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Centre for Clinical Practice at NICE (UK). Neuropathic Pain: The Pharmacological Management of Neuropathic Pain in Adults in Non-Specialist Settings. London: National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (UK); 2010 Mar. (NICE Clinical Guidelines, No. 96.)

  • This publication is provided for historical reference only and the information may be out of date.

This publication is provided for historical reference only and the information may be out of date.

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Neuropathic Pain: The Pharmacological Management of Neuropathic Pain in Adults in Non-Specialist Settings.

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Appendix 9.4Lists of excluded studies

1. Antidepressants as monotherapy

Total number of studies retrieved from searches = 2781
Selection based on title and abstract = 55 (full papers ordered)Excluded = 2725
Selection based on full papers = 22Excluded = 33
Total number of studies included = 22

2. List of excluded studies: antidepressants as monotherapy

Antidepressants
monotherapy - placebo controlled trials

AuthorReason for exclusion
Ciaramella 2000Not in English.
Enggaard 2001Pain was induced experimentally in healthy volunteers.
Enggaard 2001Pain was induced experimentally in healthy volunteers.
Forsell 2004Atypical facial pain is not neuropathic pain.
Gerson 1977Control group included the use of trancutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TEN).
Gobel 1997Not in English.
Gomez-Perez 1985Crossover study with no washout ,no analysis of carry over effect, fluphenazine was added to nortriptyline.
Gordon 1994Pre-emptive study on postoperative acute pain (20 minutes post-operation).
Kadiroglu 2008Low quality, inappropriate randomisation method, blinding not clear, no report on withdrawals or dropouts.
Kvinesdal 1984Crossover study with no washout and no analysis of carry over effect.
Lampl 2002Study on prophylaxis, main outcome is ‘time to pain’.
Langohr 1982Low quality open study, no blinding.
Loldrup 1989Conditions included tension headache, abdominal pain, low back pain, unable to extract data.
Lynch 2002Topical amitriptyline not included in the scope.
Lynch 2005Topical amitriptyline not included in the scope.
Max 1987Randomisation not clear, crossover study with no washout, analysis showed carry over effect.
Max 1992Low quality, randomisation method not stated, blinding not clear, 22 patients not randomised.
McCleane 2000Topical doxepin not included in the scope.
Mendel 1986Study sample < 10.
Panerai 1990Only 3 weeks study period, crossover study with no washout, no analysis of carry over effect.
Pilowsky 1982Crossover study with no washout and no analysis of carry over effect.
Raskin 2006Unclear comparator (routine care). No description of what is routine care.
Rueben 2004Only 2 weeks study period.
Sharav 1987Study population included participants with non-neuropathic conditions. Unable to extract data.
Shlay 1998Study design included acupuncture in treatment and control point in control group.
Sindrup 1989Study sample < 10.
Sindrup 1990aOnly 2 weeks study period.
Sindrup 1990bOnly 2 weeks study period, some carry over effect after clomipramine.
Sindrup 1992aOnly 3 weeks study period.
Sindrup 1992bOnly 2 weeks study period.
Wallace 2002Pain was induced experimentally in healthy volunteers.
Wernicke 2006Unclear comparator (routine care). No description of what is routine care.
Wernicke 2007Unclear comparator (routine care). No description of what is routine care.

3. Anticonvulsants as monotherapy

Total number of studies retrieved from searches = 4757
Selection based on title and abstract = 93 (full papers ordered)Excluded = 4665
Selection based on full papers = 46Excluded = 47
Total number of studies included = 46

4. List of excluded studies: anticonvulsants as monotherapy

Anticonvulsants
monotherapy - placebo controlled trials

AuthorReason for exclusion
Al-Mujadi 2005Study on postoperative acute pain up to 24 hours, no neuropathic pain.
Badran 1975Not RCT
Berry 2005A single dose study for acute analgesic effect.
Blonna 2004Not in English.
Beydoun 2004Open-label trial, no blinding.
Bonicalzi 1997Study on postoperative acute pain up to 6 hours, no neuropathic pain.
Chadda 1978Only 2 weeks study period.
Campbell 1966Only 2 weeks study period, crossover study with no washout, and no analysis of carry over effect.
Caraceni 2004Only 10 days study period
Cutter 2000Study on spasticity, not neuropathic pain.
Dirks 2002Study on postoperative acute pain up to 4 hours, no neuropathic pain.
Drewes 1994Only 3 weeks study period.
Dworkin 2009Study on pain during herpes zoster episode, not PHN.
Edwards 1998Abstract only, not enough information to extract.
Fassoulaki 2002Study on postoperative acute pain up to 24 hours, no neuropathic pain.
Gilron 2001Study sample < 10.
Gilron 2005Study on postoperative acute pain up to 72 hours, no neuropathic pain.
Gilron 2005Crossover study, author reported analysis of significant carry over effect.
Gorson 1999Author reported washout as inadequate.
Hill 2001Study on postoperative acute pain up to 8 hours, no neuropathic pain.
Huot 2008Study on postoperative acute pain up to 24 hours, no neuropathic pain.
Jenson 2001Treatment combination included drug not in the scope (levetiracetam).
Jones 1977Treatment arm included TEN as part of the therapy.
Jose 2007Only commentary
Killian 1968Low quality, crossover study with only 5 days study period, with no washout.
Kochar 2005Treatment drug not included in the scope (Divalproex Sodium).
Martin 1988Treatment administered intravenously.
McCleane 1999Treatment administered intravenously.
Metry 2008Study on postoperative acute pain up to 24 hours, no neuropathic pain.
Mueller 1997Only 2 days treatment period.
Otto 2004Treatment drug not included in in scope (Divalproex Sodium).
Pandey 2002Guillain-Barre Syndrome not included.
Rasmussen 1970Low quality, randomisation not stated, no extractable data.
Richards 1987Rheumatoid arthritis not included.
Rockliff 1966Study sample < 10.
Rull 1969Only 2 weeks study period, crossover study with no washout, and no analysis of carry over effect.
Saudek 1977Crossover study with no washout, and no analysis of carry over effect.
Silver 2007Study included children (from 12 years old), unable to extract data on adults.
Solaro 2007Not RCT, a pilot study.
Tai 2002Study sample < 10.
Tomson 1980Study sample < 10.
Tuncer 2005Study on postoperative acute pain up to 4 hours, no neuropathic pain.
Turan 2004Study on postoperative acute pain up to 24 hours, no neuropathic pain.
Webb 1997Pain was induced experimentally in healthy volunteers.
Yildirim 2003Low quality, randomisation not stated, no mention og blinding.
Zakrzewska 1997Crossover study with only 2 weeks study period, only 3 days washout.

5. Opioid analgesics as monotherapy

Total number of studies retrieved from searches = 9612
Selection based on title and abstract and assessment on full paper = 55Excluded = 9557
Selection based on full papers = 8Excluded = 47
Total number of studies included = 8

6. List of excluded studies: opioid analgesics as monotherapy

Opioid Analgesics
monotherapy - placebo controlled trials

AuthorReason for exclusion
Agarwal 2007Not RCT (open label follow-up study with no control group)
Attal 2002Single dose (IV) rescue analgesic study, endpoint 6 hours after infusion.
Bohme 2002Study sample included musculoskeletal pain, cannot extract data on NP.
Bohmfalk 1991Comment only.
Bruera 1995Crossover study with no washout and no analysis of carry over effects. 4 days study.
Caraceni 1999Not RCT (open label follow-up study with no control group)
Cundiff 1989Compared controlled-release morphine with immediate-release morphine.
Curkoviz 2003Not RCT (open label follow-up study with no control group)
Dellemijn 1997Single dose (IV) rescue analgesic study, endpoint 8 hours after infusion.
Eide 1994Single dose (IV) rescue analgesic study, endpoint 45 minutes after infusion.
Ferrell 1989Compared controlled-release morphine with short-acting morphine.
Freeman 2007Combination of treatment drug (tramadol + paracetamol) not included in the Scope.
Gilron 2005Crossover study, author reported significant carry over effects.
Goebel 2008Study sample did not classify weather the ‘Chronic pain’ was neuropathic or non-neuropathic.
Harati 2000Not RCT (open label follow-up study with no control group)
Harke 2001Some participants from the study sample also received spinal cord stimulation treatment.
Heiskanen 2000Only 4 participants out of the study sample had neuropathic pain (N < 10).
Jadad 1992Compared different concentration of morphine (10mg/ml vs. 30mg/ml), endpoint 8 hours after IV.
Jensen 2006Duplication of publication - Gimbel 2003 study.
Katz 2000Combination of treatment drug (morphine + dextromethorphan) not included in the Scope.
Kupers 1991Single dose (IV) rescue analgesic study, endpoint 10 minutes after infusion.
Manfredi 2003Comment only.
Mariconti 2008Not RCT (open label follow-up study with no control group)
Mystakidou 2003aNot RCT (open label follow-up study with no control group)
Mystakidou 2003bNot RCT (open label follow-up study with no control group)
Palangio 2000Hydrocodone not included in the Scope.
Pappagallo 1994Not RCT (open label follow-up study with no control group)
Pascual 2007Not RCT (open label follow-up study with no control group)
Penza 2008Not RCT (open label follow-up study with no control group)
Raja 2002Cannot distinguish/extract weather treatment drug was maorphine or methdone.
Rowbotham 1991Single dose (IV) rescue analgesic study, endpoint 2 hours after infusion.
Portenoy 2007Not RCT (open label follow-up study with no control group)
Siddall 2000Study period < 1 week (6 days), intrathecal administration.
Simpson 2007Study on number of breakthrough episodes.
Sittl 2002Study sample did not classify weather the ‘Chronic pain’ was neuropathic or non-neuropathic.
Sloan 1998Not RCT (open label follow-up study with no control group)
Spacek 2002Crossover study, only 2 days washout, study period < 1 week (5 days).
Watson 1998Crossover study with no washout and no analysis of carry over effects. 4 weeks study.
Watson 2003Crossover study with no washout and no analysis of carry over effects. 4 weeks study.
Wilder-Smith 2005Crossover study with no washout and no analysis of carry over effects. Early crossover.
Wu 2002Crossover study with no washout and no analysis of carry over effects, < 1 week study period.
6 × non-English

7. Topical treatments as monotherapy

Total number of studies retrieved from searches = 6057
Selection based on title and abstract and assessment on full paper = 52Excluded = 6005
Selection based on full papers = 14Excluded = 38
Total number of studies included = 14

8. List of excluded studies: topical treatments as monotherapy

Topical Lidocaine & Topical Capsaicin
monotherapy - placebo controlled trials

Argoff 2004Not RCT (open label follow-up study with no control group)
Attal 2000Lidocaine administered through IV.
Backonja 1992Lidocaine administered through IV.
Backonja 2008Compared different concentrations - 8% capsaicin vs. 0.04% capsaicin.
Baranowski 1999Lidocaine administered through IV.
Barbano 2004Not RCT (open label follow-up study with no control group)
Bruera 1992Lidocaine administered through IV.
Devers 2000Not RCT (open label follow-up study with no control group)
Drake 1990Abstract only - capsaicin.
Ellemann 1989Lidocaine administered through IV.
Ellison 1997Crossover study with no washout and analysis of carry over effects showed significant results.
Finnerup 2005Lidocaine administered through IV.
Fishbain 2006Not RCT (open label follow-up study with no control group)
Galer 1999Enriched enrollment study, main outcome - time to exist treatment.
Herrmann 2005Not RCT (open label follow-up study with no control group)
Kanai 2006Intranasal spray (8% lidocaine).
Kastrup 1987Lidocaine administered through IV.
Lin 2008Study period < 1 week (2 days study) - lidocaine
Marchettini 1992Lidocaine administered through IV.
Medrik-Golgberg 1999Lidocaine administered through IV.
Petersen 1986Lidocaine administered through IV.
Petruzzi 2004Oral capsaicin study.
Dorfman 1999Not RCT (open label follow-up study with no control group)
Rowbotham 1996Abstract only - lidocaine.
Rowbotham 1996Study period < 1 week (24 hours study) - lidocaine
Simone 1991Healthy volunteers, experimentally induced pain.
Simpson 2007Abstract only - capsaicin.
Simpson 2008Not RCT (open label follow-up study with no control group)
Stajcic 1990Lidocaine administered through IV.
Tremont-Lukats 2006Lidocaine administered through IV.
Viola 2006Lidocaine administered through IV.
Wallace 2008Healthy volunteers, experimentally induced pain.
Wallace 1996Lidocaine administered through IV.
5 × non-English

9. Head-to-head comparisons and combination therapy

Total number of studies retrieved from searches = 23207
Selection based on title and abstract = 22 (full papers ordered)Excluded = 23185
Selection based on full papers = 14Excluded = 8
Total number of studies included = 14

10. List of excluded studies: Head-to-head comparisons and combination therapy

Head-to-head comparative trials and combination therapy

AuthorReason for exclusion
Baron 09Poor quality - study design flawed.
Carasso 79Poor quality, inconsistent reporting of results, incomprehensible analysis.
Jia 06Study period < 4 weeks for both venlafaxine and carbamazepine.
Jose 07Study period < 4 weeks for both amitriptyline and lamotrigine.
Keskinbora 07Did not specify which opioid analgesics were used in the trial.
Leppert 01Study sample included bone, visceral, somatic pain, unable to extract neuropathic pain.
Mucci-LoRusso 98Study sample included bone and visceral pain, unable to extract neuropathic pain.
Rowbotham 05Study period < 4 weeks for both amitriptyline, desipramine and fluoxetine.
Turkington 80No measurement of pain, primary outcome is treatment for depression.

11. References for all excluded studies

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  • Al-Mujadi H, Refai AR, Katzarov MG, et al. Preemptive gabapentin reduces postoperative pain and opioid demand following thyroid surgery. Canadian Journal of Anesthesia. 2006;53:268–73. [PubMed: 16527792]
  • Argoff CE, Galer BS, Jensen MP, et al. Effectiveness of the lidocaine patch 5% on pain qualities in three chronic pain states: assessment with the Neuropathic Pain Scale. Current Medical Research & Opinion. 2004;20(Suppl-8) [PubMed: 15563743]
  • Attal N, Gaude V, Brasseur L, et al. Intravenous lidocaine in central pain: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, psychophysical study. Neurology. 2000;54:564–74. [PubMed: 10680784]
  • Attal N, Guirimand F, Brasseur L, et al. Effects of IV morphine in central pain: a randomized placebo-controlled study. Neurology. 2002;58:554–63. [see comment] [PubMed: 11865132]
  • Backonja M, Gombar KA. Response of central pain syndromes to intravenous lidocaine. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management. 1992;7:172–8. [PubMed: 16967586]
  • Backonja M, Wallace MS, Blonsky ER, et al. NGX-4010, a high-concentration capsaicin patch, for the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia: a randomised, double-blind study. Lancet Neurology. 2008;7:1106–12. [see comment][erratum appears in Lancet Neurol. 2009 Jan;8(1):31] [PubMed: 18977178]
  • Badran AM, Aly MA, Sous ES. A clinical trial of carbamazepine in the symptomatic treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Journal of the Egyptian Medical Association. 1975;58:627–31. [PubMed: 1236490]
  • Baranowski AP, De Courcey J, Bonello E. A trial of intravenous lidocaine on the pain and allodynia of postherpetic neuralgia. Journal of Pain & Symptom Management. 1999;17:429–33. [PubMed: 10388248]
  • Barbano RL, Herrmann DN, Hart-Gouleau S, et al. Effectiveness, tolerability, and impact on quality of life of the 5% lidocaine patch in diabetic polyneuropathy. Archives of Neurology. 2004;61:914–8. [PubMed: 15210530]
  • Baron R, Mayoral V, Leijon G, et al. Efficacy and safety of combination therapy with 5% lidocaine medicated plaster and pregabalin in post-herpetic neuralgia and diabetic polyneuropathy. Current Medical Research and Opinion. 2009;25(7):1677–1687. [PubMed: 19480610]
  • Berry JD, Petersen KL. A single dose of gabapentin reduces acute pain and allodynia in patients with herpes zoster. Neurology. 2005;65:444–7. [PubMed: 16087911]
  • Beydoun A, Kobetz SA, Carrazana EJ. Efficacy of oxcarbazepine in the treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy. The Clinical journal of pain. 2004;20:174–8. [PubMed: 15100593]
  • Blonna D, Calvi V, Collo G, et al. Gabapentin in the conservative treatment of radiculopathy. Minerva Ortopedica e Traumatologica. 2004;55:15–22. [Italian]
  • Bohmfalk GL, Contreras FL. Use of intrathecally administered morphine in the treatment of postoperative pain after lumbar spinal surgery: a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Neurosurgery. 1991;29:795. [comment] [PubMed: 1801799]
  • Bonicalzi V, Canavero S, Cerutti F, et al. Lamotrigine reduces total postoperative analgesic requirement: a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study. Surgery. 1997;122:567–70. [PubMed: 9308614]
  • Bruera E, Ripamonti C, Brenneis C, et al. A randomized double-blind crossover trial of intravenous lidocaine in the treatment of neuropathic cancer pain. Journal of Pain & Symptom Management. 1992;7:138–40. [PubMed: 16967580]
  • Bruera E, Fainsinger R, Spachynski K, et al. Clinical efficacy and safety of a novel controlled-release morphine suppository and subcutaneous morphine in cancer pain: a randomized evaluation. J-Clin-Oncol J-Clin-Oncol. 1995;13:1520–7. [PubMed: 7751901]
  • Campbell FG, Graham JG, Zilkha KJ. Clinical trial of carbazepine (tegretol) in trigeminal neuralgia. Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry. 1966;29:265–7. [PMC free article: PMC496031] [PubMed: 5327969]
  • Caraceni A, Zecca E, Martini C, et al. Gabapentin as an adjuvant to opioid analgesia for neuropathic cancer pain. Journal of Pain & Symptom Management. 1999;17:441–5. [see comment] [PubMed: 10388250]
  • Caraceni A, Zecca E, Bonezzi C, et al. Gabapentin for neuropathic cancer pain: a randomized controlled trial from the Gabapentin Cancer Pain Study Group. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2004;22:2909–17. [PubMed: 15254060]
  • Carasso RL, Yehuda S, Streifler M. Clomipramine and amitriptyline in the treatment of severe pain. International Journal of Neuroscience. 1979;9:191–4. [PubMed: 489262]
  • Chadda VS, Mathur MS. Double blind study of the effects of diphenylhydantoin sodium on diabetic neuropathy. The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India. 1978;26:403–6. [PubMed: 365857]
  • Ciaramella A, Grosso S, Poli P. Fluoxetine versus fluvoxamine for treatment of chronic pain. Minerva Anestesiologica. 2000;66:55–61. [Italian] [PubMed: 10736983]
  • Cundiff D, McCarthy K, Savarese JJ, et al. Evaluation of a cancer pain model for the testing of long-acting analgesics. The effect of MS Contin in a double-blind, randomized crossover design. Cancer. 1989;63(Suppl-9) [PubMed: 2720581]
  • Curkovic B, Bernik N. Three-week open multi-centre study of sustained-release tramadol in various pain conditions. Arzneimittel-Forschung. 2003;53:503–6. [PubMed: 12918216]
  • Cutter NC, Scott DD, Johnson JC, et al. Gabapentin effect on spasticity in multiple sclerosis: a placebo-controlled, randomized trial. Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation. 2000;81:164–9. [PubMed: 10668769]
  • Dellemijn PL, Vanneste JA. Randomised double-blind active-placebo-controlled crossover trial of intravenous fentanyl in neuropathic pain. Lancet. 1997;349:753–8. [PubMed: 9074573]
  • Devers A, Galer BS. Topical lidocaine patch relieves a variety of neuropathic pain conditions: an open-label study. Clinical Journal of Pain. 2000;16:205–8. [PubMed: 11014393]
  • Dirks J, Fredensborg BB, Christensen D, et al. A randomized study of the effects of single-dose gabapentin versus placebo on postoperative pain and morphine consumption after mastectomy. Anesthesiology. 2002;97:560–4. [see comment] [PubMed: 12218520]
  • Dorfman D, Dalton A, Khan A, et al. Treatment of painful distal sensory polyneuropathy in HIV-infected patients with a topical agent: results of an open-label trial of 5% lidocaine gel. AIDS. 1999;13:1589–90. [PubMed: 10465089]
  • Drake HF, Harries AJ, Gamester RE, et al. Randomized double-blind study of topical capsaicin for treatment of post-herpetic neuralgia. Pain. 1990:S58.
  • Drewes AM, Andreasen A, Poulsen LH. Valproate for treatment of chronic central pain after spinal cord injury. A double-blind cross-over study. Paraplegia. 1994;32:565–9. [PubMed: 7970862]
  • Dworkin RH, Barbano RL, Tyring SK, et al. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of oxycodone and of gabapentin for acute pain in herpes zoster. Pain. 2009;142:209–17. [PubMed: 19195785]
  • Edwards KR, Hes MS, LaMoreaux LK, et al. Gabapentin (Neurontin) for pain associated with diabetic peripheral neuropathy: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study (945-210) Neurology. 1998;50:A378–A379. [abstract]
  • Eide PK, Jorum E, Stubhaug A, et al. Relief of post-herpetic neuralgia with the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor antagonist ketamine: a double-blind, crossover comparison with morphine and placebo. Pain. 1994;58:347–54. [PubMed: 7838584]
  • Ellemann K, Sjögren P, Banning AM, et al. Trial of intravenous lidocaine on painful neuropathy in cancer patients. The Clinical journal of pain. 1989;5:291–4. [PubMed: 2520418]
  • Ellison N, Loprinzi CL, Kugler J, et al. Phase III placebo-controlled trial of capsaicin cream in the management of surgical neuropathic pain in cancer patients. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 1997;15:2974–80. [PubMed: 9256142]
  • Enggaard TP, Poulsen L, Arendt-Nielsen L, et al. The analgesic effect of codeine as compared to imipramine in different human experimental pain models. Pain. 2001;92:277–82. [PubMed: 11323149]
  • Enggaard TP, Klitgaard NA, Gram LF, et al. Specific effect of venlafaxine on single and repetitive experimental painful stimuli in humans. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 2001;69:245–51. [PubMed: 11309553]
  • Fassoulaki A, Patris K, Sarantopoulos C, et al. The analgesic effect of gabapentin and mexiletine after breast surgery for cancer. Anesthesia and Analgesia. 2002;95:985–91. [PubMed: 12351281]
  • Ferrell B, Wisdom C, Wenzl C, et al. Effects of controlled-released morphine on quality of life for cancer pain. Oncology Nursing Forum. 1989;16:521–6. [PubMed: 2755859]
  • Finnerup NB, Biering-Sørensen F, Johannesen IL, et al. Intravenous lidocaine relieves spinal cord injury pain: a randomized controlled trial. Anesthesiology. 2005;102:1023–30. [PubMed: 15851891]
  • Fishbain DA, Lewis JE, Cole B, et al. Lidocaine 5% patch: an open-label naturalistic chronic pain treatment trial and prediction of response. Pain Medicine. 2006;7:135–42. [PubMed: 16634726]
  • Forssell H, Tasmuth T, Tenovuo O, et al. Venlafaxine in the treatment of atypical facial pain: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Orofacial Pain. 2004;18:131–7. [PubMed: 15250433]
  • Freeman R, Raskin P, Hewitt DJ, et al. Randomized study of tramadol/acetaminophen versus placebo in painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Current Medical Research & Opinion. 2007;23:147–61. [PubMed: 17257476]
  • Galer BS, Rowbotham MC, Perander J, et al. Topical lidocaine patch relieves postherpetic neuralgia more effectively than a vehicle topical patch: results of an enriched enrollment study. Pain. 1999;80:533–8. [PubMed: 10342414]
  • Gerson GR, Jones RB, Luscombe DK. Studies on the concomitant use of carbamazepine and clomipramine for the relief of post-herpetic neuralgia. Postgraduate Medical Journal. 1977;53(Suppl-9) [PubMed: 304576]
  • Gilron I, Bailey JM, Tu D, et al. Morphine, gabapentin, or their combination for neuropathic pain. New England Journal of Medicine. 2005;352:1324–34. [see comment] [PubMed: 15800228]
  • Gilron I, Booher SL, Rowan JS, et al. Topiramate in trigeminal neuralgia: a randomized, placebo-controlled multiple crossover pilot study. Clinical Neuropharmacology. 2001;24:109–12. [PubMed: 11307048]
  • Gilron I, Bailey JM, Tu D, et al. Morphine, gabapentin, or their combination for neuropathic pain. New England Journal of Medicine. 2005;352:1324–34. [PubMed: 15800228]
  • Gilron I, Orr E, Tu D, et al. A placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial of perioperative administration of gabapentin, rofecoxib and their combination for spontaneous and movement-evoked pain after abdominal hysterectomy. Pain. 2005;113:191–200. [see comment] [PubMed: 15621380]
  • Gobel H, Stadler T. Treatment of pain due to postherpetic neuralgia with tramadol - Results of an open, parallel pilot study vs clomipramine with or without levomepromazine. Clinical Drug Investigation. 1995;10:208–14.
  • Gobel H, Stadler T. Treatment of post-herpes zoster pain with tramadol. Results of an open pilot study versus clomipramine with or without levomepromazine. Drugs. 1997;53(Suppl-9) [French] [PubMed: 9190323]
  • Goebel A, Lawson A, Allen S, et al. Buprenorphine injection to the stellate ganglion in the treatment of upper body chronic pain syndromes. European Journal of Pain: Ejp. 2008;12:266–74. [PubMed: 17638583]
  • Gomez-Perez FJ, Rull JA, Dies H, et al. Nortriptyline and fluphenazine in the symptomatic treatment of diabetic neuropathy. A double-blind cross-over study. Pain. 1985;23:395–400. [PubMed: 3911140]
  • Gordon NC, Heller PH, Gear RW, et al. Interactions between fluoxetine and opiate analgesia for postoperative dental pain. Pain. 1994;58:85–8. [PubMed: 7970842]
  • Gorson KC, Schott C, Herman R, et al. Gabapentin in the treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy: a placebo controlled, double blind, crossover trial. Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry. 1999;66:251–2. [PMC free article: PMC1736215] [PubMed: 10071116]
  • Harati Y, Gooch C, Swenson M, et al. Maintenance of the long-term effectiveness of tramadol in treatment of the pain of diabetic neuropathy. Journal of Diabetes & its Complications. 2000;14:65–70. [PubMed: 10959067]
  • Harke H, Gretenkort P, Ladleif HU, et al. The response of neuropathic pain and pain in complex regional pain syndrome I to carbamazepine and sustained-release morphine in patients pretreated with spinal cord stimulation: a double-blinded randomized study. Anesthesia & Analgesia. 2001;92:488–95. [PubMed: 11159256]
  • Heiskanen TE, Ruismaki PM, Seppala TA, et al. Morphine or oxycodone in cancer pain? Acta Oncologica. 2000;39:941–7. [PubMed: 11207001]
  • Herrmann DN, Barbano RL, Hart-Gouleau S, et al. An open-label study of the lidocaine patch 5% in painful idiopathic sensory polyneuropathy. Pain Medicine. 2005;6:379–84. [PubMed: 16266359]
  • Hill CM, Balkenohl M, Thomas DW, et al. Pregabalin in patients with postoperative dental pain. European Journal of Pain. 2001;5:119–24. [PubMed: 11465977]
  • Huot MP, Chouinard P, Girard F, et al. Gabapentin does not reduce post-thoracotomy shoulder pain: A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study. Canadian Journal of Anesthesia. 2008;55:337–43. [PubMed: 18566196]
  • Jadad AR, Carroll D, Glynn CJ, et al. Morphine responsiveness of chronic pain: double-blind randomised crossover study with patient-controlled analgesia. Lancet. 1992;339:1367–71. [see comment] [PubMed: 1350803]
  • Jenson MG, Royal MA, Mowa V, et al. Gabapentin and levetiracetam for the treatment of neuropathic pain: a prospective open-label trial. American Journal of Pain Management. 2001;11:125–8.
  • Jensen TS, Backonja MM, Hernandez JS, et al. New perspectives on the management of diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain. Diabetes and Vascular Disease Research. 2006;3:108–19. [PubMed: 17058631]
  • Jose VM, Bhansali A, Hota D, et al. Randomized double-blind study comparing the efficacy and safety of lamotrigine and amitriptyline in painful diabetic neuropathy. Diabetic medicine : a journal of the British Diabetic Association. 2007;24:377–83. [PubMed: 17335465]
  • Jia HY, Li QF, Song DP, et al. Effects of venlafaxine and carbamazepine for painful peripheral diabetic neuropathy: A randomized, double-blind and double-dummy, controlled multi-center trial. Chinese Journal of Evidence-Based Medicine. 2006;6:321–8.
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Excluded Studies – Health Economics

  • Bartha E, Carlsson P, Kalman S. Evaluation of costs and effects of epidural analgesia and patient-controlled intravenous analgesia after major abdominal surgery. British Journal of Anaesthesia. 2006;96(1):111–117. [PubMed: 16257994]

    Interventions are outside the scope, does not meet inclusion criteria

  • Engoren M, Luther G, Fenn-Buderer N. A comparison of fentanyl, sufentanil, and remifentanil for fast-track cardiac anesthesia Decision analysis of medical and surgical treatments for trigeminal neuralgia: how patient evaluations of benefits and risks affect the utility of treatment decisions. Anesthesia and Analgesia. 2001;93(4):859–864. [see comment] [PubMed: 11574346]

    Under 1 week follow up, does not meet inclusion criteria

  • Fine PG. Analgesic issues in palliative care, furthering our understanding of pain, the stability and cost of opioid infusion therapy, and opioid effectiveness doses in nociceptive and neuropathic pain. Journal of Pain and Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy. 2002;16(3):77–81. [PubMed: 14640359]

    This was not an economic paper and was excluded from economic review.

  • James M, Stokes EA, Thomas E, et al. A cost consequences analysis of local corticosteroid injection and physiotherapy for the treatment of new episodes of unilateral shoulder pain in primary care Decision analysis of medical and surgical treatments for trigeminal neuralgia: how patient evaluations of benefits and risks affect the utility of treatment decisions. Rheumatology. 2005;44(11):1447–1451. [see comment] [PubMed: 16091398]

    Injections wrong intervention/administrational route, does not meet inclusion criteria

  • Johnston A, Hamandi K. Cost-effectiveness of pregabalin: a UK perspective. Expert Rev. Pharmacoeconomics Outcomes Res. 2007;7(4):327–333. [PubMed: 20528414]

    This is not an economic analysis and was excluded.

  • Korthals-de B I, Smidt N, van Tulder MW, et al. Cost effectiveness of interventions for lateral epicondylitis: results from a randomised controlled trial in primary care. Pharmacoeconomics. 2004;22(3):185–195. [PubMed: 14871165]

    Paper excluded on grounds of interventions (included physiotherapy, corticosteroid injections and wait-and-see policy).

  • Lemos L, Flores S, Oliveira P, et al. Gabapentin supplemented with ropivacain block of trigger points improves pain control and quality of life in trigeminal neuralgia patients when compared with gabapentin alone Decision analysis of medical and surgical treatments for trigeminal neuralgia: how patient evaluations of benefits and risks affect the utility of treatment decisions. Clinical Journal of Pain. 2008;24(1):64–75. [see comment] [PubMed: 18180639]

    This is not an economic study, but reports quality of life for trigeminal neuralgia patients comparing gabapentin with gabapentin plus peripheral nerve block (ropivacain).

  • Martikainen M, Kangas-Saarela T, Lopponen A, et al. Two percent lidocaine spinal anaesthesia compared with sevoflurane anaesthesia in ambulatory knee surgery - Cost-effectiveness, home readiness and recovery profiles. Ambulatory Surgery. 2001;9(2):77–81. [PubMed: 11454485]

    Did not meet inclusion criteria due to route of administration (injectable), and population (was given as an anaesthetic for knee surgery).

  • Otto M, Bach FW, Jensen TS, et al. Health-related quality of life and its predictive role for analgesic effect in patients with painful polyneuropathy. European Journal of Pain: Ejp. 2007;11(5):572–578. [PubMed: 17049890]

    This is not an economic study but reports quality of life for painful neuropathy patients (Denmark)

  • Secoli SR, Padilha KG, Litvoc J. Cost-effectiveness analysis of the analgesic therapy of postoperative pain Decision analysis of medical and surgical treatments for trigeminal neuralgia: how patient evaluations of benefits and risks affect the utility of treatment decisions. Revista Latino-Americana de Enfermagem. 2008;16(1):42–46. [see comment] [PubMed: 18392529]

    Too short follow up (24h), does not meet inclusion criteria

  • Soledad CM, Farrar JT. Economic evaluation of oral treatments for neuropathic pain. Journal of Pain. 2006;7(2):119–128. [PubMed: 16459277]

    Did not meet inclusion criteria (population, PHN and PDN)

  • Song D, Chung F, Yogendran S, et al. Evaluation of postural stability after low-dose droperidol in outpatients undergoing gynaecological dilatation and curettage procedure Decision analysis of medical and surgical treatments for trigeminal neuralgia: how patient evaluations of benefits and risks affect the utility of treatment decisions. British Journal of Anaesthesia. 2002;88(6):819–823. [see comment] [PubMed: 12173200]

    Interventions do not meet inclusion criteria (Spinal anesthesia, general anastesia, ilioinguuinal hypogastric nerve block), and follow up was too short (24h)

  • Spatz AL, Zakrzewska JM, Kay EJ. Decision analysis of medical and surgical treatments for trigeminal neuralgia: how patient evaluations of benefits and risks affect the utility of treatment decisions. Pain. 2007;131(3):302–310. [see comment] Decision analysis of medical and surgical treatments for trigeminal neuralgia: how patient evaluations of benefits and risks affect the utility of treatment decisions.[see comment] [PubMed: 17451880]

    This is not an economic evaluation (no costs are included) and therefore study is excluded.

  • Watson CP, Watt-Watson JH, Chipman ML. Chronic noncancer pain and the long term utility of opioids. Pain Research & Management. 2004;9(1):19–24. [see comment] [PubMed: 15007399]

    This is not an economic study but reports patient preferences and is therefore excluded from the cost effectiveness review.

  • Williams JE, Ainley TC, Shepherd JE. Economic impact of a patient-controlled oral analgesia system for post-operative pain. British Journal of Medical Economics. 1995;9(1):41–43.

    This is a conference paper and did not meet the inclusion criteria.

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