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Patrias K, author; Wendling D, editor. Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers [Internet]. 2nd edition. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2007-.

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Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers [Internet]. 2nd edition.

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Chapter 4Scientific and Technical Reports

Created: ; Last Update: August 11, 2015.

A. Entire Reports

B. Parts of Reports

A. Sample Citation and Introduction to Citing Entire Reports

The general format for a reference to a report, including punctuation:

- written and published by the sponsoring organization:

Illustration of the general format for a reference to a report written and
published by the sponsoring organization.

- written by the performing organization and published by the sponsoring organization:

Illustration of the general format for a reference to a report written by
the performing organization and published by the sponsoring
organization.

- written and published by the performing organization:

Illustration of the general format for a reference to a report written and
published by the performing organization.

Examples of Citations to Entire Reports

A technical report, also called a scientific report, is defined by NISO Z39.29 as "A separately issued record of research results, research in progress, or other technical studies". Governmental agencies, usually at the federal or state level, issue most technical reports, but reports also originate from universities and other types of research institutions. Technical reports share many characteristics with the books described in Chapter 2 and its subsections. The major differences in citing them are in their authorship, the provision of sponsorship information, and the inclusion of any report, contract, and grant numbers.

In citing a technical report, it is important to identify both the sponsoring organization (i.e., the organization that funded the research), and the performing organization (i.e., the organization that conducted the research), and to determine which of them actually published the report. In some cases, the same organization both sponsors and performs the research. For example, the National Cancer Institute has intramural scientists and may publish their work in report format. Often, however, the sponsoring organization provides funds to another organization that actually performs the research. These funds are disbursed through grants and contracts. When this occurs, either the sponsoring organization or the performing organization may publish the report. Thus, there are three possible scenarios for publication of a technical report. It may be:

  • Written and published by the sponsoring organization.
  • Written by the performing organization and published by the sponsoring organization.
  • Written and published by the performing organization.

Some technical reports will have the same type of edition statement found in books, such as "2nd ed." However, most technical reports use such wording as "Annual Report," "Final Report" and "Interim Report" to express edition. The time period covered by the report is also often included in the edition statement. For example, Final report 15 Mar 2004-31 Jan 2005.

A citation to a technical report must always include any report numbers provided in the publication, and contract and grant numbers should also be included. Begin with the report number, if present, then follow with any contract or grant number. Precede all of these numbers with the appropriate phrase identifying them, such as "Report No.: ".

US government technical reports are usually distributed by the National Technical Information Service (NTIS) or the US Government Printing Office (GPO) rather than the agency issuing the report. Adding distributor information to a citation, including any accession number provided, can aid the user in obtaining a copy of the report. Note that NTIS and GPO are distributors, not publishers. See the information under Notes below for further information on including distributor information.

The chief source for information about a report is its title page. The back of the title page, called the verso or copyright page, and the cover of the report are additional sources of authoritative information not found on the title page. Many reports also carry a "Report Documentation Page" (Standard Form 298), inserted either after the verso or at the back of the document. See NISO Z39.18 Scientific and Technical Reports and NISO Z39.23 Standard Technical Report Number Format and Creation for further details (both available from NISO).

See also Chapter 18 and Chapter 22 for information on citing technical reports published in CD-ROM or on the Internet.

Continue to Citation Rules with Examples for Entire Reports.

Continue to Examples of Citations to Entire Reports.

Citation Rules with Examples for Entire Reports

Components/elements are listed in the order they should appear in a reference. An R after the component name means that it is required in the citation; an O after the name means it is optional.

Author/Editor (R) | Author Affiliation (O) | Title (R) | Type of Medium (R) | Edition (R) | Editor and Other Secondary Authors (O) | Place of Publication (R) | Publisher (R) | Date of Publication (R) | Pagination (O) | Physical Description (O) | Series (O) | Report Number (R) | Contract Number or Grant Number (O) | Language (R) | Notes (O)

Author/Editor for Reports (required)

General Rules for Author/Editor

  • List names in the order they appear in the text
  • Enter surname (family or last name) first for each author/editor
  • Capitalize surnames and enter spaces within surnames as they appear in the document cited on the assumption that the author approved the form used. For example: Van Der Horn KH or van der Horn KH; De Wolf F or de Wolf F or DeWolf F.
  • Convert given (first) names and middle names to initials for a maximum of two initials following each surname
  • Give all authors/editors, regardless of the number
  • Separate author/editor names from each other by a comma and a space
  • If there are no authors, only editors, follow the last named editor with a comma and the word editor or editors; see Editor and Other Secondary Authors below if there are authors and editors
  • End author/editor information with a period

Specific Rules for Author/Editor

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Surnames with hyphens and other punctuation in them.

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Other surname rules.

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Given names containing punctuation, a prefix, a preposition, or particle.

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Degrees, titles, and honors before or after a personal name.

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Designations of rank in a family, such as Jr and III.

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Names in non-roman alphabets (Cyrillic, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Korean) or character-based languages (Chinese, Japanese).

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Non-English words for editor.

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Organizations as author.

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No author can be found.

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Options for author names.

Author Affiliation for Reports (optional)

General Rules for Author Affiliation

  • Provide the affiliation for reports authored by the performing organization unless the performing organization is also the publisher
  • Begin with the department and name of the institution, followed by city and state/Canadian province/country
  • Use commas to separate parts of the address
  • Place the address in parentheses, such as (Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA)
  • Enter address information after the last named author unless authors represent more than one organization; see Authors from more than one organization below
  • Separate the affiliation from its author by a space
  • Follow the affiliation with a comma placed outside the closing parenthesis, unless it is the affiliation of the last author, then use a period
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Authors from more than one organization.

Specific Rules for Author Affiliation

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E-mail address given.

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Abbreviations in affiliations.

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Organizational names for affiliations not in English.

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Names for cities and countries not in English.

Title for Reports (required)

General Rules for Report Title

  • Enter the title of a report as it appears in the original document, in the original language
  • Capitalize only the first word of a title, proper nouns, proper adjectives, acronyms, and initialisms
  • Use a colon followed by a space to separate a title from a subtitle, unless some other form of punctuation such as a question mark, period, or an exclamation point is already present
  • Translate titles not in English into English, whenever possible; place the translation in square brackets
  • End a title with a period unless a question mark or exclamation point already ends it or a Type of Medium follows it

Specific Rules for Report Title

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Titles not in English.

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Titles in more than one language.

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Titles containing a Greek letter, chemical formula, or another special character.

Type of Medium for Reports (required)

General Rules for Type of Medium

  • Indicate the specific type of medium (microfiche, ultrafiche, microfilm, microcard, etc.) following the title when a report is published in a microform
  • Place the name of the medium in square brackets and end with a period, such as [microfiche].
  • Add information about the medium according to the instructions under Physical Description below
  • See Chapter 15 for reports in audiovisual formats and Chapter 18 and Chapter 22 for reports in electronic formats

Specific Rules for Type of Medium

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Titles ending in punctuation other than a period.

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Titles not in English.

Examples for Type of Medium

Edition for Reports (required)

General Rules for Edition

  • Indicate the edition/version being cited after the title (and type of medium if present) when a report is published in more than one edition or version
  • Abbreviate common words (see Abbreviation rules for editions below)
  • Capitalize only the first word of the edition statement, proper nouns, and proper adjectives
  • Express numbers representing editions in arabic ordinals. For example: second becomes 2nd and III becomes 3rd.
  • End the edition statement with a period
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Abbreviation rules for editions.

Specific Rules for Edition

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Editions with dates.

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Non-English words for editions.

Examples for Edition

Editor and other Secondary Authors for Reports (optional)

General Rules for Editor and other Secondary Authors

  • A secondary author modifies the work of the author. Examples include editors, translators, and illustrators.
  • Place the names of secondary authors after the title, following any Type of Medium and Edition statement
  • Use the same rules for the format of names presented in Author above
  • Follow the last named editor with a comma and the word editor or editors; the last named illustrator with a comma and the word illustrator or illustrators, etc.
  • End secondary author information with a period
  • If there is no author, move secondary authors such as editors and translators to the author position in the reference

Specific Rules for Editor and other Secondary Authors

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More than one type of secondary author.

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Secondary author performing more than one role.

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Organization as editor.

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Non-English names for secondary authors.

Place of Publication for Reports (required)

General Rules for Place of Publication

  • Place is defined as the city where the report was published
  • Follow US and Canadian cities with the two-letter abbreviation for the state or province (see Appendix E) to avoid confusion when citing lesser known cities or when cities in different locations have the same name, such as Palm Springs (CA) and Palm Springs (FL)
  • Follow cities in other countries with the name of the country, either written out or as the two-letter ISO country code (see Appendix D), when citing lesser known cities or when cities in different locations have the same name, such as London (ON) and London (England)
  • Use the anglicized form for a non-US city, such as Vienna for Wein
  • End place information with a colon

Specific Rules for Place of Publication

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Non-US cities.

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Joint publication.

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Multiple places of publication.

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No place of publication can be found.

Publisher for Reports (required)

General Rules for Publisher

  • Record the name of the publisher as it appears in the publication, using whatever capitalization and punctuation is found there
  • When a division or other subsidiary part of a publisher appears in the publication, enter the publisher name first. For example: Harvard Medical School, Department of Genetics.
  • End publisher information with a semicolon

Specific Rules for Publisher

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Abbreviated words in publisher names.

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Non-English publishers.

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Government agencies and other national and international bodies as publisher.

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Joint publication.

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Multiple publishers.

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No publisher can be found.

Date of Publication for Reports (required)

General Rules for Date of Publication

  • Always give the year of publication
  • Convert roman numerals to arabic numbers. For example: MM to 2000.
  • Include the month of publication, if desired, after the year, such as 2004 May
  • Use English names for months and abbreviate them to the first three letters, such as Jan
  • End date information with a period

Specific Rules for Date of Publication

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Multiple years of publication.

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Non-English names for months.

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Seasons instead of months.

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No date of publication, but a date of copyright.

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No date of publication can be found.

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Options for date of publication.

Pagination for Reports (optional)

General Rules for Pagination

  • Provide the total number of pages on which the text of the report appears
  • Do not count pages for such items as introductory material, appendixes, and indexes unless they are included in the pagination of the text
  • Follow the page total with a space and the letter p
  • For reports published in more than one physical volume, cite the total number of volumes instead of the number of pages, such as 4 vol.
  • End pagination information with a period

Specific Rules for Pagination

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Roman numerals for pages.

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No numbers appear on the pages of the report.

Physical Description for Reports (optional)

General Rules for Physical Description

  • Give information on the physical characteristics if a report is published in a microform (microfilm, microfiche, etc.), such as 3 microfiche: black & white, 2 x 4 in. Such information will help the reader select the appropriate equipment with which to view the microform.

Specific Rules for Physical Description

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Language for describing physical characteristics.

Examples for Physical Description

Series for Reports (optional)

General Rules for Series

  • Begin with the name of the series
  • Capitalize only the first word and proper nouns
  • Follow the name with any numbers provided. For example, vol. 3 for a volume or no. 12 for an issue number.
  • Separate the title and the number by a semicolon and a space
  • Place series information in parentheses
  • End series information with a period, placed outside the closing parenthesis

Specific Rules for Series

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Multiple series.

Report Number for Reports (required)

General Rules for Report Number

  • Give the report number as it appears on the publication, using whatever capitalization and punctuation are found there
  • Precede the number with the wording Report No.: and a space
  • End the number with a period

Specific Rules for Report Number

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Grant or contract number as well as report number.

Contract Number or Grant Number for Reports (optional)

General Rules for Contract Number or Grant Number

  • Give the contract or grant number as it appears on the publication, using whatever capitalization and punctuation are found there
  • Precede the number with the wording Contract No.: or Grant No.: and a space
  • End the number with a period

Specific Rules for Contract Number or Grant Number

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Report number as well as grant or contract number.

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Both a contract number and a grant number.

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Multiple contract or grant numbers.

Examples for Contract Number or Grant Number

Language for Reports (required)

General Rules for Language

  • Give the language of publication if other than English
  • Capitalize the language name
  • Follow the language name with a period

Specific Rules for Language

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Reports appearing in more than one language.

Notes for Reports (optional)

General Rules for Notes

  • Notes is a collective term for any type of useful information given after the citation itself
  • Complete sentences are not required
  • Be brief

Specific Rules for Notes

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Reports available from NTIS or GPO.

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Reports accompanied by a videocassette, CD-ROM, DVD, etc.

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Other types of material to include in notes.

Examples of Citations to Entire Reports

1. Standard report written and published by the sponsoring organization

Page E, Harney JM. Health hazard evaluation report. Cincinnati (OH): National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (US); 2001 Feb. 24 p. Report No.: HETA2000-0139-2824.

Barker B, Degenhardt L. Accidental drug-induced deaths in Australia 1997-2001. Sydney (Australia): University of New South Wales, National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre; 2003. 46 p.

2. Standard report written by the performing organization and published by the sponsoring organization

Sontag ED (Department of Mathematics, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ). Control of nonlinear systems. Final report 15 Mar 2004-31 Jan 2005. Washington: Army Medical Department (US): 2004. 5 p. Report No.: AFRLSRARTR050271. Contract No.: FA95500410172.

Newberry SJ, editor (Southern California/RAND Evidence-based Practice Center, Los Angeles, CA). Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on lipids and glycemic control in type II diabetes and the metabolic syndrome and on inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, renal disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, and osteoporosis. Rockville (MD): Department of Health and Human Services (US), Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2004 Mar. 145 p. Contract No.: 290-02-0003.

3. Standard report written and published by the performing organization

Popper SW, Wagner CS, Larson EV. New forces at work: industry views critical technologies. Santa Monica (CA): Rand; 1998. 155 p. Report No.: MR-1008-OSTP. Contract No.: OPA-9215205. Supported by the Office of Science and Technology Policy.

Moscovice IS. Rural health networks: evolving organizational forms & functions. Minneapolis (MN): University of Minnesota, School of Public Health, Rural Health Research Center; 2003. 47 p. Grant No.: 032659. Supported by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.

4. Report with optional full given names

Persing, David H. Biomarker development for TLR4 agonists. Annual report. Seattle (WA): CORIXA Corporation; 2004 Oct. 76 p. Contract No.: DAMD17-03-C-0089. Funded by the US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, Ft. Detrick, MD.

Price, Kay; Brown, Lyn Hepburn; Reddin, Edith. Agency nurses and careworkers putting quality use of medicines into action: Quality Use of Medicines Evaluation Program. Final report. Adelaide (Australia): University of South Australia, Centre for Research into Nursing and Health Care; 2002. 275 p.

5. Report with optional limit to the first three authors (use "et al" or "and others")

Cohen JT, Duggar K, Gray GM, et al. Evaluation of the potential for bovine spongiform encephalopathy in the United States. Boston: Harvard School of Public Health, Center for Risk Analysis; 2001 Nov. 116 p. Report No.: PB2002-108684. Supported by the US Department of Agriculture.

6. Report with a designation of family rank in the author name

Gostin LO, Hodge JG Jr (Georgetown University Law Center, Center for Law and the Public's Health, Washington, DC). State public health law assessment report. Seattle (WA): Washington University, Turning Point National Program Office; 2002 Apr. 51 p. Sponsored by the Turning Point Public Health Statute Modernization National Excellence Collaborative; publication supported by a grant from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.

Donohue JJ 3rd, Levitt SD. Legalized abortion and crime. Stanford (CA): Stanford Law School; 1999. 57 p. (Stanford public law and legal theory working paper; no.1).

7. Report with author and translator

Framarin A. First-trimester prenatal screening for Down syndrome and other aneuploidies. Wickens M, translator. Montreal (QC): Agence d'Evaluation des Technologies et des Modes d'Intervention en Sante (CA); c2003. 81 p. Report No.: AETMIS 03-01.

8. Report with authors and an editor

Rosenbaum, S, Smith BM, Shin P, Zakheim MH, Shaw K, Sonosky CA, Repasch L. Negotiating the new health system: a nationwide study of Medicaid managed care contracts. 2nd ed. Johnson K, editor. Washington: George Washington University Medical Center, Center for Health Policy Research; c1998. 2 vols.

9. Report with editors instead of authors

Reid PP, Compton WD, Grossman JH, Fanjiang G, editors. Building a better delivery system: a new engineering/health care partnership. Washington: National Academies Press; 2005. 262 p. Grant No.: 044640. Contract No.: N01-OD-42139. Supported by the National Science Foundation, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, and the National Institutes of Health.

Newberry SJ, editor (Southern California/RAND Evidence-based Practice Center, Los Angeles, CA). Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on lipids and glycemic control in type II diabetes and the metabolic syndrome and on inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, renal disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, and osteoporosis. Rockville (MD): Department of Health and Human Services (US), Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2004 Mar. 145 p. Contract No.: 290-02-0003.

10. Report with editors and translators

Pinkau K, Ronn O, editors. Environmental standards: scientific foundations and rational procedures of regulation with emphasis on radiological risk management. Jager G, Kais-Heinrich S, translators. Berlin (Germany): Berlin Academy of Sciences and Technology; 1998. 393 p.

Chun MN, editor and translator. Must we wait in despair: the 1867 report of the Ahahui Laau Lapaau of Wailuku, Maui on native Hawaiian health. Honolulu: First People's Productions; 1994. 318 p.

11. Report with an organization as the author or editor

Task Force on Accreditation of Health Professions Education. Strategies for change and improvement: the report of the Task Force on Accreditation of Health Professions Education. San Francisco: University of California, San Francisco, Center for the Health Professions; 1999 Jun. 86 p.

Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Environmental Health Tracking Project Team (Baltimore, MD). America's environmental health gap: why the country needs a nationwide health tracking network; technical report. Baltimore (MD): Pew Environmental Health Commission; 2000 Sep. 92 p.

Lewin Group, Inc. (Falls Church, VA). Assessment of approaches to evaluating telemedicine. Final report. Washington: Department of Health and Human Services (US), Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation; 2000 Dec. 63 p. Report No.: PB2002101110. Contract No.: HHS-10-97-0012.

Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals of Environmental Relevance, editor. Naphthalin. Hicks R, translator. Weinheim (Germany): VCH; c1992. 155 p.

12. Report with government agency as the author

National High Blood Pressure Education Program (US). The fourth report on the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure in children and adolescents. Rev. ed. Bethesda (MD): National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (US); 2005. 48 p. (NIH publication; no. 05-5267).

13. Report with authors from both the performing and sponsoring organizations

Thompson LA, Chhikara RS (School of Natural and Applied Sciences, University of Houston, Clear Lake, TX); Conklin J (Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX). Cox proportional hazards models for modeling the time to onset of decompression sickness in hypobaric environments. Houston (TX): National Aeronautics and Space Administration (US), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center; 2003 Mar. 39 p. Report No.: NASA/TP-2003-210791. Grant No.: NASA 9-1083. Basic funding support provided by the Institute for Space Systems Operations of the University of Houston.

14. Report with no author provided

2004 national healthcare disparities report. Rockville (MD): Department of Health and Human Services (US), Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2004 Dec. 227 p. (AHRQ publication; no. 05-0014).

The world health report 2003: shaping the future. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2003. 193 p.

15. Report in a language other than English

Contreras A, Drabo Y, Shimp L, de Quinteros P, Linares MA. L'operationnalisation a l'echelle des pratiques familiales cles en matiere de sante et de nutrition de l'enfant: le role du changement des comportements. Washington: Agency for International Development (US); 2004 Apr. 40 p. Report No.: PB2005-104459. French.

Eidgenossische Volkszahlung 1990: die Wohnbevolkerung der Gemeinden. Bern (Switzerland): Bundesamt fur Statistik; 1993. 154 p. German, French, Italian.

with translation

Contreras A, Drabo Y, Shimp L, de Quinteros P, Linares MA. L'operationnalisation a l'echelle des pratiques familiales cles en matiere de sante et de nutrition de l'enfant: le role du changement des comportements [Operationalizing key family practices for child health and nutrition at scale: the role of behavior change]. Washington: Agency for International Development (US); 2004 Apr. 40 p. Report No.: PB2005-104459. French.

Eidgenossische Volkszahlung 1990: die Wohnbevolkerung der Gemeinden [Federal population census 1990: the population of communities]. Bern (Switzerland): Bundesamt fur Statistik; 1993. 154 p. German, French, Italian.

16. Report in two or more equal languages

Biotechnology and the health of Canadians: a report from the Canadian Biotechnology Advisory Committee on biotechnology and health innovations; opportunities, challenges, and public policy = Biotechnologie et la sante des Canadiens: rapport du Comite Consultatif Canadien de la Biotechnologie sur la biotechnologie et l'innovation dans le domaine de la sante; aspects prometteurs, de fis et politique publique. Ottawa (ON): Canadian Biotechnology Advisory Committee; 2004 Dec. 181 p. English, French.

Euler M. Genitale Verstummelung von Madchen und Frauen: Situationsbericht aus dem Sudan = Female genital mutilation: a report on the present situation in Sudan = Mutilations sexuelles chez les fillettes et les femmes: rapport sur l'etat de la situation au Soudan. Aachen (Germany): Missio Aachen; 2002. 60 p. German, English, French.

with translation included

Mesle F, Shkol'nikov V, Hertrich V, Vallin J. Tendances recentes de la mortalite par cause en Russie 1965-1994 = Sovremennye tendentsii smertnosti po prichinam smerti v Rossii 1965-1994 [Recent trends in mortality by cause in Russia, 1965-1994]. Paris: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques;1996. 140 p. French, Russian.

17. Report with a title containing a chemical formula, Greek letter, or other special character

Greek letters may be written out if special fonts are not available

Dutch Expert Committee on Occupational Standards. Lindane (γ-hexachlorocyclohexane): health-based recommended occupational exposure limit. The Hague (Netherlands): Health Council of the Netherlands; 2001 Dec 6. 124 p.

or

Dutch Expert Committee on Occupational Standards. Lindane (gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane): health-based recommended occupational exposure limit. The Hague (Netherlands): Health Council of the Netherlands; 2001 Dec 6. 124 p.

Superscripts/subscripts may be enclosed within parentheses if fonts are not available

Doebler JA. Autoradiographic localization of [125I]-ricin in lungs and trachea of mice following an aerosol inhalation exposure. Aberdeen Proving Ground (MD): Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense (US); 1996. 8 p. Report No.: USAMRICD-TR; 96-03.

or

Doebler JA. Autoradiographic localization of [(125)I]-ricin in lungs and trachea of mice following an aerosol inhalation exposure. Aberdeen Proving Ground (MD): Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense (US); 1996. 8 p. Report No.: USAMRICD-TR; 96-03.

18. Report in a microform

Chaturvedi AK, Smith DR, Canfield DV. Blood carbon monoxide and hydrogen cyanide concentration in the fatalities of fire and non-fire associated civil aviation accidents, 1991-1998 [microfiche]. Final report. Washington: Federal Aviation Administration (US), Office of Aviation Medicine; 2000. 1 microfiche: black & white, negative, 4 x 6 in.

19. Report with an edition

Persing DH. Biomarker development for TLR4 agonists. Annual report. Seattle (WA): CORIXA Corporation; 2004 Oct. 76 p. Contract No.: DAMD17-03-C-0089. Funded by the US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, Ft. Detrick, MD.

Thomas C, Butler J, Davies M, Johnson R, editors. State injury indicators report: 1999 data. 2nd ed. Atlanta (GA): Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US), National Center for Injury Prevention and Control; 2004 Feb. 108 p.

National High Blood Pressure Education Program (US). The fourth report on the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure in children and adolescents. Rev. ed. Bethesda (MD): National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (US); 2005. 48 p. (NIH publication; no. 05-5267).

20. Report place of publication with geographic qualifier added for clarity

Barker B, Degenhardt L. Accidental drug-induced deaths in Australia 1997-2001. Sydney (Australia): University of New South Wales, National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre; 2003. 46 p.

Grady SJ. A national survey of methyl tert-butyl ether and other volatile organic compounds in drinking-water sources: results of the random survey. East Hartford (CT): US Geological Survey; 2003. 85 p. (Survey water-resources investigations; no. 02-4079U).

21. Report with place of publication inferred

Griffith University, Faculty of Nursing and Health (Queensland, Australia). Advanced nursing practice for rural and remote Australia: final report to the National Rural Health Alliance Inc. [Deakin West (Australia)]: National Rural Health Alliance (AU); 1998 Feb. 74 p.

22. Report with publisher with subsidiary division

Wainer J. New voices in rural medical practice: analysis of qualitative data from the National Rural General Practice Study. Traralgon (Australia): Monash University, School of Rural Health; 2002. 57 p. Grant No.: 751. Sponsored by the General Practice Evaluation Program, Department of Health and Ageing, Australia.

23. Report with governmental or national agency as publisher

Waksberg J, Levine DB, Marker D (Westat, Inc., Rockville, MD). Assessment of major federal data sets for analyses of Hispanic and Asian or Pacific Islander subgroups and Native Americans: extending the utility of federal data bases. Washington: Department of Health and Human Services (US), Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation; 2002.

van deWater HP, Boshuizen HC, Perenboom RJ. Health expectancy of the Dutch population. Bilthoven (Netherlands): National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection (NL); 1995. 21 p. Report No.: 431501009.

24. Report with joint publication

Monahan C, Szpur MV, Evans M, Craik D, Kubale MG, Maloney MM. Focus on Children community planning manual: needs assessment and health planning for children, including children with special health care needs. Rev. ed. Chicago: University of Illinois at Chicago, Division of Specialized Care for Children; 1996 Oct. 136 p. Grant No.: DHHS/PHS/HRSA MCJ-175005. Joint publication of the Division of Family Health, Illinois Department of Public Health, Springfield.

25. Report with year and month of publication

Gardner GG, Allan JH, Dempsey MF (Department of Clinical Physics, West Glasgow Hospitals, Glasgow, Scotland). ADAC Forte with 3/8" and 5/8" crystal comparison: gamma camera performance assessment. London: Great Britain, Medical Devices Agency; 2001 Dec. 33 p. Report No.: MDA 01150.

26. Report with no date of publication, but a date of copyright

Framarin A. First-trimester prenatal screening for Down syndrome and other aneuploidies. Wickens M, translator. Montreal (QC): Agence d'Evaluation des Technologies et des Modes d'Intervention en Sante (CA); c2003. 81 p. Report No.: AETMIS 03-01.

Rosenbaum S, Smith BM, Shin P, Zakheim MH, Shaw K, Sonosky CA, Repasch L. Negotiating the new health system: a nationwide study of Medicaid managed care contracts. 2nd ed. Johnson K, editor. Washington: George Washington University Medical Center, Center for Health Policy Research; c1998. 2 vols.

27. Report with volumes instead of page numbers

World drug report 2004. Vienna (Austria): United Nations, Office on Drugs and Crime; 2004. 2 vol.

28. No page numbers appear on the report

Keiding N, Fine JP, Carstensen L, Slama R. Accelerated failure time regression for backward recurrence times and current durations. Copenhagen (Denmark): University of Copenhagen, Department of Biostatistics; 2005. 13 leaves. Report No.: 05/4.

29. Report in a series

Mann C, Cox L, Ross DC. Making the link: strategies for coordinating publicly funded health care coverage for children. Isaacson SK, Rutherford M, editors. Rockville (MD): Department of Health and Human Services (US), Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, User Liaison Program; 2000. 35 p. (AHRQ publication; no. 00-0014).

Burt CW, Arispe IE. Characteristics of emergency departments serving high volumes of safety-net patients: United States, 2000. Hyattsville (MD): National Center for Health Statistics (US); 2004. 16 p. (DHHS publication; no. (PHS) 2004-1726); (Vital and health statistics. Series 13, Data from the National Health Care Survey; no. 155).

30. Report with report, contract, and grant numbers

Moscovice IS. Rural health networks: evolving organizational forms & functions. Minneapolis (MN): University of Minnesota, School of Public Health, Rural Health Research Center; 2003. 47 p. Grant No.: 032659. Supported by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.

Farley D, Morton SC, Damberg CL, Fremont A, Berry SH, Greenberg M, Sorbero M, Teleki SS, Ricci K, Pollock N. Assessment of the national patient safety initiative: context and baseline evaluation report 1. Santa Monica (CA): RAND Corporation; 2005. 112 p. Report No.: TR-203-AHRQ. Contract No.: 290-02-0010. Sponsored by the US Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.

Thompson LA, Chhikara RS (School of Natural and Applied Sciences, University of Houston, Clear Lake, TX); Conklin J (Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX). Cox proportional hazards models for modeling the time to onset of decompression sickness in hypobaric environments. Houston (TX): National Aeronautics and Space Administration (US), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center; 2003 Mar. 39 p. Report No.: NASA/TP-2003-210791. Grant No.: NASA 9-1083.

31. Report with numbers and a series

MacLean CH, Issa AM, Mojica WA, Newberry SJ, Morton SC (Southern California Evidence-Based Practice Center/RAND, Santa Monica, CA). Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on cognitive function with aging, dementia, and neurological diseases. Rockville (MD): Department of Health and Human Services (US), Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2005 Feb. 148 p. (Evidence report/technology assessment; no. 114). Report No.: AHRQPUB05E0112. Contract No.: DHHS290020003. Available from: NTIS, Springfield, VA; PB2005104600.

32. Reports available from NTIS or GPO

Ewing RE, Flournoy L, Wall J, Wild J, Crooks R (Texas Engineering Experiment Station, College Station, TX). Disaster Relief and Emergency Medical Services (DREAMS): Texas A&M digital EMS and the detection and remediation of chemical threat agents. Annual report 1 Oct 2003-30 Sep 2004. Washington: Department of the Army (US), Medical Division; 2004 Oct. 36 p. Contract No.: DAMD170020010. Available from: NTIS, Springfield, VA; ADA435629.

Boren JJ, Onken LS, Carroll KM, editors. Approaches to drug abuse counseling. Bethesda (MD): National Institute on Drug Abuse (US), Behavioral Treatment Development Branch; 2000 Jul. 129 p. (NIH publication; no. 00-4151). Available from: US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC; HE 20.3952:D 84/5.

33. Report with sponsorship note

Gostin LO, Hodge JG Jr (Georgetown University Law Center, Center for Law and the Public's Health, Washington, DC). State public health law assessment report. [Seattle (WA)]: Washington University, Turning Point National Program Office; 2002 Apr. 51 p. Sponsored by the Turning Point Public Health Statute Modernization National Excellence Collaborative; publication supported by a grant from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.

34. Report accompanied by another medium

Human energy requirements: report of a Joint FAO/WHO/UNU Expert Consultation on Human Energy Requirements. Rome (Italy): Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations; 2004. 96 p. (FAO food and nutrition series; 18133932). Accompanied by: 1 CD-ROM.

Mesle F, Shkol'nikov V, Hertrich V, Vallin J. Tendances recentes de la mortalite par cause en Russie 1965-1994 = Sovremennye tendentsii smertnosti po prichinam smerti v Rossii 1965-1994 [Recent trends in mortality by cause in Russia, 1965-1994]. Paris: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques;1996. 140 p. French, Russian. Accompanied by: 2 floppy disks.

35. Report with other types of notes

Rosenbaum S, Kamoie B, Collins C, Zuvekas A. Analysis of CareFirst's performance as a charitable not-for-profit health insurance company in the National Capital Area: report to the DC Appleseed Center for Law and Justice. Washington: George Washington University Medical Center, School of Public Health and Health Services, Center for Health Services and Policy; 2003 Oct. 62 p. This analysis focuses particularly on the District of Columbia and Northern Virginia.

B. Sample Citation and Introduction to Citing Parts of Reports

The general format for a reference to a part of a report, including punctuation:

Illustration of the general format for a reference to a part of a
report.

Examples of Citations to Parts of Reports

Rather than citing a report as a whole, separately identified portions of a report may be cited. Chapters, sections, tables, charts, graphs, photographs, appendixes, and the like are considered parts of reports when they are written or compiled by the authors of the report.

In general, most modern texts have standardized to three types of parts: figures, tables, and appendixes. However, other names may be found for parts, including chapter, section, chart, graph, box, and photograph. Because a reference should start with the individual or organization with responsibility for the intellectual content of the publication, begin a reference to a part of a report with the report itself, then follow it with the information about the part. See Chapter 2C Parts of Books for further details on citing parts.

For instructions on citing one volume of a report published in multiple volumes, see Chapter 2B Individual Volumes of Books (Chapter 2B(1) Individual Volumes With a Separate Title but Without Separate Authors/Editors or Chapter 2B(2) Individual Volumes With a Separate Title and Separate Authors/Editors) and examples 7-8 below.

Reports may contain charts, figures, and other illustrative material that have been reproduced with permission from other sources. Do not cite these as parts using the instructions presented here. Consult the original publication and cite the particular item from there.

Continue to Citation Rules with Examples for Parts of Reports.

Continue to Examples of Citations to Parts of Reports.

Citation Rules with Examples for Parts of Reports

Components/elements are listed in the order they should appear in a reference. An R after the component name means that it is required in the citation; an O after the name means it is optional.

Report (R) | Name and Number/Letter (R) | Title (R) | Location (Pagination) (R)

Report (required)

Name and Number/Letter of the Part for a Report (required)

General Rules for Name and Number/Letter

  • Enter the name of the part, such as Chapter, Table, Figure, or Appendix
  • Do not abbreviate names. For example, convert Fig. to Figure.
  • Follow the name with any accompanying number or letter, such as Chapter 12, Table 2, Figure 3.1, or Appendix A
  • Use arabic numbers only. For example: convert VI or Six to 6.
  • End name and number/letter information with a comma

Specific Rules for Name and Number/Letter

Box Icon

Box 56

Non-English names for parts.

Box Icon

Box 57

No letter or number follows the name.

Box Icon

Box 58

No name appears.

Title of the Part for a Report (required)

General Rules for Title

  • Enter the title of the part as it appears in the report
  • Capitalize only the first word of a title, proper nouns, proper adjectives, acronyms, and initialisms
  • End title information with a semicolon and a space

Specific Rules for Title

Box Icon

Box 59

Non-English titles for parts.

Box Icon

Box 60

Titles containing a Greek letter, chemical formula, or other special character.

Box Icon

Box 61

No title appears.

Location (Pagination) of the Part for a Report (required)

General Rules for Location (Pagination)

  • Begin location with "p." followed by a space
  • Enter the page number or numbers on which the part appears. Examples: p. 438 and p. 663-4.
  • Do not repeat page numbers unless they are followed by a letter. For example: 126-127 becomes p. 126-7, but p. 126A-127A is correct.
  • Include a letter (often S for Supplement or A for Appendix) when it precedes the page number. For example: p. S10-8.
  • End page information with a period

Specific Rules for Location (Pagination)

Box Icon

Box 62

Roman numerals for page numbers.

Box Icon

Box 63

Part paginated separately.

Box Icon

Box 64

No page numbers appear on the pages of the part.

Examples of Citations to Parts of Reports

1. Chapter in a report

Reid PP, Compton WD, Grossman JH, Fanjiang G, editors. Building a better delivery system: a new engineering/health care partnership. Washington: National Academies Press; 2005. Grant No.: 044640. Contract No.: N01-OD-42139. Chapter 3, The tools of systems engineering; p. 27-62.

2. Table in a report

Beckles GL, Thompson-Reid PE, editors. Diabetes & women's health across the life stages: a public health perspective. Atlanta (GA): Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Diabetes Translation; 2001. Table 5-1, Prevalence (%) of diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes among adults aged 45-64 years, by race/Hispanic origin- United States, 1986-97; p. 108.

Thompson LA, Chhikara RS (School of Natural and Applied Sciences, University of Houston, Clear Lake, TX); Conklin J (Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX). Cox proportional hazards models for modeling the time to onset of decompression sickness in hypobaric environments. Houston (TX): National Aeronautics and Space Administration (US), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center; 2003 Mar. Report No.: NASA/TP-2003-210791. Grant No.: NASA 9-1083. Table 1b, Proportion of DCS by P2 and EXER; p. 5.

Monahan C, Szpur MV, Evans M, Craik D, Kubale MG, Maloney MM. Focus on Children community planning manual: needs assessment and health planning for children, including children with special health care needs. Rev. ed. Chicago: University of Illinois at Chicago, Division of Specialized Care for Children; 1996 Oct. Grant No.: DHHS/PHS/HRSA MCJ-175005. [Table], Ensuring family involvement checklist; p. 22.

3. Figure in a report

Grady SJ. A national survey of methyl tert-butyl ether and other volatile organic compounds in drinking-water sources: results of the random survey. East Hartford (CT): Geological Survey (US); 2003. Report No.: USGSWRI024079. Figure 5, Concentrations of naphthalene in all source-water and field quality-control samples analyzed for the Random Survey, plotted sequentially by date and time of analysis; p. 18.

Townsend FF. The Federal response to Hurricane Katrina: lessons learned. Washington: The White House; 2006 Feb. Figure 1.2, Hurricane Katrina compared to hurricanes Ivan, Andrew, and Camille; p. 7.

Thomas C, Butler J, Davies M, Johnson R, editors. State injury indicators report: 1999 data. 2nd ed. Atlanta (GA): Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US), National Center for Injury Prevention and Control; 2004 Feb. Figure 9b, Homicide indicator: homicide by sex, 1999; [1 p.].

4. Appendix to a report

Farley DO, Harris KM, Ashwood JS, Carlton J, Dydek G. The first year of the Medicare-DoD subvention demonstration: evaluation report for FY1999. Santa Monica (CA): RAND; 2000 Dec. Report No.: MR-1271.0-HCFA. Appendix A, Evaluation of the DoD-Medicare subvention demonstration; [4 p.].

Cohen JT, Duggar K, Gray GM, Kreindel S. Evaluation of the potential for bovine spongiform encephalopathy in the United States. Boston: Harvard School of Public Health, Center for Risk Analysis; 2001 Nov. Report No.: PB2002-108684. Appendix 3C, Description of model output tables and graphs; [7 p.].

5. Other part of a report, with name and number/letter

Children's environmental health: spotlight on the U.S.-Mexico border. Seventh report of the Good Neighbor Environmental Board to the President and Congress of the United States. Washington: Good Neighbor Environmental Board; 2004 Feb. Report No.: EPA 130-R-04-001. Part 2, Recommendations for improving children's environmental health along the U.S.-Mexico border; p. 9-26.

Wainer J. New voices in rural medical practice: analysis of qualitative data from the National Rural General Practice Study. Traralgon (Australia): Monash University, School of Rural Health; 2002. Grant No.: 751. Question 29, Positive changes; p. 20-30.

6. Other part of a report, without name or number/letter

New Jersey 2005 hospital performance report: a report on acute care hospitals for consumers. Trenton (NJ): New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services; 2005. Heart attack treatment scores; p. 4-5.

National Research Council (US), Committee on National Needs for Biomedical and Behavioral Scientists. Addressing the nation's changing needs for biomedical and behavioral scientists. Washington: National Academy Press; c2000. Setting stipends and other compensation; p. 57-8.

7. One volume of a report

Healthcare hazard control: environmental safety and security in healthcare facilities. Vol. 3, Analysis. Plymouth Meeting (PA): ECRI; c2005.

The health care challenge: acknowledging disparity, confronting discrimination, and ensuring equality. Vol. 2, The role of Federal civil rights enforcement efforts. Washington: United States Commission on Civil Rights; 1999 Sep.

8. Part of one volume of a report

The health care challenge: acknowledging disparity, confronting discrimination, and ensuring equality. Vol. 2, The role of Federal civil rights enforcement efforts. Washington: United States Commission on Civil Rights; 1999 Sep. Chapter 3, Implementing civil rights provisions; p. 52-138.

9. Part of a report in language other than English

Rapport annuel de gestion [Annual administrative report]. Quebec City (QC): Agence d'Evaluation des Technologies et des Modes d'Intervention en Sante; 2003 Dec. Chapitre 2, Les activites scientifiques en 2002-2003 [Chapter 2, Scientific activities in 2002-2003]; p. 14-22. French.

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