NCBI Bookshelf. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.

Lapage SP, Sneath PHA, Lessel EF, et al., editors. International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria: Bacteriological Code, 1990 Revision. Washington (DC): ASM Press; 1992.

Cover of International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria

International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria: Bacteriological Code, 1990 Revision.

Show details

Appendix 5Opinions Relating to the Nomenclature of Bacteria

List of Opinions

Opinions issued by the International Committee on Bacteriological Nomenclature at the Second International Congress for Microbiology, London, 1936

OpinionTitleReference and notesResult
AConservation of the generic name Bacillus Cohn 1872, designation of the type species, and of the type strain of the speciesJournal of Bacteriology 33:445–447 (1937), and International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria and Viruses (1958), p. 148
  1. It was agreed that Bacillus Cohn 1872 should be designated as a genus conservandum
  2. It was agreed that the type species of Bacillus should be designated as Bacillus subtilis Cohn 1872 emendavit Prazmowski 1880.
  3. It was agreed that the type (or standard) strain should be the Marburg strain.
  4. It was agreed that cultures of the type (or standard) strain of Bacillus subtilis together with complete description should be maintained at each of the recognized Type Culture Collections.
  5. It was agreed that the genus Bacillus should be so defined as to exclude bacterial species which do not produce endospores.
  6. It was agreed that the term Bacillus should be used as a generic name and that it should be differentiated from the terms "bacillus," "bacille," and "Bazillus" used as morphological designations.
BGeneric homonyms in the group ProtistaJournal of Bacteriology 33:445–447 (1937), and International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria and Viruses (1958), p. 148
  1. It was agreed that generic homonyms are not permitted in the group Protista.
  2. It was agreed that it is advisable to avoid homonyms amongst Protista on the one hand, and a plant or animal on the other.
CCapitalization of specific epithets derived from names of personsJournal of Bacteriology 33:445–447 (1937), and International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria and Viruses (1958), p. 148It was agreed that while specific substantive names derived from names of persons may be written with a capital initial letter, all other specific names are to be written with a small initial letter.
Note. This Opinion is revoked by Rule 59 of this Code, and Recommendation 27h of the 1958 and 1966 editions of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria (and Viruses) stated: "A specific epithet, even one derived from the name of a person, should not be written with an initial capital letter."

Opinions issued by the Judicial Commission

OpinionTitleReference and notes1Result
1The correct spelling of the specific epithet in the species name Bacillus megaterium de Bary 18841 (Part 1):35–36 (1951)The spelling megaterium of the specific epithet in Bacillus megaterium de Bary is to be preferred to the spelling megatherium.
2The combining forms (stems) of compound bacterial generic names ending in -bacterium, -bacter, or -bactrum (-bactron)1 (Part 1):37–38 (1951)The combining form or stem of the last component of names ending in -bacterium is -bacteri, of those ending in -bactrum or bactron is -bactr, and of those ending in -bacter is -bacter. Family names derived from such generic names have, respectively, the endings –bacteriaceae, -bactraceae, and -bacteraceae.
3Gender of bacterial names ending in -bacter1 (Part 2):36–37 (1951); 1:84–85 in re-issue of volume (1951)The names of bacterial genera which end in -bacter should be regarded as having the masculine gender.
4 (revised)Rejection of generic name (revised) Bacterium Ehrenberg4:142 (1954), see also 1:145–146 (1951) and 3:141–154 Minute 9 (1953)
  1. The bacterial generic name Bacterium Ehrenberg 1828 is to be recognized as a nomen generum rejiciendum (rejected generic name).
  2. The bacterial famly name Bacteriaceae is to be recognized as a nomen familiae rejiciendum (rejected family name).
5Conservation of the generic name Pseudomonas Migula 1894 and designation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Schroeter) Migula 1900 as type species2:121–122 (1952)
  1. The generic name Pseudomonas Migula 1894 is to be conserved and placed in the list of nomina generum conservanda.
  2. The generic name Pseudomonas Migula 1894 is to be associated with the species designated and described by Migula 1895.
  3. The type species of the genus Pseudomonas Migula 1894 is Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Schroeter) Migula 1900 (Bacterium aeruginosum Schroeter 1872, Bacillus pyocyaneus Gessard 1882, Pseudomonas pyocyanea Migula 1895).
6Conservation of the generic name Chlorobacterium Lauterborn 1916 against Chlorobacterium Guillebeau 18904:143 (1954)The bacterial generic name Chlorobacterium Lauterborn 1916 is conserved against the earlier homonym Chlorobacterium Guillebeau 1890. The generic name Chlorobacterium Guillebeau 1890 is placed in the list of nomina generum rejicienda.
7Nomenclature of the organism associated with granuloma venereum4:144 (1954), synonymy of Calymmatobacterium granulomatis Aragão and Vianna 1913The bacterial species names Encapsulatus inguinalis Bergey et al. 1923, Klebsiella granulomatis Bergey et at. 1925, Donovania granulomatis Anderson, de Monbreun, and Goodpasture 1944 are later synonyms of Calymmatobacterium granulomatis Aragão and Vianna 1913.
8The correct species name of the streptococcus of bovine mastitis4:145–146 (1954), conservation of the specific epithet agalactiae in the combination Streptococcus agalactiae Lehmann and Neumann 1896The species name Streptococcus agalactiae Lehmann and Neumann 1896 is conserved against all synonyms having priority.
9Conservation of the bacterial generic name Gallionella4:146–147 (1954), conservation of Gallionella Ehrenberg 1838, with type species Gallionella ferruginea EhrenbergGallionella Ehrenberg is placed in the list of conserved names of bacterial genera (nomina generum conservanda) with the type species Gallionella ferruginea Ehrenberg.
10Invalidity of the bacterial generic name Müllerina de Petschenko 1910 and of the species name Müllerina paramecii4:147–148 (1954), and status of Drepanospira de Petschenko 1911 and Drepanospira muelleri de Petschenko 1911The generic name Müllerina de Petschenko 1910 and the species name Müllerina paramecii de Petschenko 1910 were not accepted by the author, hence were not validly published and are without standing in nomenclature. The later names Drepanospira de Petschenko 1911 and Drepanospira muelleri de Petschenko 1911 were validly published and are not later synonyms.
11Nomenclature of species in the bacterial genus Shigella4:148–150 (1954), validity of publication of the names Shigella dysenteriae (Shiga) Castellani and Chalmers 1919, and conservation of the specific epithets flexneri, boydii, and sonnei in, respectively, the species names Shigella flexneri Castellani and Chalmers 1919, Shigella boydii Ewing 1949, and Shigella sonnei (Levine) Weldin 1927, and emendation 10:85 (1960); 13:31 (1963)
  1. Shigella dysenteriae (Shiga) Castellani and Chalmers 1919 was validly published and is legitimate as the name of the dysentery bacterium described by Shiga (1898).
  2. The specific epithet flexneri in the species name Shigella flexneri Castellani and Chalmers 1919 is designated as a conserved specific epithet (epitheton specificum conservandum) for the species first described as Bacillus dysenteriae Flexner 1900.
  3. The species name Shigella boydii Ewing 1949 was validly published and is legitimate. The specific epithet boydii in the species name Shigella boydii is to be conserved (epitheton specificum conservandum).
  4. The species name Shigella sonnei (Levine) Weldin 1927 was validly published and is legitimate. The specific epithet sonnei in the species name Shigella sonnei is to be conserved (epitheton specificum conservandum).
  5. A type or standard culture is to be designated by the Enterobacteriaceae Subcommittee on Bacteriological Nomenclature for each of the four species. Such cultures as far as possible shall be maintained in each of the national Type Culture Collections and in the International Shigella Center, Chamblee, Georgia, U.S.A. (now in the Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, Georgia).
  6. A culture belonging to the species Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella flexneri, Shigella boydii, or Shigella sonnei may be completely identified by appending the appropriate serotype number (arabic) to the name.
12Conservation of Listeria Pirie 1940 as a generic name in bacteriology4:150–151 (1954), type species Listeria monocytogenes (Murray, Webb, and Swann) Pirie 1940Listeria Pirie 1940 (type species Listeria monocytogenes (Murray, Webb, and Swann) Pirie 1940) shall be placed in the list of conserved names of bacterial genera (nomina generum conservanda).
13Conservation and rejection of names of genera of bacteria proposed by Trevisan 1842–18904:151–156 (1954), conservation of generic names Beggiatoa, Klebsiella, Kurthia, Leptotrichia, Neisseria, Nocardia, Pasteurella; rejection of generic names Babesia, Bacteriopsis, Billetia, Cenomesia, Cornilia, Dicoccia, Eucornilia, Eumantegazzaea, Eupacinia, Euspirillum, Leptotrichiella, Mantegazzaea, Octopsis, Perroncitoa, Pleurospora, Pseudospira, Pseudospirillum; illegitimate generic names Bollingera, Rasmussenia, Schuetzia, Winogradskya; of indeterminate status, Gaffkya, Pacinia
1. Generic names proposed by Trevisan placed in the list of conserved generic names (nomina generum conservanda
Name of genera and subgeneraType species
Beggiatoa Trevisan 1842 (p. 56)Beggiatoa alba (Vaucher) Trevisan 1845 (Oscillatoria alba Vaucher 1803)
Klebsiella Trevisan 1885 (p. 105)Klebsiella pneumoniae (Schroeter) Trevisan 1887 (Bacterium pneumoniae crouposae Zopf 1885)
Kurthia Trevisan 1885 (p. 92)Kurthia zopfii (Kurth) Trevisan 1885 (Bacterium zopfii Kurth 1883)
Leptotrichia Trevisan 1879 (p. 138)Leptotrichia buccalis (Robin) Trevisan 1879 (Leptothrix buccalis Robin 1853)
Neisseria Trevisan 1885 (p. 105)Neisseria gonorrhoeae Trevisan 1885
Nocardia Trevisan 1889 (p. 9)Nocardia farcinica Trevisan 1889 (but see Opinion 58)
This generic name was omitted in error in the published Opinion and authority is 3:141–154 (1953, Minute 7, File 56) and 3:87–100 (1953).
Pasteurella Trevisan 1887 (p. 94)Pasteurella cholerae-gallinarum Trevisan 1887 (but see Opinion 58)
2. Generic names proposed by Trevisan placed in the list of rejected generic names (nomina generum rejicienda).
Names of genera and subgeneraType of species
Babesia Trevisan 1889 (p. 29)Babesia xanthopyrethica (sic) Trevisan 1889 (Streptococcus xanthopyreticus Trevisan 1887)
Bacteriopsis Trevisan 1885 (p. 103)Bacteriopsis rasmussenii Trevisan 1885 (Leptothrix I Rasmussen 1883)
Billetia Trevisan 1889 (p. 11)Billetia laminariae (Billet) Trevisan 1889 (Bacterium laminariae Billet 1888)
Cenomesia Trevisan 1889 (p. 1039)Cenomesia albida Trevisan 1889
Cornilia Trevisan 1889 (p. 21)Cornilia alvei (Flügge) Trevisan 1889 (Bacillus alvei Flügge 1886)
Dicoccia Trevisan 1889 (p. 26)Dicoccia glossophila Trevisan 1889
Eucornilia Trevisan 1889 (p. 21) (Subgenus)Cornilia (Eucornilia) alvei Trevisan 1889 (Bacillus alvei Cheshire and Cheyne 1885)
Eumantegazzaea Trevisan 1889 (p. 942) (Subgenus)Mantegazzaea (Eumantegazzaea) I cienkowskii Trevisan 1879
Eupacinia Trevisan 1889 (p. 23) (Subgenus)Pacinia (Eupacinia) putrifica Trevisan 1889 (Bacillus putrificus coli Flügge 1886)
Euspirillum Trevisan 1889 (p. 24) (Subgenus)Spirillum (Euspirillum) undula (Mueller) Ehrenberg 1830 (Vibrio undula Mueller 1773)
Leptotrichiella Trevisan 1889 (p. 935) (Subgenus)Leptotrichia (Leptotrichiella) amphibola Trevisan 1889
Mantegazzaea Trevisan 1879 (p. 137)Mantagazzaea cienkowskii Trevisan 1879
Octopsis Trevisan 1885 (p. 102)Octopsis cholerae-gallinarum Trevisan 1885 (Micrococcus cholerae-gallinarum Zopf 1885)
Perroncitoa Trevisan 1889 (p. 29)Perroncitoa scarlatinosa (Trevisan) Trevisan 1889 (Micrococcus scarlatinosus Trevisan 1879)
Pleurospora Trevisan 1889 (p. 22) (Subgenus)Cornilia (Pleurospora) tremula (Koch) Trevisan 1889 (Bacillus tremulus Koch 1877)
Pseudospira Trevisan 1889 (p. 23) (Subgenus)Pacinia (Pseudospira) cholerae-asiaticae Trevisan 1885 (Vibrio cholerae Pacini 1854)
Pseudospirillum Trevisan 1889 (p. 25) (Subgenus)Spirillum (Pseudospirillum) amphibolum Trevisan 1889
3. Trevisan's generic names which, as later homonyms or synonyms, are regarded as illegitimate.
Names of genera and subgeneraType of species
Bollingera Trevisan 1889 (p. 26)Bollingera equi (Rivolta) Trevisan (1889) (Zoogloea pulmonis equi Bollinger 1870)
Rasmussenia Trevisan 1889 (p. 930)Rasmussenia buccalis (Robin) Trevisan 1889 (Leptothrix buccalis Robin 1853)
Schuetzia Trevisan 1889 (p. 29)Schuetzia poelsii Trevisan 1889 (Streptococcus equi Sand and Jensen 1888)
Winogradskya Trevisan 1889 (p. 12)Winogradskya ramigera (Itzigsohn) Trevisan 1889 (Zoogloea ramigera Itzigsohn 1867)
4. Trevisan's generic names whose status is indeterminate.
Names of genera and subgeneraType of species
Gaffkya Trevisan 1885 (p. 105); but see Opinion 39Gaffkya tetragena (Gaffky) Trevisan 1885 (Micrococcus tetragenus Gaffky 1883)
Pacinia Trevisan 1885 (p. 83); but see Opinion 31Pacinia cholerae-asiaticae Trevisan 1885
14Names of bacterial genera to be rejected as later synonyms of names of genera of protozoa4:156–158 (1954), rejection of Astasia Meyer 1897, Astasia Pribram 1929, Castellanella Pacheco and Rodrigues 1930, Charon Holmes 1948, Coccomonas Orla-Jensen 1921, Listerella Pirie, 1927, Palmula Prévot 1938, Pfeifferella Buchanan 1918, Phytomonas Bergey el al 1923, Rhizomonas Orla-Jensen 1909, Rhodosphaera Buchanan 1918
The following names proposed for bacterial genera are found to be later homonyms of names applied to genera of protozoa. Rule 24 of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria and Viruses (new Rule 51b) states that such later homonyms are illegitimate in bacteriology. These names are to be placed in the list of names of bacterial genera to be rejected (nomina generum bacteriorum rejicienda).
Rejected names of bacterial generaNames of protozoan genera having priority
Astasia Meyer 1897Astasia Ehrenberg 1830
Astasia Pribram 1929
Castellanella Pacheco and Rodrigues 1930Castellanella Chalmers 1918
Charon Holmes 1948 (a genus of viruses)Charon Karsch 1879
Coccomonas Orla-Jensen 1921Coccomonas Stein 1878
Listerella Pirie 1927Listerella Jahn 1906
Palmula PrévotPalmula Lea 1833
Pfeifferella Buchanan 1918Pfeifferella Labbé 1899
Phytomonas Bergey et al 1923Phytomonas Donovan 1909
Rhizomonas Orla-Jensen 1909Rhizomonas Kent 1880
Rhodosphaera Buchanan 1918Rhodosphaera Haeckel 1881
15Conservation of the family name Enterobacteriaceae, of the name of the type genus, and designation of the type species8:73–74 (1958), with type genus Escherichia Castellani and Chalmers 1919 as conserved generic name and type species Escherichia coli (Migula) Castellani and Chalmers 1919
  1. The family name Enterobacteriaceae Rahn 1937 (p. 280) is placed in the list of conserved family names (nomina conservanda familiarum)
  2. The genus Escherichia Castellani and Chalmers 1919 (p. 941) is designated as the type genus of the family Enterobacteriaceae Rahn 1937.
  3. The generic name Escherichia Castellani and Chalmers 1919 (p. 941) is placed in the list of conserved generic names (nomina generum conservanda).
  4. The type species of the genus Escherichia Castellani and Chalmers 1919 (p. 941 is Escherichia coli (Migula) Castellani and Chalmers 1919 p. 941), basonym Bacillus coli Migula 1895 (p. 27); hyponym Bacterium coli commune Escherich 1885 (p. 518).
16Conservation of the generic name Chromobacterium Bergonzini 1880 and designation of the type species and the neotype culture of the type species8:151–152 (1958), type species Chromobacterium violaceum Bergonzini 1880
  1. The generic name Chromobacterium Bergonzini 1879 is rejected and placed in the list of nomina generum rejicienda.
  2. The generic name Chromobacterium Bergonzini 1880 is conserved and placed in the list of nomina generum conservanda.
  3. The type species of the genus Chromobacterium Bergonzini 1880 is Chromobacterium violaceum Bergonzini 1880.
  4. A neotype strain of Chromobacterium violaceum Bergonzini 1880 is designated and has been deposited in the American Type Culture Collection, Washington, D.C. (ATCC 12472) and in the National Collection of Type Cultures, London (NCTC 9757).
17Conservation of the generic name Staphylococcus Rosenbach, designation of Staphylococcus aureus as the nomenclatural type of the genus Staphylococcus Rosenbach, and designation of a neotype culture of Staphylococcus aureus Rosenbach8:153–154 (1958)
  1. The generic name Staphylococcus Rosenbach 1884 is conserved and placed in the list of nomina generum conservanda.
  2. Staphylococcus aureus Rosenbach 1884 is recognized as the nomenclatural type species of the genus Staphylococcus Rosenbach 1884.
  3. The strain labeled NCTC 8532 in the National Collection of Type Cultures, London, is designated as the neotype strain of the species Staphylococcus aureus Rosenbach 1884.
18Conservation of typhi in the binary combination Salmonella typhi13:31–33 (1963), see also 8:155–156 (1958)The specific epithet typhi in the name of the species Salmonella typhi (Schroeter) Warren and Scott is conserved over the specific epithet typhosa in the name of the species Salmonella typhosa (Zopf) White 1930, with the recognition of Bacillus typhi Schroeter 1886 as the basonym.
19Conservation of the generic name Rickettsia da Rocha-Lima and of the species name Rickettsia prowazekii da Rocha-Lima8:158–159 (1958)The generic name Rickettsia da Rocha-Lima is conserved against Stricheria Stempell, and the specific epithet prowazekii in the species name Rickettsia prowazekii da Rocha-Lima is conserved against the specific epithet jurgensi first used in the species name Stricheria jurgensi Stempell.
20Status of new generic names of bacteria published without names of included species8:160–162 (1958)
  1. Name of a hypothetical genus. A hypothetical genus is one in which no species is described, named, or cited; the existence of the genus is predicated upon the future discovery and description of species as yet unknown. A name applied to a hypothetical genus is not validly published and is to be placed in the list of nomina rejicienda.
  2. Name of a "temporary" genus. A generic name proposed for a genus whose sole function is stated to be to serve as the temporary generic haven for insufficiently described species, which species may be allocated later to an appropriate genus or genera, is to be regarded as not validly published. Such a name may be placed in the list of nomina rejicienda.
  3. Name of a new genus with a described species which is neither named nor identified with a previously named species. A new generic name published in a combined description of a genus and species, without the species being named, without citation of a previously and effectively published description of the species, and without subsequent acceptance of the generic name and naming of the species by a later author, should be regarded as not validly published. Such a generic name may be placed in the list of nomina rejicienda.
    However, if a later author has recognized the generic name and has used it with a specific epithet in naming the species described by the first author, particularly if there has been later general acceptance of the name, there may be validation of the generic name as proposed by its author, with the name of the species ascribed to the later author who gave it. Proposals for such validations of names should be made to the Judicial Commission for appropriate action.
  4. Name of a new genus proposed to include one or more previously described and named species, but without simultaneous publication of the new binary combination of generic name and specific epithet. A published generic name applied to a new genus in which the generic name is not used in a binary combination in naming any species, but in which there is citation of a previously and effectively published description of a species under another name, is to be regarded as validly published and the consequent combinationes novae ascribed likewise to the author of the generic name.
21Conservation of the generic name Selemonas von Prowazek8:163–165 (1958), with type species Selenomonas sputigena (Flügge) Boskamp 1922
  1. The generic name Selenomonas von Prowazek 1913 was validly published with an accompanying description of the genus.
  2. The species Spirillum sputigenum Flügge 1886 was characterized and adequate references to description given. The species was assigned to the genus Selenomonas.
  3. Selenomonas sputigena (Flügge) Boskamp 1922 (basonym Spirillum sputigenum Flügge) is designated as the type species of Selenomonas von Prowazek.
  4. The generic name Selenomonas von Prowazek 1913 is placed in the list of nomina generum conservanda.
22Status of the generic name Asterococcus and conservation of the generic name Mycoplasma8:166–168 (1958), illegitimacy of Asterococcus Borrel et al. 1910, conservation of Mycoplasma Nowak 1929 with type species Mycoplasma mycoides (Borrel et al.) Freundt 1955
  1. The generic name Asterococcus Borrel, Dujardin-Beaumetz, Jeantet, and Jouan 1910 is a later homonym of Asterococcus Scherffel 1908 and hence illegitimate.
  2. The generic name Mycoplasma Nowak 1929 is placed in the list of bacterial nomina generum conservanda as the first legitimate generic name proposed to replace Asterococcus Borrel et al. The type species is Mycoplasma mycoides (Borrel et al.) Freundt 1955 (basonym Asterococcus mycoides Borrel el al).
23Rejection of the generic names Nitromonas Winogradsky 1890 and Nitromonas Orla-Jensen 1909, conservation of the generic names Nitrosomonas Winogradsky 1892, Nitrosococcus Winogradsky 1892, and Nitrobacter Winogradsky 1892, and the designation of the type species of these genera8:169–170 (1958), type species are respectively Nitrosomonas europaea Winogradsky 1892, Nitrosococcus nitrosus (Migula) Buchanan 1925, and Nitrobacter winogradskyi Winslow et al. 1917
  1. The generic name Nitromonas Winogradsky 1890 is placed in the list of nomina generum rejicienda.
  2. The generic name Nitromonas Orla-Jensen 1909 is a later homonym of Nitromonas Winogradsky 1890 and a later synonym of Nitrobacter Winogradsky (1892). It is placed in the list of nomina generum rejicienda.
  3. The generic name Nitrosomonas Winogradsky 1892 is placed in the list of nomina generum conservanda with Nitrosomonas europaea Winogradsky 1892 as the nomenclatural type species.
  4. The generic name Nitrosococcus Winogradsky 1892 is placed in the list of nomina generum conservanda, with the species described by Winogradsky and later named Nitrosococcus nitrosus (Migula) Buchanan 1925 as the nomenclatural type species.
  5. The generic name Nitrobacter Winogradsky 1892 is placed in the list of nomina generum conservanda, with the species described by Winogradsky and later named Nitrobacter winogradskyi Winslow et al. 1917 as the nomenclatural type species.
24Rejection of the generic name Arthrobacter Fischer 1895 and conservation of the generic name Arthrobacter Conn and Dimmick 19478:171–172 (1958), conservation was effected though its mention was milled in the Opinion itself. The title of the Opinion explicitly states that Arthrobacter Conn and Dimmick is conserved.
  1. The name Arthrobacter proposed by Fischer in 1895 as the name of a hypothetical genus of bacteria was not validly published and has no standing in nomenclature.
  2. The generic name Arthrobacter Conn and Dimmick 1947 was validly published as a nomen novum. It is not an emendation of Arthrobacter Fischer 1895 nor a later homonym.
25Rejection of names of bacteria in certain publications of Trécul, Hallier, Billroth, and Ogston13:33–35 (1963)
  1. The specific, subgeneric, generic or other names proposed in the several publications listed below were not validly published as names of taxa of bacteria and have no standing in bacteriological nomenclature. These publications are included in the list of Rejected Publications as authorized in Paragraph 8 under "Functions of the Judicial Commission," in Section IV of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria and Viruses:
    (a) Trécul, A. 1865. Production de plantules amylifères dans les cellules végétales pendant la putréfaction. Chlorophylle cristallisée. C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 61: 432–436.
    (b1) Hallier, Ernst. 1866. Die pflanzlichen Parasiten des menschlichen Kōrpers für Aerzte, Botaniker und Studierende zugleich als Einleitung in das Stadium der niederen Organismen. Leipzig.
    (b2) Hallier, Ernst. 1868. Mikroskopische Untersuchungen. Zwei neue Untersuchungen über den Micrococcus. Flora N.S. 26:654–657.
    (b3) Hallier, E. 1868. Mykologische Untersuchungen. III. Untersuchungen der Parasiten beim Tripper, beim weichen Schanker, bei der Syphilis und bei der Rotzkranheit der Pferde. Flora N.S. 26:289–301.
    (b4) Hallier, Ernst. 1870. Die Parasiten der Infektionskrankheiten. Z. Parasitenkd. 2:113–132.
    (c) Billroth, C. A. T. 1874. Untersuchungen über die Vegetationsformen von Coccobacteria septica. Berlin.
    (d1) Ogston, Alex. 1882. Micrococcus poisoning. J. Anat. Physiol. 16:526–567.
    (d2) Ogston, Alex. 1883. Micrococcus poisoning (cont.). J. Anat. Physiol. 17:24–58.
  2. Names proposed in the above-listed publications of Trécul, Hallier, Billroth, and Ogston have in some cases been adopted by later authors as the names of bacterial taxa and one or other of the four authors named cited as author. In such cases the name of the taxon is to be ascribed to the first subsequent authors whose publication meets the requirements of valid publication as prescribed in the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria and Viruses (Rule 11 [now Rule 27]).
26Designation of neotype strains (cultures) of type species of the bacterial genera Salmonella, Shigella, Arizona, Escherichia, Citrobacter, and Proteus of the family Enterobacteriaceae13:35–36 (1963), and 14:57 (1964)
Neotype cultures of Salmonella cholerae-suis, S. typhi-murium, Shigella dysenteriae, Arizona arizonae, Escherichia coli, Citrobacter freundii, and Proteus vulgaris were approved.
Catalogue no.
Name of speciesNCTC LondonATCC Washington
Salmonella cholerae-suis (sic) (Smith) Weldin 1927. Type species of genus Salmonella Lignières 1900.573513312
Salmonella typhi-murium (sic) (Loeffler) Castellani and Chalmers 19197413311
Shigella dysenteriae (Shiga) Castellani and Chalmers 1919. Type species of genus Shigella Castellani and Chalmers 1919.483713313
Arizona arizonae Kauffmann and Edwards 1952. Type species of genus Arizona Kauffmann and Edwards 1952.829713314
Escherichia coli (Migula) Castellani and Chalmers 1919. Type species of genus Escherichia Castellani and Chalmers 1919.900111775
Citrobacter freundii (Braak) Werkman and Gillen 1932. Type species of genus Citrobacter Werkman and Gillen 1932.97508090
Proteus vulgaris Hauser 1885. Type species of genus Proteus Hauser 1885.417513315
27Designation of the neotype strain of Streptococcus agalactiae Lehmann and Neumann13:37 (1963)The strain Stableforth G19 is designated as the neotype strain of Streptococcus agalactiae Lehmann and Neumann. This neotype strain is catalogued in the National Collection of Type Cultures as NCTC 8181 and in the American Type Culture Collection as ATCC 13813.
28Rejection of the bacterial generic name Cloaca Castellani and Chalmers and acceptance of Enterobacter Hormaeche and Edwards as a bacterial generic name with type species Enterobacter cloacae. (Jordan) Hormaeche and Edwards13:38 (1963), conservation was effected by statement in the Summary though omitted in the title and in the Opinion itself.The generic name Cloaca Castellani and Chalmers is rejected and replaced by the generic name Enterobacter Hormaeche and Edwards with the type species Enterobacter cloacae (Jordan) Hormaeche and Edwards: the basonym is Bacillus cloacae Jordan.
29Designation of strain ATCC 3004 (IMRU 3004) as the neotype strain of Streptomyces albus (Rossi Doria) Waksman and Henrici13:123–124 (1963)The strain labeled ATCC 3004 in the American Type Culture Collection, Washington, D.C., and also known as IMRU 3004 (Institute of Microbiology, Rutgers University) is designated as the neotype strain of Streptomyces albus (Rossi Doria) Waksman and Henrici 1943.
30Conservation of the specific epithet faecalis in the species name Streptococcus faecalis Andrewes and Horder 190613:167 (1963)The specific epithet faecalis in the species name Streptococcus faecalis Andrewes and Horder 1906 is conserved against the specific epithets in Streptococcus liquefaciens Sternberg 1892, S. zymogenes McCallum and Hastings 1899, and all other earlier synonymous specific epithets in the genus Streptococcus.
31Conservation of Vibrio Pacini 1854 as a bacterial generic name, conservation of Vibrio cholerae Pacini 1854 as the nomenclatural type species of the bacterial genus Vibrio, and designation of neotype strain of Vibrio cholerae Pacini15:185–186 (1965)Vibrio cholerae Pacini 1854 is conserved as the name of the type species of the bacterial genus Vibrio Pacini 1854, the bacterial generic name Vibrio Pacini 1854 is placed in the list of conserved bacterial generic names (nomina generum conservanda), and National Collection of Type Cultures NCTC 8021 (American Type Culture Collection, ATCC 14035) is designated as the neotype of the species Vibrio cholerae Pacini 1854.
32Conservation of the specific epithet rhusiopathiae in the scientific name of the organism known as Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae (Migula 1900) Buchanan 191820:9 (1970)The specific epithet rhusiopathiae in the scientific name of the organism known as Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae (Migula 1900) Buchanan 1918 is conserved against the specific epithet insidiosa (basonym Bacillus insidiosus Trevisan 1885) and against all other specific epithets applied to this organism.
33Conservation of the generic name Agrobacterium Conn 194220:10 (1970), type species Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Smith and Townsend) Conn 1942The generic name Agrobacterium Conn 1942 is conserved against the name Polymonas Lieske 1928, which is placed in the list of nomina generum rejicienda. The type species, by original designation, is Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Smith and Townsend 1907) Conn 1942: the basonym is Bacterium tumefaciens Smith and Townsend 1907.
34Conservation of the generic name Rhizobium Frank 188920:11–12 (1970), type species Rhizobium leguminosarum Frank 1889The generic name Rhizobium Frank 1889 is conserved against Phytomyxa Schroeter 1886 and all earlier synonyms. The type species is Rhizobium leguminosarum (Frank 1879) Frank 1889; the basonym is Schinzia leguminosarum Frank 1879.
35Conservation of the specific epithet meningitidis in the scientific name of the meningococcus20:13–14 (1970), and designation of neotype strain (genus is now Neisseria)The specific epithet "meningitidis" is conserved in the scientific name of the meningococcus (Diplococcus intracellularis meningitidis Weichselbaum) against all earlier specific epithets. The neotype strain of this organism is ATCC 13077(= Sara E. Branham M1027 = NCTC 10025).
36Designation of strain ATCC 10145 as the neotype strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Schroeter) Migula20:15–16 (1970)The neotype strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Schroeter) Migula is ATCC 10145 = CCEB 481 = IBCS 277 = NCIB 8295 = NCTC 10332 = NRRL B-771 = RH 815.
37Designation of strain ATCC 13525 as the neotype strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens Migula20:17–18 (1970)The neotype strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens Migula is ATCC 13525 = CCEB 546 = NCIB 9046 = NCTC 10038 = RH 818 = M. Rhodes 28/5.
38Conservation of the generic name Lactobacillus Beijerinck21:104 (1971), with new type species Lactobacillus delbrueckii Beijerinck 1901 and neotype strainThe generic name Lactobacillus Beijerinck 1901 is conserved over Saccharobacillus van Laer 1892 and all earlier objective synonyms. The type species of this genus is Lactobacillus delbrueckii Beijerinck 1901, the neotype strain of which is ATCC 9649 = NCDO 213. The name Lactobacillus delbrueckii Beijerinck 1901, although used by Beijerinck as a simplified version of the subspecific name " Lactobacillus fermentum var. delbrucki," shall be held to be validly published by Beijerinck as a species name. The name Lactobacillus caucasicus Beijerinck 1901 is placed in the list of rejected names, and L. caucasicus ceases to be the type species of Lactobacillus Beijerinck.
39Rejection of the generic name Gaffkya Trevisan21:104–105 (1971)The generic name Gaffkya Trevisan 1885 is placed on the list of rejected names.
40Rejection of the names Mima De Bord and Herellea De Bord and of the specific epithets polymorpha and vaginicola in Mima polymorpha De Bord and Herellea vaginicola De Bord, respectively21:105–106 (1971), and loss of standing in nomenclature of the tribal name Mimeae De Bord 1939The generic names Mima De Bord 1939, 1942 and Herellea De Bord 1942 are placed on the list of rejected names. The specific epithets polymorpha and vaginicola in Mima polymorpha De Bord 1939, 1942 and Herellea vaginicola De Bord 1942 respectively are placed on the list of rejected epithets. The tribal name Mimeae De Bord 1939, 1942 therefore loses its standing in nomenclature.
41Conservation of the generic name Moraxella Lwoff21:106 (1971), type species Moraxella lacunata (Eyre) Lwoff 1939, and neotype strainThe generic name Moraxella Lwoff 1939 is conserved over Diplobacillus McNab 1904 and over all earlier objective synonyms. The type species is Moraxella lacunata (Eyre) Lwoff 1939, and the neotype strain of this species is Morax 260 = ATCC 17967.
42Conservation of the specific epithet "phenylpyruvica" in the name Moraxella phenylpyruvica Bøvre and Henriksen21:107 (1971), conservation over epithet polymorpha in the name Moraxella polymorpha Flamm 1957, and neotype strainThe specific epithet "phenylpyruvica" in the name Moraxella phenylpyruvica Bøvre and Henriksen 1967 is conserved against the specific epithet "polymorpha" in the name of the earlier objective synonym Moraxella polymorpha Flamm 1957 and against the specific epithets in all other earlier objective synonyms. The neotype strain of Moraxella phenylpyruvica is 2863 (= ATCC 23333 = NCTC 10526).
43Conservation of the specific epithet "sphaeroides" in the name Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides van Niel21:108 (1971), and neotype strainThe specific epithet "sphaeroides" in the name Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides van Niel 1944 is conserved against the specific epithet "minor" in the name of the earlier subjective synonym Rhodococcus minor and against the specific epithets in the names of all earlier objective synonyms of Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides. The neotype strain is van Niel's ATH 2.4.1 (= ATCC 17023).
44Validation of the generic name Chloropseudomonas Czurda and Maresch 1937 and designation of the type species21:109 (1971), type species Chloropseudomonas ethylica Shaposhnikov et al. 1960The generic name Chloropseudomonas is held to be validly published by Czurda and Maresch 1937. The type species is Chloropseudomonas ethylica Shaposhnikov, Kondratieva, and Fedorov 1960.
45Rejection of the name Leuconostoc citrovorum (Hammer) Hucker and Pederson21:109–110 (1971)The name Leuconostoc citrovorum (Hammer 1920) Hucker and Pederson 1931, together with its objective synonyms, is regarded as a nomen dubium and is placed on the list of rejected names.
46Rejection of the generic name Aerobacter Beijerinck21:110 (1971)The generic name Aerobacter Beijerinck 1900 is regarded as a nomen ambiguum and is placed on the list of rejected generic names.
47Conservation of the specific epithet avium in the scientific name of the agent of avian tuberculosis23:472 (1973)The specific epithet avium is conserved against the specific epithet tuberculosis-gallinarum and all earlier objective synonyms in the scientific name of the agent of avian tuberculosis. The name Mycobacterium avium shall be held to be validly published by Chester in 1901. The neotype strain of M. avium Chester is ATCC 25291.
48Rejection of the name Aerobacter liquefaciens Beijerinck and conservation of the name Aeromonas Stanier with Aeromonas hydrophila as the type species23:473–474 (1973)The name Aerobacter liquefaciens Beijerinck 1900 is a nomen dubium and, together with all objective synonyms of this name, is placed on the list of rejected names. The generic name Aeromonas Stanier 1943, with type species Aeromonas hydrophila (Chester 1901) Stanier 1943, is conserved. The name Aeromonas is not to be attributed to Kluyver and van Niel. The neotype strain of A. hydrophila is ATCC 7966.
49Conservation of the generic name Rhodopseudomonas Czurda and Maresch emend. van Niel24:551 (1974)The generic name Rhodopseudomonas Czurda and Maresch 1937 emend, van Niel 1944 is conserved over all earlier objective synonyms; the type species is Rhodopseudomonas palustris (Molisch 1907) van Niel 1944 (basonym Rhodobacillus palustris Molisch 1907).
50Conservation of the epithet fermentum in the combination Lactobacillus fermentum Beijerinck24:551–552 (1974)The species name Lactobacillus fermentum Beijerinck 1901 shall be held to be validly published by Beijerinck 1901 as the name of a bacterial species, and the epithet fermentum in the combination Lactobacillus fermentum Beijerinck 1901 is conserved over the epithets in all other objective synonyms. The neotype strain of Lactobacillus fermentum is ATCC 14931.
51Conservation of the epithet fortuitum in the combination Mycobacterium fortuitum da Costa Cruz24:552 (1974)The specific epithet fortuitum in the name Mycobacterium fortuitum da Costa Cruz 1938 is conserved against the epithet ranae in the subjective synonym Mycobacterium ranae Bergey et al. 1923 and against the specific epithets in the names of all objective synonyms of Mycobacterium fortuitum and Mycobacterium ranae. The type strain of Mycobacterium fortuitum is ATCC 6841.
52Conservation of the generic name Pediococcus, Claussen with the type species Pediococcus damnosus Claussen28:292 (1976), replacement of type species P. cerevisiae by P. damnosusThe generic name Pediococcus Claussen 1903 is conserved over Pediococcus Balcke 1884 and all earlier objective synonyms. The type species is Pediococcus damnosus Claussen 1903, and the neotype strain is Be.l (= NCDO 1832). Pediococcus Balcke 1884 and the species name Pediococcus cerevisiae Balcke 1884 are not validly published.
53Rejection of the species name Mycobacterium marianum Penso 195328:334 (1978), confusion between the epithets marianum and marinumThe species name Mycobacterium marianum Penso 1953 is placed on the list of nomina rejicienda as a nomen perplexum because it is a source of confusion.
54Rejection of the species name Pseudomonas denitrificans (Christensen) Bergey et al. 192332:466 (1982)The species name Pseudomonas denitrificans (Christensen) Bergey et al. 1923 is placed on the list of nomina rejicienda as a nomen ambiguum because it is a source of confusion.
55Rejection of the species name Mycobacterium aquae Jenkins et al. 197232:467 (1982)The species name Mycobacterium aquae Jenkins et al. 1972 is placed on the list of nomina rejicienda as a nomen ambiguum because it is a source of confusion.
56Rejection of the species name Peptococcus anaerobius (Hamm) Douglas 195732:468 (1982)The species name Peptococcus anaerobius (Hamm) Douglas 1957 is placed on the list of nomina rejicienda as a nomen dubium and a nomen perplexum because it is a source of confusion.
57Designation of Eubacterium limosum (Eggerth) Prévot 1938 as the type species of Eubacterium33:434 (1983), replacement of type species E. foedans by E. limosumThe type species of the genus Eubacterium Prévot 1938 is designated E. limosum (Eggerth) Prévot 1938 (type strain, ATCC 8486).
58Confirmation of the type species in the Approved Lists as nomenclatural types including recognition of Nocardia asteroides (Eppinger 1891) Blanchard 1896 and Pasteurella multocida (Lehmann and Neumann 1899) Rosenbusch and Marchant 1939 as the respective type species of the genera Nocardia and Pasteurella and rejection of the type species name Pasteurella gallicida (Burrill 1883) Buchanan 192535:538 (1985), confirmation of new type species for Nocardia and Pasteurella (see Opinion 13) and rejection of P. gallicida as an objective synonym of P. multocida (Editorial Note. As stated in the title and summary, the Opinion also confirms the nomenclatural types in the Approved Lists, but without prejudice to the powers of the Judicial Commission to amend them.)The names (Editorial Note. This should read The types.") of the bacterial taxa cited in the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names are formally and explicitly confirmed as correct and supersede any others in use before the appearance of the lists but without prejudice to the powers of the Judicial Commission to amend them. The species names Nocardia asteroides (Eppinger 1891) Blanchard 1896 and Pasteurella multocida (Lehmann and Neumann 1899) Rosenbusch and Marchant 1939 are the valid type species of their respective genera, thus reversing those elements of Opinion 13 that apply to these two genera. The species name Pasteurella gallicida (Burrill 1883) Buchanan 1925 is placed on the list of nomina rejicienda.
59Designation of NCIB 11664 in place of ATCC 23767 (NCIB 4112) as the type strain of Acetobacter aceti subsp. xylinum (sic) (Brown 1886) De Ley and Frateur 197435:539 (1985). The epithet xylinum should be spelt xylinus (see Opinion 3).The type strain of Acetobacter aceti subsp. xylinus is NCIB 11664 (= NCIB4112B) not ATCC 23767 (= NCIB 4112 = NCIB 11301 = CIP 57.14).
60Rejection of the name Yersinia pseudotuberculosis subsp. pestis (van Loghem) Bercovier el al. 1981 and conservation of the name Yersinia pestis (Lehmann and Neumann) van Loghem 1944 for the plague bacillus35:540 (1985), see also Rule 56a(5)The name Yersinia pseudotuberculosis subsp. pestis (van Loghem) Bercovier et al. 1981 is placed on the list of nomina rejicienda because the use of the name could have serious consequences for human welfare and health. The name Yersinia pestis is conserved for the plague bacillus. The opinion does not challenge the scientific evidence, which indicates the taxonomic relatedness of bacteria named Yersinia pestis and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.
61Rejection of the type strain of Pasteuria ramosa (ATCC 27377) and conservation of the species Pasteuria ramosa Metchnikoff 1888 on the basis of the type descriptive material36:119 (1986)Strain ATCC 27377 is rejected as the type strain of the species Pasteuria ramosa Metchnikoff 1888 because it is quite different from the bacteria observed and described by Metchnikoff and to which he gave the name Pasteuria ramosa: Pasteuria ramosa is conserved with the description of Metchnikoff, as amended by Starr et al. 1983, serving as the type species. (Editorial Note. This should read "serving as the type.")
In issuing this opinion the Judicial Commission declines to comment on the assignment of strain ATCC 27377 to another genus because this is a taxonomic matter and not one of nomenclature.
62Transfer of the type species of the genus Methanococcus to the genus Methanosarcina as Methanosarcina mazei (Barker 1936) comb. nov. et emend. Mah and Kuhn 1984 and conservation of the genus Methanococcus (Approved Lists 1980) emend. Mah and Kuhn 1984 with Methanococcus vannielii (Approved Lists 1980) as the type species36:491 (1986)Methanococcus mazei, the type species of the genus Methanococcus, is transferred to the genus Methanosarcina as Methanosarcina mazei (Barker 1936) comb. nov. et emend. Mah and Kuhn 1984. The genus Methanococcus (Approved Lists 1980) emend. Mah and Kuhn 1984 is conserved with Methanococcus vannielii Stadtman and Barker 1951 (Approved Lists 1980) as the type species.
63Rejection of the type species Methanosarcina methanica (Approved Lists 1980) and conservation of the genus Methanosarcina (Approved Lists 1980) emend. Mah and Kuhn 1984 with Methanosarcina barkeri (Approved Lists 1980) as the type species36:492 (1986)Methanosarcina methanica (Approved Lists 1980), the nomenclatural type species of the genus Methanosarcina (Approved Lists 1980), is placed on the list of nomina rejicienda as a nomen dubium et confusum because it is a source of doubt and confusion. The genus Methanosarcina (Approved Lists 1980) emend. Mah and Kuhn 1984 is conserved with Methanosarcina barkeri (Approved Lists 1980) as the type species.
1

The references are to volumes and pages in the International Bulletin of Bacteriological Nomenclature and Taxonomy, to vol. 15 (1965) and thereafter the International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, and date.

Copyright © 1992, International Union of Microbiological Societies.
Bookshelf ID: NBK8805

Views

  • PubReader
  • Print View
  • Cite this Page

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...