Figure 1 is an analytic framework that depicts the structure used to address the key questions for evaluating the effectiveness of first- and second-generation antipsychotics in children and young adults (≤24 years of age). The framework provides information on the patient population of interest, interventions, intermediate outcomes, long-term outcomes, and adverse effects. The population of interest is patients 24 years of age or younger with pervasive developmental disorders, ADHD, disruptive behavior disorders, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, Tourette syndrome, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, anorexia nervosa, or behavioral symptoms that were treated with FGAs or SGAs. The intermediate outcome measures are core illness symptoms and response rates, with corresponding dose and duration of response. The long-term outcomes include: long-term symptom response rates, duration of response, remission, relapse, speed of response, time to discontinuation of medication, growth and maturation, cognitive and emotional development, suicide-related behaviors, medication adherence and persistence, school performance and attendance, work-related functional capacity, patient insight into illness, patient-, parent-, and care provider–reported outcomes, health-related quality of life, legal and justice system interaction, and health care system utilization. For adverse effects, we examined data on overall and specific adverse events, withdrawals and time to withdrawals due to adverse events, and persistence and reversibility of adverse events.

Figure 1Analytic framework for first- and second-generation antipsychotics in children and young adults (≤24 years)

ADHD = attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; AN = anorexia nervosa; BD = bipolar disorder; DBD = disruptive behavior disorder; KQ = key question; OCD = obsessive-compulsive disorder; PDD = pervasive developmental disorder; PTSD = post-traumatic stress disorder; SZ = schizophrenia or other related psychosis; TS = Tourette syndrome

From: Introduction

Cover of First- and Second-Generation Antipsychotics for Children and Young Adults
First- and Second-Generation Antipsychotics for Children and Young Adults [Internet].
Comparative Effectiveness Reviews, No. 39.
Seida JC, Schouten JR, Mousavi SS, et al.

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