Inclusion/Exclusion Criteria

Please mark each abstract or article IN/OUT based on following criteria. For those excluded, provide exclusion reason and any additional pertinent codes listed below. Insert space below


  1. Prospective and cross-sectional observational studies of literacy levels and health. Studies must measure literacy at the individual level.
  2. Trials of materials developed for low literacy populations or trials of interventions that compare easier to read/understand material versus standard materials.

Exclusion Criteria

  1. Studies with no original data
  2. SER only
  3. Studies that do not measure literacy or health literacy
  4. Studies with no health outcomes (ie. descriptive only or have outcomes like likability, satisfaction)
  5. Studies examining normal reading development in children
  6. Studies about dyslexia
  7. Studies on the basic experimental science of reading ability (e.g., studies of brain function, MRI, EEG)
  8. Non-English language studies
  9. Studies answering KQ1 where literacy is measured (not numeracy) and the only study outcome is knowledge.
  10. Studies in which the outcome is limited to dementia or cognitive impairment.
  11. Studies published in abstract form only
  12. Case-report only
  13. Ecological data only
  14. Sample size less than 10
  15. Unable to obtain the article
  16. Intervention studies that do not address low health literacy

From: Appendix C, Inclusion/Exclusion Criteria and Study Internal Validity Quality Form

Cover of Health Literacy Interventions and Outcomes: An Updated Systematic Review
Health Literacy Interventions and Outcomes: An Updated Systematic Review.
Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments, No. 199.
Berkman ND, Sheridan SL, Donahue KE, et al.

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