fasc. 3, p. 13).
    3. When citing in synonymy a name invalidated by an earlier homonym, the citation should be followed by the name of the author of the earlier homonym preceded by the word "non," preferably with the date of publication added.
      Example: Pfeifferella Buchanan 1918 non Labbé 1899.
    4. If a name or epithet is adopted with alterations from the form as originally published, including the use of a corrected spelling, the original spelling should be cited in any list of synonyms of the corrected name. The original spelling is followed by the term "sic" in parentheses to indicate that the original spelling is accurately cited.
      Example: Bacillus pantothenticus (sic).
  4. Nomen nudum. In the citation of a bare name (nomen nudum), the status of the name should be indicated by adding "nom. nud."
    Note. A bare name (nomen nudum) means a name published without a description or a reference to a previously published description.
    Example: Not yet found.
  5. Nomen conservandum. A conserved name (nomen conservandum) shall be indicated by the addition of the abbreviation "nom. cons." to the citation.
    Example: Pseudomonas Migula 1894 nom. cons. (Opinion 5).

C. Maintenance of Type Strains

The utmost importance should be given to the preservation of the original "type" material on which the description of a new species or subspecies is based.

Preserved and living specimens should be maintained in a bacteriological laboratory, more particularly in one of the permanently established culture collections, and a record of this fact should be included in the publication (see Recommendation 30a).

Maintenance may be by a variety of methods, e.g., in a medium, in a host by passage, in cells or exudates, or in the frozen or dried state.

Every precaution should be taken to maintain such cultures with a minimum amount of change. Repeated subculture may lead to phenotypic or genotypic changes.

Copyright © 1992, International Union of Microbiological Societies.
Bookshelf ID: NBK8816


  • PubReader
  • Print View
  • Cite this Page

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...