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Patrias K, author; Wendling D, editor. Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers [Internet]. 2nd edition. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2007-.

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Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers [Internet]. 2nd edition.

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Chapter 1Journals

Created: ; Last Update: May 18, 2018.

Journals are a particular type of periodical. These same rules and examples can be used for magazines and other types of periodicals.

A. Journal Articles

B. Parts of Journal Articles

C. Entire Journal Titles

See also:

Chapter 11A Forthcoming ("in press") Journal Articles

Chapter 16 Journals in Audiovisual Formats

Chapter 19 Journals on CD-ROM, DVD, Disk

Chapter 23 Journals on the Internet

A. Sample Citation and Introduction to Citing Journal Articles

The general format for a reference to a journal article, including punctuation:

Illustration of the general format for a reference to a journal
article.

Examples of Citations to Journal Articles

By tradition, the rules for formatting references to journal articles permit greater abbreviation compared to books:

  • Journal references omit information on place of publication and publisher, whereas book references carry these details.
  • The words "volume" and "number" (or their abbreviations) are usually omitted when citing journal articles, but are included when citing books.
  • Journal titles are abbreviated; book titles are not.

This brevity in citing journal articles stems from the need to conserve space in printed bibliographies and the early databases.

Following are some important points concerning citing journal articles:

  • Cite the journal name that was used at the time of publication. For example, the British Medical Journal officially changed title to BMJ in 1988. Cite articles from 1987 and earlier as Br Med J, not BMJ.
  • Cite the version you saw. For example, do not cite the print version if you have used the Internet one.
  • Do not include a header, such as "news", "case report", or "clinical study", as part of the article title, unless the table of contents for the journal issue indicates that it is.
  • Use caution when employing typography, such as bold type and italics, to indicate parts of a journal article citation. Too many variations in type styles may actually make the reference harder to read.

The source for journal title, volume, issue, and date information is, in order of preference: (1) the title page of the issue, (2) the issue cover, and (3) the masthead. Running headers or footers may not carry the official title of a journal and date and issue information may be missing from these locations.

Continue to Citation Rules with Examples for Journal Articles.

Continue to Examples of Citations to Journal Articles.

Citation Rules with Examples for Journal Articles

Components/elements are listed in the order they should appear in a reference. An R after the component name means that it is required in the citation; an O after the name means it is optional.

Author (R) | Author Affiliation (O) | Article Title (R) | Article Type (O) | Journal Title (R) | Edition (R) | Type of Medium (R) | Date of Publication (R) | Supplement/Part/Special Number to a Date (R) | Volume Number (R) | Supplement/Part/Special Number to a Volume (R) | Issue Number (R) | Supplement/Part/Special Number to an Issue (R) | Location (Pagination) (R) | Physical Description (O) | Language (R) | Notes (O)

Author for Journal Articles (required)

General Rules for Author

  • List names in the order they appear in the text
  • Enter surname (family or last name) first for each author
  • Capitalize surnames and enter spaces within surnames as they appear in the document cited on the assumption that the author approved the form used. For example: Van Der Horn or van der Horn; De Wolf or de Wolf or DeWolf.
  • Convert given (first) names and middle names to initials, for a maximum of two initials following each surname
  • Give all authors, regardless of the number
  • Separate author names from each other by a comma and a space
  • End author information with a period

See exceptions for Author in Appendix F: Notes for Citing MEDLINE® /PubMed®.

Specific Rules for Author

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Surnames with hyphens and other punctuation in them.

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Other surname rules.

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Given names containing punctuation, a prefix, a preposition, or particle.

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Degrees, titles, and honors before or after a personal name.

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Designations of rank in a family, such as Jr and III.

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Names in non-roman alphabets (Cyrillic, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Korean) or character-based languages (Chinese, Japanese).

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Organizations as author.

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No author can be found.

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Options for author names.

Author Affiliation for Journal Articles (optional)

General Rules for Author Affiliation

  • Enter the affiliation of all authors or only the first author
  • Begin with the department and name of the institution, followed by city and state/Canadian province/country
  • Use commas to separate parts of the affiliation
  • Place the affiliation in parentheses, such as (Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA)
  • Separate the affiliation from its author by a space
  • Follow the affiliation with a comma placed outside the closing parenthesis, unless it is the affiliation of the last author, then use a period

See exceptions for Author Affiliation in Appendix F: Notes for Citing MEDLINE® /PubMed®

Specific Rules for Author Affiliation

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Abbreviations in affiliations.

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E-mail address included.

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Organizational names not in English.

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Names for cities and countries not in English.

Article Title for Journal Articles (required)

General Rules for Article Title

  • Enter the title of an article as it appears in the publication
  • Capitalize only the first word of a title, proper nouns, proper adjectives, acronyms, and initialisms
  • Use a colon followed by a space to separate a title from a subtitle, unless some other form of punctuation (such as a question mark, period, or an exclamation point) is already present
  • Translate non-English titles into English; place the translation in square brackets
  • End a title with a period unless a question mark or exclamation point already ends it or an Article Type follows it

See exceptions for Article Title in Appendix F: Notes for Citing MEDLINE® /PubMed®

Specific Rules for Article Title

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Article titles not in English.

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Article titles in more than one language.

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Translated article titles ending in punctuation other than a period.

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Article titles containing a Greek letter, chemical formula, or another special character.

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Article titles with headers.

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No article title can be found.

Article Type for Journal Articles (optional)

General Rules for Article Type

  • An article type alerts the user that the reference is to an abstract of an article or a letter to the editor, not a full article. Content designator is another phrase for this.
  • Place [abstract] or [letter] after the article title
  • Other article types are also available though used less often, such as book review, editorial, or interview
  • Follow the bracketed article type with a period placed outside the closing bracket

See exceptions for Article Type in Appendix F: Notes for Citing MEDLINE® /PubMed®

Specific Rules for Article Type

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Articles titles ending in punctuation other than a period.

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Article titles not in English.

Examples for Article Type

Journal Title for Journal Articles (required)

General Rules for Journal Title

  • Enter a journal title in the original language
  • Cite the journal name that was used at the time of publication. For example, the British Medical Journal officially changed title to BMJ in 1988. Cite articles from 1987 and earlier as Br Med J, not BMJ.
  • Abbreviate significant words in a journal title (see Abbreviation rules for journal titles) and omit other words, such as articles, conjunctions, and prepositions
  • Capitalize all remaining title words, including abbreviations
  • End the journal title with a period unless an Edition or a Type of Medium is included, then use a space
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Abbreviation rules for journal titles.

See exceptions for Journal Title (Journal Title Abbreviation) in Appendix F: Notes for Citing MEDLINE® /PubMed®

Specific Rules for Journal Title

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Single word journal titles.

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Non-English journal titles.

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Journal titles appearing in more than one language.

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Journals appearing in different editions.

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Options for journal titles.

Edition for Journal Articles (required)

General Rules for Edition

  • Indicate the edition/version being cited after the title if a journal is published in more than one edition or version
  • Abbreviate each significant word (see Abbreviation rules for editions below) and omit other words, such as articles, conjunctions, and prepositions
  • Capitalize all words
  • Place the edition statement in parentheses, such as (Br Ed)
  • End the edition statement with a period unless the Type of Medium is included

See exceptions for Edition in Appendix F: Notes for Citing MEDLINE® /PubMed®

Specific Rules for Edition

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Non-English words for editions.

Examples for Edition

Type of Medium for Journal Articles (required)

General Rules for Type of Medium

  • Indicate the type of medium (microfiche, ultrafiche, microfilm, microcard, etc.) following the journal title (and edition, if present) when a journal is published in a microform
  • Place the name of the medium in square brackets and end with a period placed outside the closing bracket, such as [microfiche].
  • Add information about the medium according to the instructions under Physical Description
  • See Chapter 16A for journal articles in audiovisual formats, Chapter 19A for articles on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk, and Chapter 23A for articles on the Internet

See exceptions for Type of Medium in Appendix F: Notes for Citing MEDLINE® /PubMed®

Specific Rules for Type of Medium

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Both an edition and a type of medium.

Examples for Type of Medium

Date of Publication for Journal Articles (required)

General Rules for Date of Publication

  • Include the year, month, and day of publication in that order. For example: 2004 May 5
  • Convert roman numerals to arabic numbers, such as MM to 2000
  • Use English names for months and abbreviate them using the first three letters, such as Jan
  • End date information with a semicolon unless there is no volume or issue (see No volume or issue follows the date below), then end with a colon
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No volume or issue follows the date.

Specific Rules for Date of Publication

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Multiple years, months, or days of publication.

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Non-English names for months.

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Seasons instead of months.

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Options for dates.

Supplement/Part/Special Number to a Date for Journal Articles (required)

General Rules for Supplement/Part/Special Number to a Date

  • Place a supplement, part, special number, or other division to a year after the date
  • Abbreviate these: Suppl, Pt, Spec No
  • Include numbers and letters accompanying them. For example: Pt 1 or Suppl A.
  • Use arabic numbers only. For example: convert Suppl II to Suppl 2.
  • End the supplement, part, special number with a colon unless further divisions exist (see Further divisions to supplements, parts, etc. below)
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Further divisions to supplements, parts, etc.

Specific Rules for Supplement/Part/Special Number to a Date

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Non-English names for supplements, parts, etc., to a date.

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Named supplements.

Volume Number for Journal Articles (required)

General Rules for Volume Number

  • Omit "volume", "vol.", and similar wording preceding the number
  • Use arabic numbers onlyconvert LX or Sixtieth to 60.
  • Separate multiple volumes by a hyphen, such as 5-6 or 42-43
  • Do not follow volume number(s) with any punctuation unless there is no issue number or other subdivision to the volume, then follow with a colon

Specific Rules for Volume Number

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No volume number present.

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Non-English names for volume.

Supplement/Part/Special Number to a Volume for Journal Articles (required)

General Rules for Supplement/Part/Special Number to a Volume

  • Place a supplement, part, special number, or other division to a volume after the volume number
  • Abbreviate these: Suppl, Pt, Spec No
  • Include numbers and letters accompanying them. For example: Pt 1 or Suppl A.
  • Use arabic numbers only. For example: convert Suppl II to Suppl 2.
  • Place parts in parentheses, such as 34(Pt 1); other divisions have no punctuation around them, such as 34 Suppl
  • End the supplement, part, special number with a colon unless further divisions exist (see Further subdivisions to supplements, parts, etc., to a volume below) or an issue number is present
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Further subdivisions to supplements, parts, etc., to a volume.

Specific Rules for Supplement/Part/Special Number to a Volume

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Non-English names for supplement, part, etc.

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Named supplements.

Issue Number for Journal Articles (required)

General Rules for Issue Number

  • Omit "number", "no.", and other wording preceding the number
  • Use arabic numbers only. For example: convert IV or Fourth to 4
  • Separate multiple issues by a hyphen, such 2-3
  • Place issue information in parentheses
  • End issue information with a colon unless further divisions, such as a supplement or part, exist (see Further subdivisions to supplements, parts, etc., to an issue below)
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Further subdivisions to supplements, parts, etc., to an issue.

Specific Rules for Issue Number

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Non-English names for issue.

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No volume number present.

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No issue number present.

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Options for issues.

Supplement/Part/Special Number to an Issue for Journal Articles (required)

General Rules for Supplement/Part/Special Number to an Issue

  • Place a supplement, part, special number, or other division to an issue after the issue number and inside the parentheses
  • Abbreviate these: Suppl, Pt, Spec No
  • Include numbers and letters accompanying them. For example: Pt 1 or Suppl A.
  • Use arabic numbers only. For example: convert Suppl II to Suppl 2.
  • End issue information with a colon unless further divisions exist (see Further subdivisions to supplements, parts, etc., to an issue below)

Specific Rules for Supplement/Part/Special Number to an Issue

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Non-English names for supplements, parts, etc.

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Named supplements.

Location (Pagination) for Journal Articles (required)

General Rules for Location (Pagination)

  • Give the inclusive page numbers on which the article appears
  • Do not repeat page numbers unless they are followed by a letter. For example: 123-125 becomes 123-5, but 124A-126A is correct.
  • Include a letter (often S for Supplement or A for Appendix) when it precedes the page number. For example: S10-8.
  • End pagination information with a period

Specific Rules for Location (Pagination)

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Roman numerals used as page numbers.

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Discontinuous page numbers.

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Text such as a discussion, quiz, or author reply to a letter follows the article.

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No numbers appear on the pages of the article.

Physical Description for Journal Articles (optional)

General Rules for Physical Description

  • Give information on the location of an article and its physical characteristics when the journal appears in a microform (microfilm, microfiche, etc.). For example: microfiche 2 of 3 microfiche: color, 2 x 4 in.

See exceptions for Physical Description in Appendix F: Notes for Citing MEDLINE® /PubMed®

Specific Rules for Physical Description

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Language for describing physical characteristics.

Examples for Physical Description

Language for Journal Articles (required)

General Rules for Language

  • Give the language of publication if other than English
  • Capitalize the language name
  • Follow the language name with a period

See exceptions for Language in Appendix F: Notes for Citing MEDLINE® /PubMed®

Specific Rules for Language

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Articles appearing in more than one language.

Examples of Citations to Journal Articles

1. Standard journal article

Petitti DB, Crooks VC, Buckwalter JG, Chiu V. Blood pressure levels before dementia. Arch Neurol. 2005 Jan;62(1):112-6.

Jun BC, Song SW, Park CS, Lee DH, Cho KJ, Cho JH. The analysis of maxillary sinus aeration according to aging process: volume assessment by 3-dimensional reconstruction by high-resolutional CT scanning. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2005 Mar;132(3):429-34.

Meneton P, Jeunemaitre X, de Wardener HE, MacGregor GA. Links between dietary salt intake, renal salt handling, blood pressure, and cardiovascular diseases. Physiol Rev. 2005 Apr;85(2):679-715.

2. Journal article with many authors

Rastan S, Hough T, Kierman A, Hardisty R, Erven A, Gray IC, Voeling S, Isaacs A, Tsai H, Strivens M, Washbourne R, Thornton C, Greenaway S, Hewitt M, McCormick S, Selley R, Wells C, Tymowska-Lalanne Z, Roby P, Mburu P, Rogers D, Hagan J, Reavill C, Davies K, Glenister P, Fisher EM, Martin J, Vizor L, Bouzyk M, Kelsell D, Guenet JL, Steel KP, Sheardown S, Spurr N, Gray I, Peters J, Nolan PM, Hunter AJ, Brown SD. Towards a mutant map of the mouse--new models of neurological, behavioural, deafness, bone, renal and blood disorders. Genetica. 2004 Sep;122(1):47-9.

3. Journal article with optional limit to the number of authors

to 3 authors

Rastan S, Hough T, Kierman A, et al. Towards a mutant map of the mouse--new models of neurological, behavioural, deafness, bone, renal and blood disorders. Genetica. 2004 Sep;122(1):47-9.

or

Rastan S, Hough T, Kierman A, and others. Towards a mutant map of the mouse--new models of neurological, behavioural, deafness, bone, renal and blood disorders. Genetica. 2004 Sep;122(1):47-9.

to 6 authors

Hallal AH, Amortegui JD, Jeroukhimov IM, Casillas J, Schulman CI, Manning RJ, et al. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography accurately detects common bile duct stones in resolving gallstone pancreatitis. J Am Coll Surg. 2005 Jun;200(6):869-75.

or

Hallal AH, Amortegui JD, Jeroukhimov IM, Casillas J, Schulman CI, Manning RJ, and others. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography accurately detects common bile duct stones in resolving gallstone pancreatitis. J Am Coll Surg. 2005 Jun;200(6):869-75.

4. Journal article with organization as author

American Diabetes Association. Diabetes update. Nursing. 2003 Nov;Suppl:19-20, 24.

Parkinson Study Group. A randomized placebo-controlled trial of rasagiline in levodopa-treated patients with Parkinson disease and motor fluctuations: the PRESTO study. Arch Neurol. 2005 Feb;62(2):241-8.

Merritt, Hawkins & Associates. 2004 survey of physicians 50 to 65 years old. J Med Assoc Ga. 2004;93(3):21-6.

Institute of Medical Illustrators. Photography of cleft audit patients. J Audiov Media Med. 2004 Dec;27(4):170-4.

Sugarterapias es Onkologiai Szakmai Kollegium. [Methodologic recommendations of the Oncology and Radiotherapy College. Protocol for oncology care. Diagnostic algorithms in the course of patient follow-up]. Magy Onkol. 2004;48(4):339-47. Hungarian.

5. Journal article with organization as author, with subsidiary part of the organization included

American College of Dentists, Board of Regents. The ethics of quackery and fraud in dentistry: a position paper. J Am Coll Dent. 2003;70(3):6-8.

Council of Europe, Steering Committee on Bioethics. Draft additional protocol to the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine, on biomedical research. J Int Bioethique. 2004 Mar;15(1):107-22.

6. Journal article with multiple organizations as author

American Dietetic Association; Dietitians of Canada. Position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada: nutrition and women's health. J Am Diet Assoc. 2004 Jun;104(6):984-1001.

Sociedade Portuguesa de Pneumologia; Comissao de Infecciologia Respiratoria. [Portuguese Respiratory Society guidelines for the management of community-acquired pneumonia in immunocompetent adults]. Rev Port Pneumol. 2003 Sep-Oct;9(5):435-61. Portuguese.

Polish Neurologic Society; Polish Neurosurgical Society. [Recommendation of the Polish Neurologic Society and the Polish Neurosurgical Society regarding stroke prevention and therapy]. Neurol Neurochir Pol. 2003;37 Suppl 6:3-41. Polish.

7. Journal article with multiple organizations as author, with subsidiary part of the organization included

American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Pediatric Emergency Medicine; American College of Emergency Physicians, Pediatric Committee. Care of children in the emergency department: guidelines for preparedness. Pediatrics. 2001 Apr;107(4):777-81.

8. Journal article with governmental body as author

National Institutes of Health (US). End-of-life care. National Institutes of Health statement on the state of the science. AWHONN Lifelines. 2005 Feb-Mar;9(1):15-22.

United States District Court, S.D. Florida, Miami Division. Greenberg v. Miami Children's Hospital Research Institute. Wests Fed Suppl. 2003;264:1064-78.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US); Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (US). Policy on the inclusion of women and racial and ethnic minorities in externally awarded research; notice. Fed Regist. 1995 Sep 15;60(179):47947-51.

National Institute on Drug Abuse (US); Caribbean Epidemiology Centre; Pan American Health Organization; World Health Organization. Building a collaborative research agenda: drug abuse and HIV/AIDS in the Caribbean 2002-2004. West Indian Med J. 2004 Nov;53 Suppl 4:1-78.

9. Journal article with both a personal author and an organization as author

Orchard TJ, Temprosa M, Goldberg R, Haffner S, Ratner R, Marcovina S, Fowler S; Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. The effect of metformin and intensive lifestyle intervention on the metabolic syndrome: the Diabetes Prevention Program randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2005 Apr 19;142(8):611-9.

Faustini A, Giorgi Rossi P, Perucci CA; Gruppo Regionale Sorveglianza Tossinfezioni. [Impact of guidelines in investigating foodborne disease outbreaks services in Lazio region, Italy]. Epidemiol Prev. 2003 Nov-Dec;27(6):333-9. Italian.

Margulies EH; NISC Comparative Sequencing Program; Maduro VV, Thomas PJ, Tomkins JP, Amemiya CT, Luo M, Green ED. Comparative sequencing provides insights about the structure and conservation of marsupial and monotreme genomes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Mar 1;102(9):3354-9.

10. Journal article with a personal author and more than one organization as author

Mulligan K, Zackin R, Clark RA, Alston-Smith B, Liu T, Sattler FR, Delvers TB, Currier JS; AIDS Clinical Trials Group 329 Study Team; National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Adult AIDS Clinical Trials Group (US). Effect of nandrolone decanoate therapy on weight and lean body mass in HIV-infected women with weight loss: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial. Arch Intern Med. 2005 Mar 14;165(5):578-85.

11. Journal article with a personal author and note on the organization, as recommended by NISO

Orchard TJ, Temprosa M, Goldberg R, Haffner S, Ratner R, Marcovina S, Fowler S. The effect of metformin and intensive lifestyle intervention on the metabolic syndrome: the Diabetes Prevention Program randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2005 Apr 19;142(8):611-9. Authors are members of the Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group.

12. Journal article authors with designations of rank within a family

King JT Jr, Horowitz MB, Kassam AB, Yonas H, Roberts MS. The short form-12 and the measurement of health status in patients with cerebral aneurysms: performance, validity, and reliability. J Neurosurg. 2005 Mar;102(3):489-94.

Coats DK, Stager DR Sr, Beauchamp GR, Stager DR Jr, Mazow ML, Paysse EA, Felius J. Reasons for delay of surgical intervention in adult strabismus. Arch Ophthalmol. 2005 Apr;123(4):497-9.

Pendergast D, Mollendorf J, Zamparo P, Termin A 2nd, Bushnell D, Paschke D. The influence of drag on human locomotion in water. Undersea Hyperb Med. 2005 Jan-Feb;32(1):45-57.

Infram JJ 3rd. Speaking of good health. Tenn Med. 2005 Feb;98(2):53.

Bennett KE, Beaty BJ, Black WC 4th. Selection of D2S3, an Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) strain with high oral susceptibility to Dengue 2 virus and D2MEB, a strain with a midgut barrier to Dengue 2 escape. J Med Entomol. 2005 Mar;42(2):110-9.

13. Journal article authors with compound last names (give as found in the article)

Bruno-Ambrosius K, Yucel-Lindberg T, Twetman S. Salivary buffer capacity in relation to menarche and progesterone levels in saliva from adolescent girls: a longitudinal study. Acta Odontol Scand. 2004 Oct;62(5):269-72.

Fuentes Ramirez M, Lopez Moreno S. [Social health research: recent communications in Salud Publica de Mexico]. Salud Publica Mex. 2005 Jan-Feb;47(1):5-7. Spanish.

Mier y Teran J. [An interview of Salud Publica de Mexico with Dr. Jaime Mier y Teran, Ministry of Health of Tabasco]. Salud Publica Mex. 2005 Jan-Feb;47(1):78-82. Spanish.

Halley des Fontaines V. [The public health law of August 2004 between public responsibility and private collaboration]. Sante Publique. 2004 Dec;16(4):613-5. French.

14. Journal article author names with particles, prepostitions, prefixes (give as found in the article)

O'Neill GM, Catchpoole DR, Golemis EA. From correlation to causality: microarrays, cancer, and cancer treatment. Biotechniques. 2003 Mar;Suppl:64-71.

MacGregor RJ. A functional view of consciousness and its relations in brain. J Integr Neurosci. 2004 Sep;3(3):253-66.

Lee CH, Macgregor PF. Using microarrays to predict resistance to chemotherapy in cancer patients. Pharmacogenomics. 2004 Sep;5(6):611-25.

DeWolf WC, Gaston SM. The cell cycle and its relevance to the urologist. J Urol. 2004 Apr;171(4):1674-81.

De Wolf H, Blust R, Backeljau T. The use of RAPD in ecotoxicology. Mutat Res. 2004 May;566(3):249-62.

de Pouvourville G, Ulmann P, Nixon J, Boulenger S, Glanville J, Drummond M. The diffusion of health economics knowledge in Europe: The EURONHEED (European Network of Health Economics Evaluation Database) project. Pharmacoeconomics. 2005;23(2):113-20.

Hashim DS, Al Kubaisy W, Al Dulayme A. Knowledge, attitudes and practices survey among health care workers and tuberculosis patients in Iraq. East Mediterr Health J. 2003 Jul;9(4):718-31.

Abou Shabana K, el-Shiek M, el-Nazer M, Samir N. Women's perceptions and practices regarding their rights to reproductive health. East Mediterr Health J. 2003 May;9(3):296-308.

Cowper SE, Bucala R, LeBoit PE. Case 35-2004: nephrogenic fibrosing dermopathy. N Engl J Med. 2005 Apr 21;352(16):1723-4; author reply 1723-4.

van Wamel A, Bouakaz A, Bernard B, ten Cate F, de Jong N. Controlled drug delivery with ultrasound and gas microbubbles. J Control Release. 2005 Jan 3;101(1-3):389-91.

Versantvoort CH, Oomen AG, Van de Kamp E, Rompelberg CJ, Sips AJ. Applicability of an in vitro digestion model in assessing the bioaccessibility of mycotoxins from food. Food Chem Toxicol. 2005 Jan;43(1):31-40.

15. Journal article authors with romanized names

Nyporko AIu, Demchuk ON, Blium IaB. [Analysis of structural characteristics of alpha-tubulins in plants with enhanced cold tolerance]. Tsitol Genet. 2003 Nov-Dec;37(6):3-11. Russian.

Ni H, Qing D, Kaisa S, Lu J. [The study on the effect of LBP on cleaning hydroxygen free radical by EPR technique]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2004 Aug;27(8):599-600. Chinese.

16. Journal article with no author provided

Pelvic floor exercise can reduce stress incontinence. Health News. 2005 Apr;11(4):11.

Drug-resistance tuberculosis among the foreign-born in Canada. Can Commun Dis Rep. 2005 Feb 15;31(4):46-52. English, French.

17. Journal article with author affiliation included (give the affiliation of only the first author or all authors)

Patterson F (Department of Psychology, City University, London EC1V 0HB. f.patterson@city.ac.uk), Ferguson E, Norfolk T, Lane P. A new selection system to recruit general practice registrars: preliminary findings from a validation study. BMJ. 2005 Mar 26;330(7493):711-4.

Mahmutyazicioglu K (Department of Radiology, Zonguldak Karaelmas University School of Medicine, Kozlu Zonguldak, Turkey), Ogawa T (Department of Radiology, Tottori University School of Medicine,Yonago, Japan). Remote effect of optic tract trauma in the occipital lobe (case report). Diagn Interv Radiol. 2005 Mar;11(1):19-22.

Pinet LM (Departamento de Servicios de Salud de Emergencia, Escuela de Posgrado, Universidad de Maryland, Condado de Baltimore, USA. lpinetl@umbc.edu). [Prehospital emergency care in Mexico City: the opportunities of the healthcare system]. Salud Publica Mex. 2005 Jan-Feb;47(1):64-71. Spanish.

Benyahia B (Federation de Neurologie Mazarin, Hopital de la Salpetriere, Paris, France), Carpentier AF, Delattre JY. [Antineuron antibodies and paraneoplastic neurological syndromes]. Rev Neurol (Paris). 2003 Apr;159(4):463-5. French.

18. Journal article in a language other than English

in a roman alphabet

Berrino F, Gatta G, Crosignani P. [Case-control evaluation of screening efficacy]. Epidemiol Prev. 2004 Nov-Dec;28(6):354-9. Italian.

Bechade D, Desrame J, Raynaud JJ, Algayres JP. [Oesophageal ulcer associated with the use of bacampicillin]. Presse Med. 2005 Feb 26;34(4):299-300. French.

in a non-roman alphabet

Zhao L, Li H, Han D. [Effects of intestinal endotoxemia on the development of cirrhosis in rats]. Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi. 2001 Jul;9 Suppl:21-3. Chinese.

Paroussis D, Papaoutsopoulou C. [Porcelain laminate veneers (HI-ERAM)]. Odontostomatol Proodos. 1990 Dec;44(6):423-6. Greek.

19. Journal article in a language other than English with optional original language title included

Calera Rubio AA, Roel Valdes JM, Casal Lareo A, Gadea Merino R, Rodrigo Cencillo F. Riesgo quimico laboral: elementos para un diagnostico en Espana [Occupational chemical risk: elements for a diagnostic in Spain]. Rev Esp Salud Publica. 2005 Mar-Apr;79(2):283-95. Spanish.

20. Journal article published in two equal languages

Warnock GL. Quality care is job one = Les soins de qualite font du chemin. Can J Surg. 2005 Feb;48(1):6-8. English, French.

Picozzi G, Paci E, Lopez Pegna A, Bartolucci M, Roselli G, De Francisci A, Gabrielli S, Masi A, Villari N, Mascalchi M. Screening della neoplasia polmonare con TC spirale a bassa dose. Risultati di uno studio pilota triennale e disegno dello studio clinico randomizzato ''Italung-CT'' = Screening of lung cancer with low dose spiral CT: results of a three year pilot study and design of the randomised controlled trial ''Italung-CT''. Radiol Med (Torino). 2005 Jan-Feb;109(1-2):17-26. Italian, English.

21. Journal article published in multiple languages

Mittelmark MB, Lamarre MC. The IUHPE's response to the Tsunami disaster. Promot Educ. 2004;11(4):203, 222, 237. English, French, Spanish.

Colombo C. [How "Spanish flu" is not recognized]. Krankenpfl Soins Infirm. 2006;99(6):10-4, 40-3, 62-4. German, French, Italian.

22. Journal article title beginning with a lower case letter

Yao S, Zhang Y, Li J. c-jun/AP-1 activation does not affect the antiproliferative activity of phenethyl isothiocyanate, a cruciferous vegetable-derived cancer chemopreventive agent. Mol Carcinog. 2006 Aug;45(8):605-12.

Sun Y. p53 and its downstream proteins as molecular targets of cancer. Mol Carcinog. 2006 Jun;45(6):409-15.

23. Journal article title with special characters

Greek letters may be written out if special fonts are not available

Guan M, Chen Y. Aberrant expression of ΔNp73 in benign and malignant tumours of the prostate: correlation with Gleason score. J Clin Pathol. 2005 Nov;58(11):1175-9.

may become

Guan M, Chen Y. Aberrant expression of DeltaNp73 in benign and malignant tumours of the prostate: correlation with Gleason score. J Clin Pathol. 2005 Nov;58(11):1175-9.

Bell RP, Verdijk D, Relou M, Smith D, Regeling H, Ebbers EJ, Leemhuis FM, Oniciu DC, Cramer CT, Goetz B, Pape ME, Krause BR, Dasseux JL. α-cycloalkyl-substituted ω-keto-dicarboxylic acids as lipid regulating agents. Bioorg Med Chem. 2005 Jan 3;13(1):223-36.

may become

Bell RP, Verdijk D, Relou M, Smith D, Regeling H, Ebbers EJ, Leemhuis FM, Oniciu DC, Cramer CT, Goetz B, Pape ME, Krause BR, Dasseux JL. alpha-cycloalkyl-substituted omega-keto-dicarboxylic acids as lipid regulating agents. Bioorg Med Chem. 2005 Jan 3;13(1):223-36.

Superscripts/subscripts may be enclosed in parentheses as regular type if special fonts are not available

Paluchowska MH, Charakchieva-Minol S, Tatarczynska E, Klodzinska A, Stachowicz K, Chojnacka-Wojcik E. New 4-[ω-(diarylmethylamino)alkyl]- and 4-[ω-(diarylmethoxy)alkyl]-1-arylpiperazines as selective 5-HT1A/5-HT2A receptor ligands with differentiated in vivo activity. Pol J Pharmacol. 2004 Nov-Dec;56(6):743-54.

may become

Paluchowska MH, Charakchieva-Minol S, Tatarczynska E, Klodzinska A, Stachowicz K, Chojnacka-Wojcik E. New 4-[omega-(diarylmethylamino)alkyl]- and 4-[omega-(diarylmethoxy)alkyl]-1-arylpiperazines as selective 5-HT(1A)/5-HT(2A) receptor ligands with differentiated in vivo activity. Pol J Pharmacol. 2004 Nov-Dec;56(6):743-54.

24. Journal article with type of article indicated

Zhang Y, Griendling KK, Taylor WR. A critical role for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in neointima formation induced by carotid ligation [abstract]. Circulation. 2004 Oct 26;110(17 Suppl):III-259. Abstract no. 1238.

Jackson B, Fleming T. A drug is effective if better than a harmless control [letter]. Nature. 2005 Apr 28;434(7037):1067.

Gayer T, Hahn RW. Regulating mercury: what's at stake? [letter]. Science. 2005 Jul 8;309(5732):244-5.

Kardel T. [Can a physician pay too many visits? (letter)]. Ugeskr Laeger. 2005 Jun 13;167(24):2666. Danish.

Flegel K. Biographies of healers [book review]. CMAJ. 2007 Jul 3;177(1):70.

25. Journal title consisting of a single word

Bryant BJ, Alperin JB, Indrikovs AJ. Blood bank on-call physician's experiences at a large university medical center. Transfusion. 2005 Jan;45(1):35-40.

26. Journal title in a character-based language

Itabashi M, Yoshida K, Kameoka S. [Sentinel node navigation surgery for colorectal cancer]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 2005 Apr;32(4):557-60. Japanese.

Li YJ, He X, Liu LN, Lan YY, Wang AM, Wang YL. [Studies on chemical constituents in herb of Polygonum orientale]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2005 Mar;30(6):444-6. Chinese.

27. Journal title with an edition

Fisher ML, Balke CW, Freudenberger R. Therapeutic options in advanced heart failure. Hosp Pract (Off Ed). 1997 Dec 15;32(12):97-106.

Pekcan O, Kara S. Cation effect on thermal transition of iota-carrageenan: a photon transmission study. J Biomater Sci (Polym Ed). 2005;16(3):317-33.

28. Journal title with city of publication added after the title for clarification

Lillehei KO, Simon J, Gaspar L, Damek DM. Non-small-cell lung cancer with brain metastasis. Oncology (Williston Park). 2004 Dec;18(14):1725-8.

29. Journal article with year having a special number

Scott JD. The protease inhibitor drugs. Posit Aware. 2005 Winter;Spec No:16-9.

Mar Molinero F, Ramos Amador JT, Sanchez Diaz JI. Terapeutica antimicrobiana en las infecciones respiratorias de vias bajas [Antibacterial therapy in lower respiratory tract infections]. An Esp Pediatr. 1997 Jun;Spec No 2:207-8. Spanish.

30. Journal article with year having a supplement

Beyond menopause. Life after estrogen. Mayo Clin Health Lett. 2005 Feb;Suppl:1-8.

Draghici S, Khatri P, Shah A, Tainsky MA. Assessing the functional bias of commercial microarrays using the onto-compare database. Biotechniques. 2003 Mar;Suppl:55-61.

31. Journal article with year with supplement having a further division

Kenney JT Jr. The pharmacy director's view of the implications of dose escalation. Manag Care Interface. 2004;Suppl A:9-10.

Doherty DE, Briggs DD Jr. Long-term nonpharmacologic management of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Clin Cornerstone. 2004;Suppl 2:S29-34.

32. Journal article with year having a named supplement

New measurement methods require reassessment of WHO criteria. Diagn Imaging (San Franc). 1998 Nov;Suppl Bone Mass:7.

33. Journal article with year having a part

Ophthalmology sourcebook & reference guide 1990. Ophthalmology. 1990 Sep;(Pt 2):1-145.

Sanders G, Hesse A, Leusmann DB. Experimental investigation of the genesis of struvite stones in cats. Scan Electron Microsc. 1986;(Pt 4):1713-20.

34. Journal article with season included in date

Swan T. Current challenges in hepatitis C. Res Initiat Treat Action. 2004 Fall;10(2):17-20.

Hilgers K, Ramer P. Forced medication of defendants to achieve trial competency: an update on the law after Sell. Georget J Leg Ethics. 2004 Summer;17(4):813-26.

Hesperian Foundation; Program for Appropriate Technology in Health PATH. Cancer of the cervix: a training guide to promote awareness. Hesperian Found News. 1997 Spring-Summer;Suppl:1-4.

35. Journal article with multiple years of publication

Legge A. Children in need. Nurs Times. 2002 Dec 17-2003 Jan 6;98(51):40-1.

Spencer P, Zakaib G, Winter E. The risks of reuse: legal implications for hospitals of reusing single-use medical devices. Hosp Q. 2001-2002 Winter;5(2):68-70.

Vagg L, Taylor O, Riley M, Palma S, Halliday J. Validation of the Victorian Perinatal Morbidity Statistics form: new items, pre-coded text and free text. Health Inf Manag. 1999-2000;29(3):118-22.

Martin H, Rushforth P. The big bang approach to health reform: an update from the Calgary Regional Health Authority. Hosp Q. 1998-1999 Winter;2(2):43-50.

36. Journal article with multiple months of publication

Clark P, Lavielle P, Duarte C. Patient ratings of care at a rheumatology out-patient unit. Arch Med Res. 2004 Jan-Feb;35(1):82-6.

Fleming J, Chetty M. Psychotropic drug interactions with valproate. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2005 Mar-Apr;28(2):96-101.

Flanagan M. One nurse's story. Prairie Rose. 2005 Feb-Apr;74(1):8.

Lacasse Y, Beaudoin L, Rousseau L, Maltais F. Randomized trial of paroxetine in end-stage COPD. Monaldi Arch Chest Dis. 2004 Jul-Sep;61(3):140-7.

Morris D, Turnbull P. Dyslexia. Br J Nurs. 2005 Jan 27-Feb 9;14(2):63.

37. Journal article with multiple days of publication

Townsend E, Griffiths G, Rocker M, Winter R, Lewis M. Setting up a screening service for abdominal aortic aneurysm. Nurs Times. 2005 Feb 1-7;101(5):36-8.

Jootun D, MacInnes A. Examining how well students use correct handling procedures. Nurs Times. 2005 Jan 25-31;101(4):38-40.

38. Journal article volume with supplement

El Shehaby A, Ganz JC, Reda WA, Hafez A. Temporary symptomatic swelling of meningiomas following gamma knife surgery. Report of two cases. J Neurosurg. 2005 Jan;102 Suppl:293-6.

Lee A, Chan EC, Ho M, Wong WS, Ng PP. The importance of needs assessment in planning health promoting schools initiatives: comparison of youth risk behaviours of two districts in Hong Kong. Asia Pac J Public Health. 2004;16 Suppl:S7-11.

39. Journal article volume with supplement with further division

Tolosa E, Valldeoriola F. Mid-stage parkinsonism with mild motor fluctuations. Clin Neuropharmacol. 1994;17 Suppl 2:S19-31.

Shortliffe LM, McCue JD. Urinary tract infection at the age extremes: pediatrics and geriatrics. Am J Med. 2002 Jul 8;113 Suppl 1A:55S-66S.

Black HR. Evaluation of the elderly hypertensive. Geriatrics. 1989 Oct;44 Suppl B:15-9.

40. Journal article volume with supplement with part

Veselko M, Kastelec M. Inferior patellar pole avulsion fractures: osteosynthesis compared with pole resection. Surgical technique. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2005 Mar;87 Suppl 1 Pt 1:113-21.

Brosen K, Gram LF, Sindrup S, Skjelbo E, Nielsen KK. Pharmacogenetics of tricyclic and novel antidepressants: recent developments. Clin Neuropharmacol. 1992;15 Suppl 1 Pt A:80A-81A.

41. Journal article volume with named supplement

4th Congress of the European Haematology Association. Barcelona, Spain, June 9-12, 1999. Abstracts. Haematologica. 1999 Jun;84 Abstr Suppl:1-285.

Cattaneo M, Mannucci PM. Current status of non-transfusional haemostatic agents. Haematologica. 1999 Jun;84 Suppl EHA-4:120-3.

42. Journal article volume with part

Neulander E, Rivera I, Wajsman Z. The role of the simple cystectomy in urologic surgery. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2003;539(Pt A):535-47.

Garcia R, Yuqiu J, Schabtach E, Bustamante C. Deposition and imaging of metal-coated biomolecules with the STM. Ultramicroscopy. 1992 Jul;42-44(Pt B):1250-4.

Hoffer A, Youngren VR. Is free association still at the core of psychoanalysis? Int J Psychoanal. 2004 Dec;85(Pt 6):1489-92.

Erickson D, Fujimura O, Pardo B. Articulatory correlates of prosodic control: emotion and emphasis. Lang Speech. 1998 Jul-Dec;41(Pt 3-4):399-417.

Afsar AJ, Patel S, Woods RL, Wykes W. A comparison of visual performance between a rigid PMMA and a foldable acrylic intraocular lens. Eye. 1999 Jun;13(Pt 3a):329-35.

43. Journal article volume with part with supplement

Claridge KG, Francis PJ, Bates AK. Should second eye cataract surgery be rationed? Eye. 1995;9(Pt 6 Suppl):47-9.

15th International Cancer Congress. Hamburg, August 16-22, 1990. Part II: Lecture abstracts. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 1990;116(Pt 2 Suppl):773-1252.

44. Journal article volume with special number

Rico G, Kretschmer RR. The monocyte locomotion inhibitory factor (MLIF) produced by axenically grown Entamoeba histolytica fails to affect the locomotion and the respiratory burst of human eosinophils in vitro. Arch Med Res. 1997;28 Spec No:233-4.

Auriacombe L, Pedroni E, Kachaner J, Mandel C, Sidi D. [Aptitude for sports in children operated on for aortic coarctation. Contribution of the exercise test]. Arch Mal Coeur Vaiss. 1989 Aug;82 Spec No 2:13-6. French.

45. Journal article with multiple volume numbers

Bakonyi G, Nagy P, Kadar I. Long-term effects of heavy metals and microelements on nematode assemblage. Toxicol Lett. 2003 Apr 11;140-141:391-401.

46. Journal article with volume without issue

Prokai-Tatrai K, Prokai L. Modifying peptide properties by prodrug design for enhanced transport into the CNS. Prog Drug Res. 2003;61:155-88.

47. Journal article with volume in a new series

Hughes JA, Brazeau GA. Genetically engineered vaccines. Am Pharm. 1995 Dec;NS35(12):9-10.

48. Journal article issue with name instead of number

Picardi E, Regina TM, Brennicke A, Quagliariello C. REDIdb: the RNA editing database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007 Jan;35(Database issue):D173-7.

49. Journal article issue with supplement

Crawford M, Mullan J, Vanderveen T. Technology and safe medication administration. J Infus Nurs. 2005 Mar-Apr;28(2 Suppl):37-41.

Fabregas B. [Ethics and gerontology. The dialyzed elderly patient: until when? For what terminal goals?]. Soins. 2003 Oct;(679 Suppl):18. French.

50. Journal article issue with supplement with further division

Montserrat E. Rituximab in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Semin Oncol. 2003 Feb;30(1 Suppl 2):34-9.

Ng AK, Hickey G, Li S, Neuberg D, Mauch PM. A randomized phase II trial of amifostine for head and neck irradiation in lymphoma. Semin Oncol. 2004 Dec;31(6 Suppl 18):20-4.

Ferguson JJ, Douglas JS, Holmes DR, Roubin GS, Smith KM. Angiography and interventional cardiology. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004 Jul 21;44(2 Suppl A):13A-15A.

51. Journal article issue with supplement with part

Abstracts of the 41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO). May 13-17, 2005. Orlando, Florida, USA. J Clin Oncol. 2005 Jun 1;23(16 Suppl Pt 1):1s-1087s.

52. Journal article issue with named supplement

Leifer BP. Early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease: clinical and economic benefits. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2003 May;51(5 Suppl Dementia):S281-8.

53. Journal article issue with part

Menter A. Pharmacokinetics and safety of tazarotene. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2000 Aug;43(2 Pt 3):S31-5.

Fukuzawa M, Oguchi S, Saida T. Kaposi's varicelliform eruption of an elderly patient with multiple myeloma. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2000 May;42(5 Pt 2):921-2.

Arouh S, Levine H. Nutrient chemotaxis suppression of a diffusive instability in bacterial colony dynamics. Phys Rev E Stat Phys Plasmas Fluids Relat Interdiscip Topics. 2000 Jul;62(1 Pt B):1444-7.

Gosse P, Jullien V, Jarnier P, Lemetayer P, Clementy J. Reduction in arterial distensibility in hypertensive patients as evaluated by ambulatory measurement of the QKD interval is correlated with concentric remodeling of the left ventricle. Am J Hypertens. 1999 Dec;12(12 Pt 1-2):1252-5.

54. Journal article issue with part with supplement

Baxter CR. Foreword: comments on critical pathways. J Burn Care Rehabil. 1995;16(2 Pt 2 Suppl):189.

Wiatrak BJ, Wiatrak DW, Broker TR, Lewis L. Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis: a longitudinal study comparing severity associated with human papilloma viral types 6 and 11 and other risk factors in a large pediatric population. Laryngoscope. 2004 Nov;114(11 Pt 2 Suppl 104):1-23.

55. Journal article issue with special number

Muller H, Scott R, Weber W, Meier R. Colorectal cancer: lessons for genetic counselling and care for families. Clin Genet. 1994 Jul;46(1 Spec No):106-14.

Brander VA, Hinderer SR, Alpiner N, Oh TH. Rehabilitation in joint and connective tissue diseases. 3. Limb disorders. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1995 May;76(5 Spec No):S47-56.

56. Journal article with multiple issue numbers

Miller NB, Smerglia VL, Bouchet N. Women's adjustment to widowhood: does social support matter? J Women Aging. 2004;16(3-4):149-67.

Adams TB, Smith RL. Issues and challenges in the safety evaluation of food flavors. Toxicol Lett. 2004 Apr 1;149(1-3):209-13.

Rattan KN, Budhiraja S, Pandit SK, Solanki RS, Sen R, Sen J. Caudal duplication--a case report. Pediatr Surg Int. 2000;16(5-6):445-6.

Kongbangkerd A, Kopf A, Allacher P, Wawrosch C, Kopp B. Micropropagation of squill (Charybdis numidica) through nodule culture. Plant Cell Rep. 2005 Mar;23(10-11):673-7.

57. Journal article with an issue without a volume

Shul'gina GI, Ziablitseva EA. [Effect of the GABA derivative phenibut on learning]. Vestn Ross Akad Med Nauk. 2005;(2):35-40. Russian.

Abidov AM, Saiitkulov AM. [Treatment of disorders in interferon status of patients with urogenital chlamydial infection]. Lik Sprava. 2003 Apr-Jun;(3-4):81-4. Russian.

58. Journal article with no volume or issue

AACN national study reports important critical pathways findings. AACN News. 1995 Jul:5.

Schwartz-Cassell T. Feeding assistants: based on logic or way off base? Contemp Longterm Care. 2005 Jan:26-8.

59. Journal article with page numbers including a letter

letter preceding the page numbers

Siedenburg J, Perry I, Stuben U. Tropical medicine and travel medicine: medical advice for aviation medical examiners concerning flight operations in tropical areas. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2005 Mar;76(3 Suppl):A1-30.

Barrett CJ, Malpas SC. Problems, possibilities, and pitfalls in studying the arterial baroreflexes' influence over long-term control of blood pressure. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2005 Apr;288(4):R837-45.

Guo X, Lu X, Kassab GS. Transmural strain distribution in the blood vessel wall. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2005 Feb;288(2):H881-6.

Staiano S. Trial--unknown accused--defense warranty. Forensic Sci Int. 2004 Dec 2;146 Suppl:S221-2.

Hafeez A, Mehmood G, Mazhar F. Oral zinc supplementation in pregnant women and its effect on birth weight: a randomised controlled trial. Arch Dis Child (Fetal Neonatal Ed). 2005 Mar;90(2):F170-1.

letter following the page numbers

Hop LT, Berger J. Multiple micronutrient supplementation improves anemia, micronutrient nutrient status, and growth of Vietnamese infants: double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. J Nutr. 2005 Mar;135(3):660S-665S.

Coltorti M. [The pharmacological therapy of intrahepatic cholestasis]. Ann Ital Med Int. 1993 Oct;8 Suppl:41S-47S. Italian.

Stern RA, Nevels CT, Shelhorse ME, Prohaska ML, Mason GA, Prange AJ Jr. The use of T3 to enhance the effects of ECT. Clin Neuropharmacol. 1992;15 Suppl 1 Pt A:387A-388A.

60. Journal article with roman numerals for page numbers (upper or lower case as found)

Weinstock MA. Public health messages regarding skin cancer. J Invest Dermatol. 2004 Dec;123(6):xvii-xix.

Giger JN. Human genetics: can we really eliminate health disparities. J Natl Black Nurses Assoc. 2003 Jun;14(1):vii-viii.

Shaldon S. Hemodialysis vascular access and peritoneal dialysis access. Preface. Contrib Nephrol. 2004;142:X-XII.

Klyszejko-Stefanowicz L, Gniazdowski M. The birth of biochemistry in Lodz. Acta Biochim Pol. 2003;50(2):V-VIII.

61. Journal article with discontinuous pagination

Fitzgerald-Bocarsly P. Natural interferon-alpha producing cells: the plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Biotechniques. 2002 Oct;Suppl:16-20, 22, 24-9.

Ferguson-Noyes N. Bipolar disorder in children: diagnostic and treatment issues. Adv Nurse Pract. 2005 Mar;13(3):35-6, 38-40, 42.

Assael LA. Should dentists become 'oral physicians'? No, dentistry must remain dentistry. J Am Dent Assoc. 2004 Apr;135(4):439, 441, 443 passim.

Pelletier KR, Astin JA. Integration and reimbursement of complementary and alternative medicine by managed care and insurance providers: 2000 update and cohort analysis. Altern Ther Health Med. 2002 Jan-Feb;8(1):38-9, 42, 44 passim.

Vowden K. Complex wound or complex patient? Strategies for treatment. Br J Community Nurs. 2005 Jun;Suppl:S6, S8, S10 passim.

62. Article on an insert, pages tipped in the issue

Loprinzi C. Follow-up care after breast cancer treatment. Mayo Clin Womens Healthsource. 2004 Sep;8(9):suppl 1-2.

Moore W. Screening. More harm than good? Health Serv J. 2000 Apr 27;110(5702):suppl 3.

63. Journal article with indication that additional text follows it

discussion

Hoffmann J, Lenhard A. Psychology has to deal with efferences too. J Mot Behav. 2004 Dec;36(4):384-5, 402-7; discussion 408-17.

quiz

Preston BL, Warren RC, Wooten SM, Gragg RD 3rd, Walker B. Environmental health and antisocial behavior: implications for public policy. J Environ Health. 2001 May;63(9):9-19; quiz 33-4.

letter with reply by author

Graham DY, Chan FK. Endoscopic ulcers with low-dose aspirin and reality testing. Gastroenterology. 2005 Mar;128(3):807; author reply 807-8.

64. Journal article with no page number provided

Jerger J. Broadening our horizons. J Am Acad Audiol. 1998 Feb;9(1):[preceding p. 1].

[New nifedipine preparation makes single daily dose possible]. Fortschr Med. 1997 Nov 30;115(33):[following p. 54]. German.

Gearry RB, Cook HB, Burt MJ. Time for gastroscopy. N Z Med J. 2003 Jan 24;116(1168):[1 p.].

65. Journal article that is a retraction notice

Chen C, Li Q. A strict solution for the optimal superimposition of protein structures. Retraction. Acta Crystallogr A. 2004 Nov;60(Pt 6):640. Retraction of: Chen C, Li Q. Acta Crystallogr A. 2004 May;60(Pt 3):201-3.

Bassett D, Morrell JC, Gatto GJ Jr, Bai J, Geisbrecht BV, Hieter P, Gould SJ. Detecting patterns of protein distribution and gene expression in silico. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Jan 11;102(2):516. Retraction of: Geraghty MT, Bassett D, Morrell JC, Gatto GJ Jr, Bai J, Geisbrecht BV, Hieter P, Gould SJ. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Mar 16;96(6):2937-42.

66. Journal article retracted

Chen C, Li Q. A strict solution for the optimal superimposition of protein structures. Acta Crystallogr A. 2004 May;60(Pt 3):201-3. Retraction in: Chen C, Li Q. Acta Crystallogr A. 2004 Nov;60(Pt 6):640.

Geraghty MT, Bassett D, Morrell JC, Gatto GJ Jr, Bai J, Geisbrecht BV, Hieter P, Gould SJ. Detecting patterns of protein distribution and gene expression in silico. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Mar 16;96(6):2937-42. Retraction in: Bassett D, Morrell JC, Gatto GJ Jr, Bai J, Geisbrecht BV, Hieter P, Gould SJ. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Jan 11;102(2):516.

67. Journal article that is an erratum notice

Scuderi A, Letsou A. Amnioserosa is required for dorsal closure in Drosophila. Dev Dyn. 2005 May;233(1):249. Erratum for: Dev Dyn. 2005 Mar;232(3):791-800.

Colau JC. [Contrary medical references in Gynecology-Obstetrics]. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris). 1997;26(6):650-1. French. Erratum for: J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris). 1997;26(2):124-30.

68. Journal article having an erratum

Scuderi A, Letsou A. Amnioserosa is required for dorsal closure in Drosophila. Dev Dyn. 2005 Mar;232(3):791-800. Erratum in: Dev Dyn. 2005 May;233(1):249.

Lansac J. [Medical consensus practice guidelines in gynecology-obstetrics]. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris). 1997;26(2):124-30. French. Erratum in: J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris). 1997;26(6):650-1.

69. Journal article with indication article published electronically before print

Walsh B, Steiner A, Pickering RM, Ward-Basu J. Economic evaluation of nurse led intermediate care versus standard care for post-acute medical patients: cost minimisation analysis of data from a randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2005 Mar 26;330(7493):699. Epub 2005 Mar 9.

70. Journal article with an indication it may be found in PubMed

Amalberti R, Auroy Y, Berwick D, Barach P. Five system barriers to achieving ultrasafe health care. Ann Intern Med. 2005 May 3;142(9):756-64. Cited in: PubMed; PMID 15867408.

71. Journal article with DOI provided

Bhutta ZA, Darmstadt GL, Hasan BS, Haws RA. Community-based interventions for improving perinatal and neonatal health outcomes in developing countries: a review of the evidence. Pediatrics. 2005 Feb;115(2 Suppl):519-617. doi:10.1542/peds.2004-1441.

72. Journal article in a microform

Moore W Jr, Lambert PD. The chromosomes of the Beagle dog. J Hered [microfilm]. 1963 Nov-Dec;54(6):273-6. 1 reel: black & white, negative, 35 mm.

Habibullah CM, Mujahid Ali M, Ishaq M. Dermatoglyphic profiles in duodenal ulcer: further evidence for association. IRCS Med Sci [microfiche]. 1986 Dec;14(2):1227-8. 2 of 2 microfiche: black & white, 4 x 6 in.

73. Journal article accompanied by a videocassette, CD-ROM, or other visual medium

Sathananthan AH, Tarin JJ, Gianaroli L, Ng SC, Dharmawardena V, Magli MC, Fernando R, Trounson AO. Development of the human dispermic embryo. Hum Reprod Update. 1999 Sep-Oct;5(5):553-60. Accompanied by: Video on CD-ROM.

Orchard JW, Alcott E, James T, Farhart P, Portus M, Waugh SR. Exact moment of a gastrocnemius muscle strain captured on video. Br J Sports Med. 2002 Jun;36(3):222-3. Accompanied by: Video available at http://www.bjsportmed.com

Crompton DE, Chinnery PF, Bates D, Walls TJ, Jackson MJ, Curtis AJ, Burn J. Spectrum of movement disorders in neuroferritinopathy. Mov Disord. 2005 Jan;20(1):95-9. Accompanied by: Video available at http://www.interscience.wiley.com/jpages/0885-3185/suppmat as an mpg file.

Dale RC, Church AJ, Surtees RA, Thompson EJ, Giovannoni G, Neville BG. Post-streptococcal autoimmune neuropsychiatric disease presenting as paroxysmal dystonic choreoathetosis. Mov Disord. 2002 Jul;17(4):817-20. Accompanied by: Videocassette available as vol. 17 videotape supplement 2; 51:03 min.

Van Voorhis BJ. In vitro fertilization. N Engl J Med. 2007 Jan 25;356(4):379-86. Accompanied by: Video clip showing ultrasound-guided oocyte retrieval available from http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/full/356/4/379/DC1

74. CD-ROM published as a supplement to an issue of a journal

9th United European Gastroenterology Week. Amsterdam 2001. Abstracts of presentations [CD-ROM]. Gut. 2001 Nov;49(5 Suppl 3):[1 CD-ROM].

75. Other types of notes for journal articles

Harlow BL, Barbieri RL. Influence of education on risk of hysterectomy before age 45 years. Am J Epidemiol. 1999 Oct 15;150(8):843-7. Supported by a Public Health Service grant from the National Institute of Mental Health.

Schrag D, Chung KY, Flombaum C, Saltz L. Cetuximab therapy and symptomatic hypomagnesemia. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2005 Aug 17;97(16):1221-4. Paper originally presented at the Gastrointestinal Oncology Meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, Hollywood, FL, January 29, 2005.

American Academy of Family Physicians. Information from your family doctor. What you should know about worrying too much. Am Fam Physician. 2006 Mar 15;73(6):1057-8. Patient education handout.

Flegel K. Biographies of healers [book review]. CMAJ. 2007 Jul 3;177(1):70. Review of: Bynum WF, Bynum H, editors. Dictionary of Medical Biography. Westport (CT): Greenwood Press; c2007.

Packman Z, Steen P. The nurses who simplified discharge planning [interview]. Nurs Times. 2007 Oct 16-22;103(42):20-1. Interview by Victoria Hoban.

Heppner HJ, Bauer JM, Sieber CC, Bertsch T. Laboratory aspects relating to the detection and prevention of frailty. Int J Prev Med. 2010 Summer;1(3):149-57. PubMed PMID: 21566784. Authorship note: Heppner HJ and Bauer JM contributed equally.

B. Sample Citation and Introduction to Citing Parts of Journal Articles

The general format for a reference to a part of a journal article, including punctuation:

Illustration of the general format for a reference to a part of a journal
article.

Examples of Citations to Parts of Journal Articles

Rather than citing an entire journal article, a part of an article such as a table may be cited. In general, most modern articles have standardized to three types of parts: figures, tables, and appendixes. However, other names may be found for parts, including section, chart, graph, box, and photograph. Use the name provided in the article.

Because a reference should start with the individual or organization responsible for the journal article start with the article information, then follow it with the information about the part.

Journal articles frequently contain charts, figures, and other illustrative material that has been reproduced with permission from other sources. Do not cite these as parts using the instructions presented here. Consult the original publication and cite the particular item from there.

Note that PubMed cites only entire articles; you will not see a citation to a part in MEDLINE/PubMed.

Continue to Citation Rules with Examples for Parts of Journal Articles

Continue to Examples of Citations to Parts of Journal Articles

Citation Rules with Examples for Parts of Journal Articles

Components/elements are listed in the order they should appear in a reference. An R after the component name means that it is required in the citation; an O after the name means it is optional.

Journal Article (R) | Name and Number/Letter (R) | Title (R) | Location (Pagination) (R)

Journal Article (required)

General Rules for Journal Article

Name and Number/Letter of Part for Parts of Journal Articles (required)

General Rules for Name and Number/Letter of Part

  • Enter the name of the part, such as Table, Figure, or Appendix, as it appears in the article
  • Translate non-English names into English
  • Do not abbreviate names. For example, convert Fig. to Figure.
  • Follow the name with any accompanying number or letter, such as Table 2, Figure 3.1, or Appendix A
  • Use arabic numbers only. For example: convert VI or Six to 6.
  • End name and number/letter information with a comma and a space

Specific Rules for Name and Number/Letter of Part

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Non-English names for parts.

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No letter or number follows the name.

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No name appears.

Title of Part for Parts of Journal Articles (required)

General Rules for Title of Part

  • Enter the title of the part as it appears in the article
  • Capitalize only the first word of a title, proper nouns, proper adjectives, acronyms, and initialisms
  • Translate non-English titles into English and place the translation in square brackets
  • End title information with a semicolon and a space

Specific Rules for Title of Part

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Titles of parts not in English.

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Titles containing a Greek letter, chemical formula, or other special character.

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No title appears.

Location (Pagination) of Part for Parts of Journal Articles (required)

General Rules for Location (Pagination)

  • Begin location with "p." followed by a space
  • Enter the page number or numbers for the part, such as p. 438 and p. 663-4
  • Do not repeat page numbers unless they are followed by a letter. For example: 126-127 becomes p. 126-7, but p. 126A-127A is correct.
  • Include a letter (often S for Supplement or A for Appendix) when it precedes the page number, such as p. S10-8
  • End page information with a period

Specific Rules for Location (Pagination)

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Roman numerals used as page numbers.

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No page numbers appear on the pages of the part.

Examples of Citations to Parts of Journal Articles

1. Standard numbered/lettered table in a journal article

Diaz-Cruz ES, Shapiro CL, Brueggemeier RW. Cyclooxygenase inhibitors suppress aromatase expression and activity in breast cancer cells. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005 May;90(5):2563-70. Table 2, Aromatase activity and expression in cell lines; p. 2565.

2. Unnumbered/unlettered table in a journal article

Mackey KM, Sparling JW. Experiences of older women with cancer receiving hospice care: significance for physical therapy. Phys Ther. 2000 May;80(5):459-68. Table, Informant demographics and characteristics; p. 461.

3. Unnamed table in a journal article

Krishnamurthi V, Streem SB. Long-term radiographic and functional outcome of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy induced perirenal hematomas. J Urol. 1995 Nov;154(5):1673-5. [Table], Radiographic and functional outcome of ESWL related perirenal hematomas; p. 1674.

4. Unnumbered/unlettered and untitled table in a journal article

Hartz AJ, Rupley DC, Rimm AA. The association of girth measurements with disease in 32,856 women. Am J Epidemiol. 1984 Jan;119(1):71-80. Table, [Waist-hip ratio ranges and the sample sizes for women aged 40 to 59]; p. 72.

5. Standard numbered/lettered figure in a journal article

Mitchell GF, Pfeffer MA. Evaluation and management of patients with uncontrolled systolic hypertension: is another new paradigm really needed? Am Heart J. 2005 May;149(5):776-84. Figure 3, Regional pressure wave forms in the normal arterial system; p. 780.

Wood RH, Gardner RE, Ferachi KA, King C, Ermolao A, Cherry KE, Cress ME,Jazwinski SM. Physical function and quality of life in older adults: sex differences. South Med J. 2005 May;98(5):504-12. Figure 2a, Physical function vs. SF-36 PCS in women; p. 510.

Picardi E, Regina TM, Brennicke A, Quagliariello C. REDIdb: the RNA editing database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007 Jan;35(Database issue):D173-7. Figure 1A, Flow diagram of the various steps used during database construction; p. D175.

6. Unnumbered/unlettered figure in a journal article

Glascoe FP, Martin ED, Humphrey S. A comparative review of developmental screening tests. Pediatrics. 1990 Oct;86(4):547-54. Figure, Developmental screening tests; p. 549.

7. Unnamed figure in a journal article

Lindup WE, Orme MC. Clinical pharmacology: plasma protein binding of drugs. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1981 Jan 17;282(6259):212-4. [Figure], Protein binding and drug disposition; p. 212.

8. Unnumbered/unlettered and untitled figure in a journal article

Roth S, Semjonow A, Waldner M, Hertle L. Risk of bowel dysfunction with diarrhea after continent urinary diversion with ileal and ileocecal segments. J Urol. 1995 Nov;154(5):1696-9. [Figure, Resection of long ileal or ileocecal segments disturbs enterohepatic bile acid circulation]; p. 1697.

9. Standard numbered/lettered appendix in a journal article

House MG, Choti MA. Palliative therapy for pancreatic/biliary cancer. Surg Clin N Am. 2005 Apr;85(2):359-71. Appendix 1, Principles guiding care at the end of life; p. 389-90.

Galant SP, Crawford LJ, Morphew T, Jones CA, Bassin S. Predictive value of a cross-cultural asthma case-detection tool in an elementary school population. Pediatrics. 2004 Sep;114(3):e307-16. Appendix A, International study of asthma and allergy in childhood questionnaire; p. e315.

10. Unnumbered/unlettered appendix in a journal article

Sorkin JD, Muller DC, Andres R. Longitudinal change in height of men and women: implications for interpretation of the body mass index: the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Am J Epidemiol. 1999 Nov 1;150(9):969-77. Appendix, Equations, obtained from cross-sectional analysis, relating height to age; p. 976-7.

11. Unnumbered/unlettered and untitled appendix in a journal article

Lee KF. Palliative care: good legal defense. Surg Clin North Am. 2005 Apr;85(2):287-302, vii. Appendix, [Excerpts from "Prescription Pain Medications: Frequently Asked Questions and Answers for Health Care Professionals"]; p. 296-301.

Saada M, Le Chenadec J, Berrebi A, Bongain A, Delfraissy JF, Mayaux MJ, Meyer L. Pregnancy and progression to AIDS: results of the French prospective cohorts. AIDS. 2000 Oct 20;14(15):2355-60. Appendix, [Members of the SEROGEST and SEROCO Study groups]; p. 2360.

12. Numbered section in a journal article

Wakita A, Nitta M, Mitomo Y, Takahashi M, Tanaka M, Kaneda T. Cell proliferation detected by DNA polymerase alpha in acute leukemias. Cancer Detect Prev. 1997;21(1):55-61. Section 2A, Cell preparation; p. 55-6.

13. Unnumbered/unlettered section in a journal article

Martin F, Linden T, Katschinski DM, Oehme F, Flamme I, Mukhopadhyay CK, Eckhardt K, Troger J, Barth S, Camenisch G, Wenger RH. Copper-dependent activation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1: implications for ceruloplasmin regulation. Blood. 2005 Jun 15;105(12):4613-9. Induction of ceruloplasm mRNA by hypoxoa and CU2+; p. 4616-7.

14. Miscellaneous numbered parts in journal articles

Pratt HD, Patel DR, Greydanus DE. Behavioral aspects of children's sports. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2003 Aug;50(4):879-99, ix. Box 7, Indicators of potential problems an athlete may experience; p. 892-3.

Morales CA, Layton ME, Shair MD. Synthesis of (-)-longithorone A: using organic synthesis to probe a proposed biosynthesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Aug 17;101(33):12036-41. Scheme 7, Unsuccessful model intermolecular Diels-Alder reaction of 4 with 47; p. 12039.

Fong A, Garcia E, Gwynn L, Lisanti MP, Fazzari MJ, Li M. Expression of caveolin-1 and caveolin-2 in urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder correlates with tumor grade and squamous differentiation. Am J Clin Pathol. 2003 Jul;120(1):93-100. Image 4, Immunohistochemical staining of a urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation with anti-caveolin-1; p. 98.

15. Parts of journal articles not in English

Balogou AA, Grunitzky EK, Kpade C, Belo M. [Non-traumatic paraplegia at the campus teaching hospital of Lome. Report of 243 cases]. Tunis Med. 2002 Jan;80(1):33-6. [Table 2, Etiology]; p. 35. French.

Solignac M. [COART France 2003 report on new socioeconomic data on osteoarthritis in France]. Presse Med. 2004 May 22;33(9 Pt 2):S4-6. [Figure, Distribution of consultations for osteoarthritis in France in 2002]; p. S5. French.

Llanos De La Torre Quiralte M, Garijo Ayestaran M, Poch Olive ML. [Evolution of the infant mortality rate in la Rioja in Spain (1980-1998)]. An Esp Pediatr. 2001 Nov;55(5):413-20. [Figure 3, Trends in infant mortality]; p.418. Spanish.

Hof H. [Candida, aspergillus and company. Pathogenic fungi]. Pharm Unserer Zeit. 2003;32(2):96-103. [Figure 2, Effect of AFL-B1]; p. 97. German.

16. Parts of journal articles not in English with original or romanized language included

Balogou AA, Grunitzky EK, Kpade C, Belo M. Les paraplegies non traumatiques au CHU Campus de Lome a propos de 243 cas [Non-traumatic paraplegia at the campus teaching hospital of Lome. Report of 243 cases]. Tunis Med. 2002 Jan;80(1):33-6. Tableau 2, Les etiologies [Table 2, Etiology]; p. 35. French.

Solignac M. COART France rapport 2003 sur les nouvelles donnees socio-economiques de l'arthrose en France [COART France 2003 report on new socioeconomic data on osteoarthritis in France]. Presse Med. 2004 May 22;33(9 Pt 2):S4-6. Figure, Repartition des consultations pour arthrose en France en 2002 [Figure, Distribution of consultations for osteoarthritis in France in 2002]; p. S5. French.

Llanos De La Torre Quiralte M, Garijo Ayestaran M, Poch Olive ML. Evolucion de la mortalidad infantil de La Rioja (1980-1998) [Evolution of the infant mortality rate in la Rioja in Spain (1980-1998)]. An Esp Pediatr. 2001 Nov;55(5):413-20. Figura 3, Tendencia de mortalidad infantil [Figure 3, Trends in infant mortality]; p. 418. Spanish.

Hof H. Candida, Aspergillus und Co., Pathogene Pilze [Candida, aspergillus and company. Pathogenic fungi]. Pharm Unserer Zeit. 2003;32(2):96-103. Abb. 2, Wirkung von AFL-B1 [Figure 2, Effect of AFL-B1]; p. 97. German.

17. Parts of journals in two equal languages

Gruppo di Studio SIAARTI Sicurezza in Anestesia e Terapia Intensiva [SIAARTI Study Group for Safety in Anesthesia and Intensive Care]. Raccomandazioni per il trasporto inter ed intra ospedaliero del paziente critico = Recommendations on the transport of critically ill patients. Minerva Anestesiol. 2006 Oct;72(10):XXXVII-LVII. Tabella 3, Scheda di trasporto; p. XLIV-XLV = Table 3, Record of transport; p. LVI-LVII. Italian, English.

C. Sample Citation and Introduction to Citing Entire Journal Titles

The general format for a reference to an entire journal title, including punctuation:

- for a title continuing to be published:

Illustration of the general format for a reference to an entire journal
title continuing to be published.

- for a title that ceased publication:

Illustration of the general format for a reference to an entire journal
title that ceased publication.

Examples of Citations to Entire Journal Titles

If a journal is still being published, as shown in the first example, follow volume and date information with a hyphen and three spaces. If a journal has ceased publication, as in example two, separate beginning and ending volume and date information with a hyphen surrounded by a space.

Journals frequently change titles and publishers over time. When citing a journal, always provide information on the latest title and publisher unless you are citing an earlier version. If you wish to cite all volumes for a journal that has changed title, provide a separate citation for each title. For example:

JAMA: the journal of the American Medical Association. Chicago: American Medical Association. Vol. 173, No. 9, 1960 -   . Continues: Journal of the American Medical Association.

Journal of the American Medical Association. Chicago: American Medical Association. Vol. 1, No. 8, 1883 - Vol. 173, No. 8, 1960. Continued by: JAMA.

It is not correct to cite it as:

JAMA: the journal of the American Medical Association. Chicago: American Medical Association. Vol. 1, 1883 -   .

It is also important to cite the version you saw. Many journal titles with both print and Internet versions do not carry the same exact content. If you viewed a journal title on the Internet, do not cite it as if it were a print one. See Chapter 23B for citing Internet journal titles.

Authoritative information on a journal, in order of preference, may be found on: (1) the title page, (2) cover, and (3) the masthead of journal issues. Running headers or footers may not carry the official title of a journal.

Note that the rules for creating references to journal titles are not the same as the rules for cataloging them. Therefore records found in the NLM LocatorPlus and the NLM Catalog databases will not always agree with the instructions presented here.

Continue to Citation Rules with Examples for Entire Journal Titles

Continue to Examples of Citations to Entire Journal Titles

Citation Rules with Examples for Entire Journal Titles

Components/elements are listed in the order they should appear in a reference. An R after the component name means that it is required in the citation; an O after the name means it is optional.

Title (R) | Edition (R) | Type of Medium (R) | Editor (O) | Place of Publication (R) | Publisher (R) | Volume Number (R) | Issue Number (R) | Date of Publication (R) | Physical Description (O) | Language (R) | Notes (O)

Title for Entire Journal Titles (required)

General Rules for Title

  • Enter a journal title in the original language
  • Do not abbreviate any words or omit any words
  • Use whatever capitalization and punctuation are found within the title
  • Follow the title with a colon and any subtitle that appears
  • Follow a non-English title with a translation when possible; place the translation in square brackets
  • End the journal title with a period unless an Edition statement or a Type of Medium is included, then use a space

Specific Rules for Title

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Journal titles not in English.

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Journals appearing in more than one language.

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Journals appearing in different editions.

Edition for Entire Journal Titles (required)

General Rules for Edition

  • Indicate the edition/version being cited after the title if a journal is published in more than one edition or version
  • Do not abbreviate or omit any words
  • Use whatever capitalization and punctuation are found in the edition statement
  • Place the edition statement in parentheses, such as (British Edition)
  • End the edition statement with a period placed outside the closing parenthesis unless the Type of Medium is included, then use a space

Specific Rules for Edition

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Non-English words for edition.

Examples for Edition

Type of Medium for Entire Journal Titles (required)

General Rules for Type of Medium

  • Indicate the specific type of medium (microfiche, ultrafiche, microfilm, microcard, etc.) following the title (and Edition, if present) if a journal is published in a microform
  • Place the name of the medium in square brackets and end with a period placed outside the closing bracket, such as [microfiche].
  • See Chapter 16B for journal titles in audiovisual formats, Chapter 19B for titles on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk, and Chapter 23B for titles on the Internet

Examples for Type of Medium

Editor for Entire Journal Titles (optional)

General Rules for Editor

  • Give the name of the current (or last) editor
  • Enter the editor's name in natural order, such as John A. Jones
  • Follow the name with a comma and the word "editor"
  • End editor information with a period

Specific Rules for Editor

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Editor Names not in English.

Examples for Editor

Place of Publication for Entire Journal Titles (required)

General Rules for Place of Publication

  • Place is defined as the city where the journal was published
  • Follow US and Canadian cities with the two-letter abbreviation for the state or province (see Appendix E) to avoid confusion when citing lesser known cities or when cities in different locations have same name, such as Palm Springs (CA) and Palm Springs (FL)
  • Follow cities in other countries with the name of the country, either written out or as the two-letter ISO country code (see Appendix D), when citing lesser known cities or when cities in different locations have the same name, such as Cambridge (MA) and Cambridge (England)
  • End place information with a colon

Specific Rules for Place of Publication

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Non-US cities.

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Multiple places of publication.

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No place of publication can be found.

Publisher for Entire Journal Titles (required)

General Rules for Publisher

  • Record the name of the publisher as it appears in the journal, using whatever capitalization and punctuation are found there
  • Abbreviate well-known publisher names if desired but with caution to avoid confusion. For example, "John Wiley & Sons, Ltd." may become simply "Wiley".
  • When a division or other subsidiary part of a publisher is given, enter the publisher name first. For example: McGraw-Hill, Health Professions Division.
  • End publisher information with a period

Specific Rules for Publisher

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Abbreviated words in publisher names.

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Non-English publishers.

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Government agencies and other national and international bodies as publisher.

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Multiple publishers.

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Joint publication.

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No publisher can be found.

Volume Number for Entire Journal Titles (required)

General Rules for Volume Number

  • Precede the number with "Vol.", regardless of the particular word for volume used by the journal
  • Use arabic numbers only. For example: convert LX or Sixtieth to 60.
  • Separate multiple volumes by a hyphen. For example: 5-6 or 42-43.
  • Follow volume number(s) with a comma

Specific Rules for Volume Number

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Non-English names for volume.

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No volume number can be found.

Issue Number for Entire Journal Titles (required)

General Rules for Issue Number

  • Precede the issue number with "No.", regardless of the particular word for issue used by the journal
  • Use arabic numbers only. For example: convert IV or Fourth to 4.
  • Separate multiple issues by a hyphen, such as 2-3
  • Follow issue information with a comma

Specific Rules for Issue Number

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Non-English names for issue.

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No volume number can be found.

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No issue number can be found.

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Options for issues.

Date of Publication for Entire Journal Titles (required)

General Rules for Date of Publication

  • Include the month and year the journal began to be published, in that order, such as May 2004
  • Convert roman numerals to arabic numbers. For example: MM to 2000.
  • Use English names for months and abbreviate them to the first three letters, such as Jan
  • End beginning date information with a hyphen, three spaces, and a period if the journal is still being published
  • End beginning date information with a space, a hyphen and a space if the journal ceased publication. Enter closing volume and issue information followed by a comma (see above) and the closing date. End closing date information with a period.

Specific Rules for Date of Publication

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Multiple years, months, or days of publication.

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Non-English names for months.

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Seasons instead of months.

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Options for dates.

Physical Description for Entire Journal Titles (optional)

General Rules for Physical Description

  • Enter the medium on which the journal title is issued, in plural form, if a journal is published in a microform
  • Follow the medium by a colon and a space, such as Microfiche:
  • Give information on the physical characteristics of the medium, such as color and size

Specific Rules for Physical Description

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Language for describing physical characteristics.

Examples for Physical Description

Language for Entire Journal Titles (required)

General Rules for Language

  • Give the language of publication if not English
  • Capitalize the language name
  • Follow the language name with a period

Specific Rules for Language

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Journals appearing in more than one language.

Notes for Entire Journal Titles (optional)

General Rules for Notes

  • Notes is a collective term for further useful information about the journal
  • If the journal was previously published under another title, provide the name preceded by "Continues: ", such as Continues: Immunochemistry.
  • If the journal continues to be published under another title, provide the name preceded by "Continued by: ", such as Continued by: Molecular Immunology.

Specific Rules for Notes

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Other types of material to include in notes.

Examples of Citations to Entire Journal Titles

1. Standard journal title that is still being published

Advances in Applied Microbiology. San Diego: Academic Press. Vol. 1, 1959 -   .

Nature. Basingstoke (UK): Nature Publishing Group. Vol. 1, 1869 -   .

Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. Amsterdam (Netherlands): Elsevier. Vol. 1, 1947 -   .

2. Standard journal title that has ceased publication

Clinics in Endocrinology and Metabolism. London: W.B. Saunders. Vol. 1, Mar 1972 - Vol. 15, No. 4, Nov 1986.

The American Journal of Anesthesiology. Chatham (NJ): Quadrant Healthcom. Vol. 22, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1995 - Vol. 28, No. 9, Nov-Dec 2001.

Jahrbuch fur Geschichte von Staat, Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft Lateinamerikas. Cologne (Germany): Bohlau. Vol. 1, 1964 - Vol. 34, 1997. German.

3. Journal title with subtitle

Blood Purification: Official Journal of the International Society of Blood Purification (ISBP), Vascular Access Society (VAS), Japanese Society of Hemodiafiltration (JS-HDF). Basel (Switzerland): S. Karger AG. Vol. 1, 1983 -   .

Heart & Lung: the Journal of Critical Care. St. Louis (MO): Mosby. Vol. 1, Jan-Feb 1972 -   .

Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry. Official Journal of the Nitric Oxide Society. Orlando (FL): Academic Press. Vol. 1, No. 1, Feb 1997 -   .

4. Journal title with edition

BMJ (Clinical Research Edition). London: British Medical Association. Vol. 297, No. 6640, Jul 2, 1988 -   .

Hospital Practice (Office Edition). New York: McGraw-Hill. Vol. 16, No. 1, Jan 1981 - Vol. 36, No. 9, Sep 15, 2001.

Indice de Especialidades Farmaceuticas Intercon (Edicion para Farmacias). Madrid: Noticias Medicas. Vol. 12, Jan-Feb 1970 -   . Spanish.

5. Journal title published in parts

American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part C, Seminars in Medical Genetics. Hoboken (NJ): Wiley-Liss. Vol. 117C, No. 1, Feb 15, 2003 -   .

The Anatomical Record. Part A, Discoveries in Molecular, Cellular, and Evolutionary Biology. Hoboken (NJ): Wiley-Liss. Vol. 270A, No. 1, Jan 2003 -   .

Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance. Washington: American Psychological Association. Vol. 1, Feb 1975 -   .

Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A. Larchmont (NY): Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Vol. 7, No. 1, Feb 1997 -   .

Acta Crystallographica. Section A, Foundations of Crystallography. Copenhagen: Munksgaard. Vol. A39, Pt. 1, Jan 1, 1983 -   .

6. Journal title not in English

Tidsskrift for Den norske laegeforening. Oslo (Norway): Norske Laegeforening. Vol. 10, Jan 1980 -   . Norwegian.

Orvosi Hetilap. Budapest (Hungary): Ifjusagi Lapkiado Vallalat. Vol. 1, 1857 -   . Hungarian.

Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunita. Rome: Societa Editrice Universo. Vol. 1, No. 1-2, Jan-Apr 1989 -   . Italian.

Hinyokika Kiyo. Kyoto (Japan): Editorial Board of Acta Urologica Japonica. Vol. 1, 1955 -   . Japanese.

7. Journal title not in English, with optional translation

Archives des Maladies du Coeur et des Vaisseaux [Archives of Diseases of the Heart and Vessels]. Paris: Bailliere. Vol. 30, No. 4, Apr 1937 -   . French.

8. Journal title published in two equal languages

Canadian Family Physician = Medecin de Famille Canadien. Mississauga (ON): College of Family Physicians of Canada. Vol. 13, No. 7, Jul 1967 -   . English, French.

9. Journal title published in multiple languages

Acta Dermato-Venereologica. Oslo (Norway): Scandinavian University Press. Vol. 1, 1920 -   . English, French, German.

Medicina Interna: Revista da Sociedade Portuguesa de Medicina Interna. Lisbon: Imprensa Medica. Vol. 1, No. 1, Apr-Jun 1994 -   . Portuguese, English, French, Spanish.

10. Journal title with editor included

Folia Primatologica: International Journal of Primatology. R.H. Crompton, editor. Basel (Switzerland): S. Karger AG. Vol. 1, 1963 -   .

11. Journal title with well-known place of publication

Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Vol. 1, No. 1, 1996 -   .

Research in Veterinary Science. London: British Veterinary Association. Vol. 1, Jan 1960 -   .

12. Journal title with lesser-known place of publication

Biological Research for Nursing. Thousand Oaks (CA): Sage Publications, Inc. Vol. 1, No. 1, Jul 1999 -   .

13. Journal title with place of publication inferred

ACOG Technology Assessment in Obstetrics and Gynecology. [Washington]: American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. No. 1, 2002 -   .

14. Journal title with unknown place of publication

Acta Radiologica: Therapy, Physics, Biology. [place unknown]: Societies of Medical Radiology in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. Vol. 1, 1963 - Vol. 16, 1977.

15. Journal title with well-known publisher

The Quarterly Review of Biology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Vol. 1, Jan 1926 -   .

Head & Neck. New York: Wiley. Vol. 11, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1989 -   .

16. Journal title with government agency or national or international organization as publisher

MMWR. CDC Surveillance Summaries. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US). Vol. 32, No. 3SS, Aug 1983 - Vol. 50, No. SS-5, Dec 7, 2001.

Addictions Newsletter. Wellington (New Zealand): National Society on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence (NZ). Vol. 1, No. 1, 1984 - .

17. Journal title publisher with subsidiary part

Cancer Molecular Biology: CMB. Cairo: Ain Shams Faculty of Medicine, Oncology Diagnostic Unit. Vol. 1, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1994 -   .

MMWR. Surveillance Summaries. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US), Epidemiology Program Office. Vol. 51, No. SS-1, Mar 29, 2002 -   .

18. Journal title with unknown publisher

Acta Therapeutica. Brussels: [publisher unknown]. Vol. 1, No. 1, 1975 - Vol. 23, No. 1-2, 1997.

19. Journal title with unknown place of publication and publisher

Al-Azhar Medical Journal. [place unknown: publisher unknown]. Vol. 1, 1972 - Vol. 31, 2002.

20. Journal title with volume and issue number

Clinical Lymphoma. Dallas (TX): Cancer Information Group. Vol. 1, No. 1, Jun 2000 -   .

21. Journal title with volume, but no issue number

Annual Review of Nursing Research. New York: Springer. Vol. 1, 1983 -   .

22. Journal title with issue number, but no volume

Sexual Health Exchange. Amsterdam (Netherlands): Royal Tropical Institute. No. 1, 1998 -   .

Latin American Population History Bulletin. Minneapolis (MN): University of Minnesota, Department of History. No. 16, Fall 1989 -   .

23. Journal title without volume or issue number

Clinical Transplants. Los Angeles: UCLA Tissue Typing Laboratory. 1986 -   .

Harvard AIDS Review. Cambridge (MA): Harvard AIDS Institute. Fall 1995 - Winter 2001.

Nordisk Medicinhistorisk Arsbok. Stockholm (Sweden): Museum of Medical History, Stockholm. 1968 - 1996.

24. Journal title published in more than one series

The American Journal of the Medical Sciences. Hagerstown (MD): Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Vol. 1, Nov 1827 - Vol. 26, Aug 1840; NS Vol. 1, Jan 1841 -   .

Medicina nei Secoli. Rome: University of Rome, Institute for the History of Medicine. Vol. 1, 1964 - Vol. 21, 1984; NS Vol. 1, 1989 - . English, French, German, Italian, Spanish.

25. Journal title with multiple month(s) in date

Clinical Nephrology. Munich (Germany): Dustri-Verlag Dr Karl Feistle. Vol. 1, Jan-Feb 1973 -   .

Advances in Anatomic Pathology. Hagerstown (MD): Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Vol. 1, Jul-Aug 1994 -   .

26. Journal title with days of the month included in date

British Medical Journal (Clinical Research Edition). London: British Medical Association. Vol. 282, No. 6257, Jan 3, 1981 - Vol. 296, No. 6639, Jun 25, 1988.

27. Journal title with season in date

Journal of Gerontological Social Work. Binghamton (NY): Haworth Press. Vol. 1, Fall 1978 -   .

Clinics in Communication Disorders. Woburn (MA): Butterworth-Heinemann. Vol. 1, No. 1, Spring 1991 - Vol. 4, No. 4, Fall 1994.

28. Journal title with multiple seasons in date

The ACA Journal. Towson (MD): American Council on Alcoholism. Vol. 1, No. 1, Spring 1987 - Fall-Winter 1990.

Advanced Practice Nurse: APN. Encino (CA): Petersons/Cog Publishing Group. Spring-Summer 1994 - Fall-Winter 1995.

29. Journal title with multiple years in beginning or ending dates of publication

Nursing Forum. Philadelphia: Nursecom Inc. Vol. 1, Winter 1961-1962 -   .

The Journal of the Australasian College of Nutritional and Environmental Medicine. Beaumaris (Australia): ACNEM. Vol. 15, No. 2, Dec 1996-May 1997 - Vol. 16, No. 1, Dec 1997. Continues: Journal of the Australian College of Nutritional and Environmental Medicine. Continued by: ACNEM Journal.

30. Journal title previously published under another name

Molecular Immunology. Oxford (UK): Pergamon Press. Vol. 16, 1979 -   . Continues: Immunochemistry.

The Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists. Baltimore (MD): American Association of Immunologists. Vol. 64, No. 1, Jan 1950 -   . Continues: Journal of Immunology, Virus Research and Experimental Chemotherapy.

Revue de Tuberculose et de Pneumologie. Paris: Masson. Vol. 23, Jan 1959 - Vol. 36, Dec 1972. French. Continues: Revue de la Tuberculose.

Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology. Berlin: Springer Verlag. Vol. 47, 1973 -   . Continues: Ergebnisse der Anatomie und Entwicklungsgeschichte.

31. Journal title continuing to be published under another name

Immunochemistry. Oxford (UK): Pergamon Press. Vol. 1, Apr 1964 - Vol. 15, Dec 1978. Continued by: Molecular Immunology.

Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, and Oral Pathology. St. Louis (MO): Mosby-Year Book. Vol. 1, No. 1, Jan 1948 - Vol. 78, No. 6, Dec 1994. Continued by: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology and Endodontology.

32. Journal title both previously published and continuing to be published under another name

Nursing & Health Care: Official Publication of the National League for Nursing. New York: National League for Nursing. Vol. 1, No. 1, Jul-Aug 1980 - Vol. 15, No. 10, Dec 1994. Continues: NLN News. Continued by: N & HC Perspectives on Community.

Revista de Sanidad e Higiene Publica. Madrid: Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo. Vol. 7, Jan 1932 - Vol. 69, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1995. Spanish, English. Continues: Boletin Tecnico. Continued by: Revista Espanola de Salud Publica.

33. Journal title with note on Internet availability

American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology. Bethesda (MD): American Physiological Society. Vol. 1, No. 1, Aug 1989 -   . Also available on the Internet: http://ajplung.physiology.org/.

34. Journal title with sponsorship note

The Journal of Infection. Kent (UK): W.B. Saunders. Vol. 1, Mar 1979 -   . Sponsored by the British Society for the Study of Infection.

Revue des Maladies Respiratoires. Paris: Masson. Vol. 1, 1984 -   . French. Continues: Revue Francaise des Maladies Respiratoires. Sponsored by the Societe de Pneumologie de Langue Francaise.

35. Journal title with frequency of publication note

Nursing History Review: Official Journal of the American Association for the History of Nursing. New York: Springer Publishing. Vol. 1, 1993 -   . Annual.

Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Co. Vol. 1, No. 1, Jul 1992 -   . Quarterly.

36. Journal title with ISSN note

Chronic Respiratory Disease. London: Hodder Arnold Journals. Vol. 1, 2004 -   . ISSN: 1479-9723.

37. Journal title with note on a library where it may be located

European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery: Official Journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery. Oxford (UK): Elsevier Science. Vol. 1, No. 1, Jul 1987 -   . Located at: National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD; W1 EU72BF.

38. Journal title with distributor note

FDA Consumer. Rockville (MD): Food and Drug Administration (US). Vol. 6, No. 6, Jul-Aug 1972 -   . Available from: US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC; HE 20.4010. Continues: FDA Papers.

39. Journal title in a microform

Bioimaging [microfiche]. Bristol (UK): Institute of Physics Publishing. Vol. 1, No. 1, Mar 1993 - Vol. 6, No. 4, Dec 1998. Microfiche: negative, 4 x 6 in.

Journal of Chemical Research [microfiche]. St Albans (UK): Science Reviews Ltd. Vol. 2000, No. 1, Jan 1, 2000 -   .

40. Journal title accompanied by a CD-ROM, videocassette, etc

Alzheimers Disease. London: Current Drugs. Vol. 1, No. 1, 1996 -   . Accompanied by: CD-ROMs.

Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society. New York: Wiley-Liss. Vol. 1, No. 1, 1986 -   . Accompanied by: Videocassette supplements.

British Journal of Sports Medicine. London: BMJ Publishing Group. Vol. 4, 1969 -   . Recent articles accompanied by videos available on the Internet via http://bjsm.bmjjournals.com/.

41. Journal title with examples of other notes

Journal of Morphology. New York: Wiley-Liss. Vol. 1, Jun 1887 - Vol. 38, Jun 1924; Vol. 52, No. 2, 1931 -   . Issued Sep 1924 - Sep 1931 with title: Journal of Morphology and Physiology.

Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers. Vol. 154, No.1-6, Jan-Feb 1964 -   . English translation from the Russian of articles on biology from Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR and Doklady Akademii Nauk.

Acta Psychologica. Amsterdam (Netherlands): North Holland Publishing. Vol. 1, 1935 -   . Publication suspended 1942-48.