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Patrias K, author; Wendling D, editor. Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers [Internet]. 2nd edition. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2007-.

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Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers [Internet]. 2nd edition.

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Chapter 24Databases/Retrieval Systems on the Internet

Created: ; Last Update: August 10, 2016.

A. Entire Databases/Retrieval Systems on the Internet

B. Parts of Databases on the Internet

C. Contributions to Databases on the Internet

See also:

Chapter 20 Databases on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk

A. Sample Citation and Introduction to Citing Entire Databases/Retrieval Systems on the Internet

The general format for a reference to a database/retrieval system on the Internet, including punctuation:

- for a serial database that is open:

Illustration of the general format for a reference to a database/retrieval
system on the Internet for a serial database that is open.

- for a serial database that is closed:

Illustration of the general format for a reference to a database/retrieval
system on the Internet for a serial database that is closed.

- for a single database:

Illustration of the general format for a reference to a database/retrieval
system on the Internet for a single database.

- for a retrieval system:

Illustration of the general format for a reference to a database/retrieval
system on the Internet for a retrieval system.

Examples of Citations to Entire Databases/Retrieval Systems on the Internet

A database is a collection of individual records that are most often standardized in both format and content. Database records are usually related by a common denominator such as subject matter or the source of the material in them. Text-oriented databases are generally bibliographic or full-text, where each record has a bibliographic citation to a publication or the complete text of a document. Number-oriented databases cover many types, including statistical, time series, and transactional.

There are two broad categories of databases found on the Internet: serial and single. Their publication pattern differentiates them.

Serial databases contain records or other entries that have been collected over a period of time, with new or updated versions issued at stated intervals. Serial databases are either open or closed. Open databases continue to add new records and to update existing records. Closed databases add no records nor update existing ones.

  • To cite an open serial database, give the beginning date of the database followed by a hyphen, 3 spaces, and a period.
  • To cite a closed serial database, give the beginning and ending dates, separated by a hyphen. End date information with a period.

The second broad category is single databases. These are collections of records published only once, usually with no intent to update or add records, although minor corrections/changes may be made.

  • To cite a single database, give the one date of publication as you would for a standard book.
  • If you are unsure whether a database is a serial or single one, cite it as a single.

A retrieval system is "An online or Internet based system which provides access to the contents of multiple databases or files, usually with a common search mechanism or command language across the databases or files" (NISO Z39.29). Examples include the NLM Entrez system, OVID, and DIALOG.

System providers may allow users to select an individual database for access or to select all or subsets of all of the databases to be searched in one operation. Updates and revisions to Internet retrieval systems may be labeled as new versions, releases, or editions. This is particularly true of commercial systems which carry copyright dates, but may not be true for government-sponsored or other noncommercial systems. Citations to databases and retrieval systems have been combined in this chapter because they are cited the same way.

For all types of databases and retrieval systems on the Internet, reproduce the title for citation purposes as closely as possible to the wording that appears on the screen, duplicating capitalization, spacing, and punctuation. This may include all capital letters or all lower case letters, capital letters within words, run-together words, and symbols. Some examples are: bioProtocol, GReTA, and PDQ®.

Databases frequently change titles and publishers over time. When citing a database, always provide information on the latest title and publisher unless you are citing an earlier version.

Look to the opening screen(s), the bottom or closing screens, sidebar, and the source code (viewable through the Web browser), in that order, for authoritative information to use in citing a database or retrieval system.

Continue to Citation Rules with Examples for Entire Databases/Retrieval Systems on the Internet.

Continue to Examples of Citations to Entire Databases/Retrieval Systems on the Internet.

Citation Rules with Examples for Entire Databases/Retrieval Systems on the Internet

Components/elements are listed in the order they should appear in a reference. An R after the component name means that it is required in the citation; an O after the name means it is optional.

Author/Editor (R) | Author Affiliation (O) | Title (R) | Content Type (O) | Type of Medium (R) | Edition (R) | Editor and other Secondary Authors (O) | Place of Publication (R) | Publisher (R) | Date of Publication (R) | Date of Update/Revision (R) | Date of Citation (R) | Availability (R) | Language (R) | Notes (O)

Author/Editor for Databases/Retrieval Systems on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Author/Editor

  • If there are no authors or editors, as is often the case, see No author can be found below
  • List names in the order they appear on the title page or opening screens
  • Enter surname (family or last name) first for each author/editor
  • Capitalize surnames and enter spaces within surnames as they appear on the assumption that the author approved the form used. For example: Van Der Horn or van der Horn; De Wolf or de Wolf or DeWolf.
  • Convert given (first) names and middle names to initials for a maximum of two initials following each surname
  • Give all authors/editors, regardless of the number
  • Separate author/editor names from each other by a comma and a space
  • If there are no authors, only editors, follow the last named editor with a comma and the word editor or editors; see Editor and other Secondary Authors below if there are authors and editors
  • End author/editor information with a period
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No author can be found.

Specific Rules for Author/Editor

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Determining the author if there is no standard title page.

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Surnames with hyphens and other punctuation in them.

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Other surname rules.

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Given names containing punctuation, a prefix, a preposition, or particle.

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Degrees, titles, and honors before or after a personal name.

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Designations of rank in a family, such as Jr and III.

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Names in non-roman alphabets (Cyrillic, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Korean) or character-based languages (Chinese, Japanese).

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Non-English words for editor.

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Organizations as author.

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Options for author names.

Author Affiliation for Databases/Retrieval Systems on the Internet (optional)

General Rules for Author Affiliation

  • Enter the affiliation of all authors or only the first author
  • Begin with the department and name of the institution, followed by city and state/Canadian province/country
  • Use commas to separate parts of the address
  • Place the address in parentheses, such as (Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA)
  • Separate the affiliation from its author by a space
  • Follow the affiliation with a comma placed outside the closing parenthesis, unless the affiliation is for the last author, then use a period

Specific Rules for Author Affiliation

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Abbreviations in affiliations.

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E-mail address included.

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Organizational names for affiliations not in English.

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Names for cities and countries not in English.

Title for Databases/Retrieval Systems on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Title

  • Reproduce the title of a database/retrieval system as closely as possible to the wording that appears on the screen, duplicating capitalization, spacing, and punctuation
  • Use a colon followed by a space to separate a title from a subtitle, unless another form of punctuation (such as a question mark, period, or an exclamation point) is already present
  • Follow non-English titles with a translation whenever possible; place the translation in square brackets
  • End a title with a space

Specific Rules for Title

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Determining the title if there is no standard title page.

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Titles not in English.

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Titles in more than one language.

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Titles ending in punctuation other than a period.

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Titles containing a Greek letter, chemical formula, or another special character.

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No title can be found.

Content Type for Databases/Retrieval Systems on the Internet (optional)

General Rules for Content Type

  • A content type alerts the user that the reference is not to a standard book but to a database or retrieval system
  • Begin type information with a left square bracket
  • Enter the words "database on" or "retrieval system on"
  • End the content type with a space

Specific Rules for Content Type

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Titles ending in punctuation other than a period.

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Titles not in English.

Type of Medium for Databases/Retrieval Systems on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Type of Medium

  • Place the word Internet in square brackets following the title (and Content Type, if present)
  • End with a period, placed outside the closing bracket
  • Add location information (the URL, etc.) according to the instructions under Availability below
  • See Chapter 20 for databases on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk

Specific Rules for Type of Medium

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Both a content type and a type of medium.

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Titles ending in punctuation other than a period.

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Titles not in English.

Edition for Databases/Retrieval Systems on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Edition

  • Indicate the edition/version being cited after the Type of Medium when a database/retrieval system is published in more than one edition or version
  • Abbreviate common words (see Abbreviation rules for editions below)
  • Capitalize only the first word of the edition statement, proper nouns, and proper adjectives
  • Express words and numbers representing editions in arabic ordinals. For example: second becomes 2nd and III becomes 3rd.
  • End the edition statement with a period
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Abbreviation rules for editions.

Specific Rules for Edition

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Non-English words for editions.

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Both an edition and a version.

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First editions.

Editor and other Secondary Authors for Databases/Retrieval Systems on the Internet (optional)

General Rules for Editor and other Secondary Authors

  • A secondary author modifies the work of the author. Examples include editors, translators, and illustrators.
  • Place the names of secondary authors after the Type of Medium and any Edition statement
  • Use the same rules for the format of names given in Author/Editor above
  • Follow the last named editor with a comma and the word editor or editors; the last named illustrator with a comma and the word illustrator or illustrators, etc.
  • End secondary author information with a period
  • If there is no author, move secondary authors such as editors and translators to the author position in the reference

Specific Rules for Editor and other Secondary Authors

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More than one type of secondary author.

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Secondary author performing more than one role.

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Non-English names for secondary authors.

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Organization as editor or other secondary author.

Place of Publication for Databases/Retrieval Systems on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Place of Publication

  • Place is defined as the city where the database/retrieval system is published
  • Follow US and Canadian cities with the two-letter abbreviation for the state or province (see Appendix E) to avoid confusion when citing lesser known cities or when cities in different locations have the same name, such as Palm Springs (CA) and Palm Springs (FL)
  • Follow cities in other countries with the name of the country, either written out or as the two-letter ISO country code (see Appendix D), when citing lesser known cities or when cities in different locations have the same name, such as Cambridge (MA) and Cambridge (England)
  • Use the anglicized form for a non-US city, such as Vienna for Wien
  • End place information with a colon

Specific Rules for Place of Publication

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Locating the place of publication if there is no standard title page.

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Non-US cities.

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Joint publication.

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Multiple places of publication.

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No place of publication can be found.

Publisher for Databases/Retrieval Systems on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Publisher

  • A publisher is defined as the individual or organization issuing the database/retrieval system
  • Record the name of the publisher as it appears on the title page or opening screens, using whatever capitalization and punctuation is found there
  • Abbreviate well-known publisher names with caution to avoid confusion. For example, "John Wiley & Sons, Ltd." may become simply "Wiley".
  • When a division or other subsidiary part of a publisher appears in the publication, enter the publisher name first. For example: McGraw-Hill, Health Professions Division.
  • End publisher information with a period for serial databases and retrieval systems and a semicolon for single databases

Specific Rules for Publisher

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Determining the publisher if there is no standard title page.

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Abbreviated words in publisher names.

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Non-English names for publishers.

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Government agencies and other national and international bodies as publisher.

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Joint publication.

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Multiple publishers.

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No publisher can be found.

Date of Publication for Databases/Retrieval Systems on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Date of Publication

  • Always give the year
  • Convert roman numerals to arabic numbers. For example: MM to 2000.
  • Include the month, if desired, after the year, such as 2004 May
  • Use English names for months and abbreviate them using the first three letters, such as Jan
  • For an open serial database or retrieval system, give the beginning date of the database/system followed by a hyphen and 3 spaces
  • For a closed serial database/system, give the beginning and ending dates, separated by a hyphen with a space before and after
  • If the beginning (and ending) date are not provided, see No date is provided below
  • For a single database, give the date as you would for a book
  • End date information for all types with a space
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No date is provided.

Specific Rules for Date of Publication

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Locating the date of publication if there is no standard title page.

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Multiple years of publication.

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Non-English names for months.

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Seasons instead of months.

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Date of publication and date of copyright.

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No date of publication, but a date of copyright.

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Options for date of publication.

Date of Update/Revision for Databases/Retrieval Systems on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Date of Update/Revision

  • Databases/retrieval systems may be updated or revised between editions or versions
  • Begin update/revision information with a left square bracket
  • Use whatever word for update or revision is provided, such as updated and modified
  • Always give the year of update/revision
  • Convert roman numerals to arabic numbers. For example: MM to 2000.
  • Include the month and day of update/revision, if provided, after the year, such as 2006 May 5
  • Use English names for months and abbreviate them using the first three letters, such as Jan
  • End update/revision information with a semicolon and a space

Specific Rules for Date of Update/Revision

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Locating the date of update/revision.

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Non-English names for months.

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Seasons instead of months.

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Both a date of update and a date of revision.

Date of Citation for Databases/Retrieval Systems on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Date of Citation

  • Always include the date the database/retrieval system was seen on the Internet
  • Include the year month and day in that order, such as 2006 May 5
  • Use English names for months and abbreviate them using the first three letters, such as Jan
  • If a date of update/revision is given, place the date of citation after it and follow both dates with a right square bracket
  • If no date of update/revision is given, place citation date information in square brackets
  • End date information with a period placed outside the closing bracket

Specific Rules for Date of Citation

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Both a date of update/revision and a date of citation.

Availability for Databases/Retrieval Systems on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Availability

  • Begin with the phrase "Available from" followed by a colon and a space
  • Insert the entire Uniform Resource Locator (URL); do not omit http://, www, or other beginning components
  • End with a period only if the URL ends with a slash, otherwise end with no punctuation

Specific Rules for Availability

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Breaking long URLs.

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URLs not directly addressable.

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Multiple URLs.

Language for Databases/Retrieval Systems on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Language

  • Give the language of publication if not English
  • Capitalize the language name
  • Follow the language name with a period

Specific Rules for Language

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Databases/retrieval systems in more than one language.

Notes for Databases/Retrieval Systems on the Internet (optional)

General Rules for Notes

  • Notes is a collective term for any useful information given after the citation itself
  • Complete sentences are not required
  • Be brief

Specific Rules for Notes

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System requirements.

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Other types of material to include in notes.

Examples of Citations to Entire Databases/Retrieval Systems on the Internet

1. Standard citation to an open serial database on the Internet

Dryad Digital Repository [Internet]. Durham (NC): Dryad. 2008 Jan -   [cited 2014 Oct 3]. Available from: http://www.datadryad.org/.

MeSH Browser (2011 MeSH) [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US), Medical Subject Headings Section; [1999] -   [updated 2010 Aug 28; cited 2011 Jul 8]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/MBrowser.html Files are updated every week on Sunday.

MeSH Database [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US). 2003 Apr -   [cited 2011 Jul 8]. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/mesh

Online Archive of American Folk Medicine [Internet]. Los Angeles: Regents of the University of California. 1996 -   [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.folkmed.ucla.edu/.

PeriStats [Internet]. White Plains (NY): March of Dimes Perinatal Data Center. c2007 -   [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.marchofdimes.com/peristats/.

TrialSearch [Internet]. New York: AIDS Community Research Initiative of America. c2003 -   [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.acria.org/clinical_trials/.

with optional content type

TrialSearch [database on the Internet]. New York: AIDS Community Research Initiative of America. c2003 -   [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.acria.org/clinical_trials/.

2. Standard citation to a closed serial database on the Internet

EARSS: the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System [Internet]. Bilthoven (Netherlands): RIVM. 2001 - 2005 [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.rivm.nl/earss/.

DocFinder [Internet]. [place unknown]: Administrators in Medicine. c1997 - c2005 [cited 2007 Feb 2]. Available from: http://www.docboard.org/docfinder.html

with optional content type

EARSS: the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System [database on the Internet]. Bilthoven (Netherlands): RIVM. 2001 - 2005 [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.rivm.nl/earss/.

3. Standard citation to a single database on the Internet

Jablonski S. Online Multiple Congenital Anomaly/Mental Retardation (MCA/MR) Syndromes [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US), Medical Subject Headings Section; 2001 Apr [updated 2001 Nov 20; cited 2007 Jan 31]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/archive//20061212/mesh/jablonski/syndrome_db.html

Database of Human Disease Causing Gene Homologues in Dictyostelium Discoideum [Internet]. San Diego (CA): San Diego Supercomputer Center; 2003 [modified 2003 Mar 30; cited 2007 Feb 2]. Available from: http://dictyworkbench.sdsc.edu/HDGDD/.

with optional content type

Jablonski S. Online Multiple Congenital Anomaly/Mental Retardation (MCA/MR) Syndromes [database on the Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US), Medical Subject Headings Section; 2001 Apr [updated 2001 Nov 20; cited 2007 Jan 31]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/archive//20061212/mesh/jablonski/syndrome_db.html

4. Standard citation to a retrieval system on the Internet

DialogWeb [Internet]. Version 2.5. Cary (NC): The Dialog Corporation. c1997 -   [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.dialogweb.com/.

Ovid [Internet]. New York: Ovid Technologies, Inc. c2000 -   [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://gateway.ovid.com/.

WHOSIS: WHO Statistical Information System [Internet]. Geneva: World Health Organization. c2007 -   [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.who.int/whosis/en/.

with optional content type

DialogWeb [retrieval system on the Internet]. Version 2.5. Cary (NC): The Dialog Corporation. c1997 -   [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.dialogweb.com/.

Patient UK [retrieval system on the Internet]. Horsforth (UK): EMIS; c1997 [cited 2007 Feb 23]. Available from: http://www.patient.co.uk/.

5. Database/retrieval system on the Internet with an individual(s) as author

Blaxter M. BaNG: Nematode and Neglected Genomics [Internet]. Version 2.03. Edinburgh (UK): University of Edinburgh, Institute of Evolutionary Biology. [date unknown] -   [updated 2006 Jun 22; cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.nematodes.org/.

Gilliland G, Tung M, Ladner J. BMCD: Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database [Internet]. Test ed. 4.0. Gaithersburg (MD): National Institute of Standards and Technology (US). c1995 -   [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://xpdb.nist.gov:8060/BMCD4/.

Bota M. The Brain Architecture Management System [Internet]. Los Angeles: University of Southern California. c2002 -   [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://brancusi.usc.edu/bkms/.

Jablonski S. Online Multiple Congenital Anomaly/Mental Retardation (MCA/MR) Syndromes [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US), Medical Subject Headings Section; 2001 Apr [updated 2001 Nov 20; cited 2007 Jan 31]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/archive//20061212/mesh/jablonski/syndrome_db.html

Nicholas F. OMIA - Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals [Internet]. Sydney (Australia): University of Sydney, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. 2011 Aug -   [updated 2013 Feb 20; cited 2013 Feb 26]. Available from: http://omia.angis.org.au/.

6. Database/retrieval system on the Internet with optional full names for author

Jablonski, Stanley. Online Multiple Congenital Anomaly/Mental Retardation (MCA/MR) Syndromes [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US), Medical Subject Headings Section; 2001 Apr [updated 2001 Nov 20; cited 2007 Jan 31]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/archive//20061212/mesh/jablonski/syndrome_db.html

Gilliland, Gary; Tung, Michael; Ladner, Jane. BMCD: Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database [Internet]. Test ed. 4.0. Gaithersburg (MD): National Institute of Standards and Technology. c1995 -   [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://xpdb.nist.gov:8060/BMCD4/.

Cohen, Bernard A.; Lehmann, Christoph U. dermatlas.org: Dermatology Image Atlas [Internet]. [Baltimore (MD)]: Johns Hopkins University. c2000 -   [updated 2007 Jan 29; cited 2007 Feb 2]. Available from: http://dermatlas.med.jhmi.edu/derm/.

Blaxter, Mark. BaNG: Nematode and Neglected Genomics [Internet]. Version 2.03. Edinburgh (UK): University of Edinburgh, Institute of Evolutionary Biology. [date unknown] -   [updated 2006 Jun 22; cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.nematodes.org/.

7. Database/retrieval system on the Internet with an organization as author

American Diabetes Association. Genetics of Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes: the GENNID Study [Internet]. Version 3.0.927. Camden (NJ): Coriell Institute for Medical Research. c1977 -   [updated 2005 Jun 1; cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://ccr.coriell.org/ada/.

National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (US), Liver Diseases Research Branch; U.S. National Library of Medicine, Division of Specialized Information Services. LiverTox [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): U.S. National Library of Medicine. [2012 Apr] -   [last updated 2015 Jan 28; cited 2015 Apr 24]. Available from: http://livertox.nih.gov/.

8. Database/retrieval system on the Internet with editors where there is no author

Hamosh A, editor. OMIM®: Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man® [Internet]. Baltimore (MD): Johns Hopkins University, McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine. 1995 -   , c1966 - 2013 [updated 2013 Feb 22; cited 2013 Feb 26]. Available from: http://omim.org/.

Rotchford JK, editor. Acubriefs.com [Internet]. Port Townsend (WA): Best of Both Worlds Foundation. [date unknown] -   [modified 2006 Jul; cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.acubriefs.com/.

9. Database/retrieval system on the Internet with no authors or editors

Rat Atlas [Internet]. Los Angeles: University of California, Los Angeles, Laboratory of Neuro Imaging. c2007 -   [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.loni.ucla.edu/Atlases/Atlas_Detail.jsp?atlas_id=1

10. Database/retrieval system on the Internet with author affiliation

Allender S (British Heart Foundation Health Promotion Research Group, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK), Peto V, Rayner M, Scarborough P, Boxer A. heartstats: British Heart Foundation Statistics Database [Internet]. London: British Heart Foundation. c2003 -   [updated 2006 Nov 3; cited 2007 Feb 2]. Available from: http://www.heartstats.org/.

11. Database/retrieval system on the Internet title with subtitle

BELIT: Bioethics Literature Database [Internet]. Bonn (Germany): German Reference Centre for Ethics in the Life Sciences. [date unknown] -   [updated 2006 Sep 9; cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.drze.de/BELIT?la=en

ALTBIB: Bibliography on Alternatives to Animal Testing [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US), Division of Specialized Information Services. 2002 -   [modified 2011 Feb 4; cited 2011 Jul 14]. Available from: http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/altbib.html

12. Database/retrieval system on the Internet title with sections

Faculty of 1000. Medicine [Internet]. London: Medicine Reports Ltd. c2007 -   [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.f1000medicine.com/.

Faculty of 1000. Biology [Internet]. London: Biology Reports Ltd. c1999 -   [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.f1000biology.com/.

13. Database/retrieval system on the Internet title with upper/lowercase letters and symbols

bioProtocol: a Bio Online Site [Internet]. Emeryville (CA): Bio.Com. c1992 -   [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://bioprotocol.bio.com/protocolstools/index.jhtml

PDQ®: NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Cancer Institute (US). [date unknown] -   [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/cancerdatabase

GReTA [Internet]. Berlin: Humboldt-Universitat zu Berlin, Zentrum fur transdisziplinare Geschlechterstudien. 1989 -   [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://141.20.150.23:2200/start.fau?prj=ifaust German.

MEDMARX [Internet]. Version 6.5. Rockville (MD): United States Pharmacopeial Convention, Inc. c2007 -   [updated 1999 Aug 6; cited 2007 Jan 31]. Available from: https://www.medmarx.com/.

Aspergillus nidulans Database [Internet]. Cambridge (MA): Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Broad Institute, Center for Genome Research. 2003 -   [updated 2007 Jan 10; cited 2007 Feb 21]. Available from: http://www.broad.mit.edu/annoitation/fungi/aspergillus/.

ClinicalTrials.gov [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): U.S. National Library of Medicine. 2000 Feb -   [cited 2015 Apr 25]. Available from: http://clinicaltrials.gov/.

intute: health & life sciences [Internet]. Nottingham (UK): University of Nottingham. c2006 -   [cited 2007 Feb 23]. Available from: http://www.intute.ac.uk/healthandlifesciences/.

14. Database/retrieval system on the Internet with title ending in other than a period

Is Your Doctor Certified? [Internet]. Evanston (IL): American Board of Medical Specialties. c2006 -   [updated 2006 Mar 17; cited 2007 Jan 31]. Available from: http://www.abms.org/newsearch.asp

15. Database/retrieval system on the Internet in a language other than English

Sistema Informativo Sanitario [Internet]. Rome: Ministero della Salute, Direzione General del Sistema Informativo e Statistico. 1997 -   [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.ministerosalute.it/servizio/datisis.jsp Italian.

Nederlands Trialregister [Internet]. Amsterdam (Netherlands): Dutch Cochrane Centre. [2005?] -   [cited 2007 Feb 23]. Available from: http://www.trialregister.nl/. Dutch.

GReTA [Internet]. Berlin: Humboldt-Universitat zu Berlin, Zentrum fur transdisziplinare Geschlechterstudien. 1989 -   [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://141.20.150.23:2200/start.fau?prj=ifaust German.

Bases de Datos de Tesis Doctorales (TESEO) [Internet]. Madrid: Ministerio de Educacion y Ciencia. [1976] -   [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.mcu.es/TESEO/teseo.html Spanish.

with translation included

Sistema Informativo Sanitario [Health Information System] [Internet]. Rome: Ministero della Salute, Direzione General del Sistema Informativo e Statistico. 1997 -   [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.ministerosalute.it/servizio/datisis.jsp Italian.

16. Database/retrieval system on the Internet in multiple languages

ORPHANET: Maladies Rares, Medicaments Orphelins [Internet]. Paris: INSERM. 1997 -   [cited 2007 Feb 23]. Available from: http://www.orpha.net/. French, German, Spanish, English, Italian, Portuguese.

17. Database/retrieval system on the Internet published with equal text in two languages

Cardiovascular Disease Surveillance On-line = Surveillance des Maladies Cardio-vasculaires en Direct [Internet]. Ottawa (ON): Public Health Agency of Canada. [1950] -   [updated 2002 Jul 30; cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://dsol-smed.phac-aspc.gc.ca/dsol-smed/cvd/index%5Fe.html English, French.

18. Database/retrieval system on the Internet with an edition or version

Dietary Supplement Label Database [Internet]. Version 6.0.0. Bethesda (MD): U.S. National Library of Medicine. [2013 Jun] -   [updated 2015 Apr; cited 2015 May 1]. Available from: http://www.dsld.nlm.nih.gov/. Joint project of the National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements (US) and U.S. National Library of Medicine, Specialized Information Services.

MEDMARX [Internet]. Version 6.5. Rockville (MD): United States Pharmacopeial Convention, Inc. c2007 -   [updated 1999 Aug 6; cited 2007 Jan 31]. Available from: https://www.medmarx.com/.

FlyBase: a Database of Drosophila Genes & Genomes [Internet]. Version FB2006_01. Bloomington (IN): Indiana University. 2006 Dec 8 -   [cited 2007 Feb 21]. Available from: http://flybase.bio.indiana.edu/.

Biozon [Internet]. Release 2.4. Ithaca (NY): Cornell University. c2005 -   [updated 2006 Aug; cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.biozon.org/.

WormBase: the Biology and Genome of C. elegans [Internet]. Release WS170. [Pasadena (CA)]: California Institute of Technology. c1999 -   [updated 2007 Jan 19; cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.wormbase.org/.

AnAge: the Animal Ageing Database [Internet]. Build 9. [Boston (MA)]: Joao Pedro de Magalhaes. c2002 -   [updated 2006 Feb 26; cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://genomics.senescence.info/species/.

Gilliland G, Tung M, Ladner J. BMCD: Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database [Internet]. Test ed. 4.0. Gaithersburg (MD): National Institute of Standards and Technology (US). c1995 -   [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://xpdb.nist.gov:8060/BMCD4/.

The Comprehensive Microbial Resource [Internet]. Date release 20.0; Website release 3.0. [place unknown]: Institute for Genomic Research. 2000 -   [updated 2006 Sep 27; cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://cmr.tigr.org/tigr-scripts/CMR/CmrHomePage.cgi

IMGT/HLA Database [Internet]. Release 2.16.0. Cambridge (England): European Bioinformatics Institute. 1998 -   [updated 2007 Jan 12; cited 2007 Feb 6]. Available from: http://www.ebi.ac.uk/imgt/hla/.

Health Library for Disasters [Internet]. Version 3.0. Geneva: World Health Organization. 2003 -   [updated 2006 May; cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.helid.desastres.net/.

RxNorm [dataset on the Internet]. Release META2011AA Full Update 2011_07_05. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2011 Jul 5 [cited 2011 Jul 14]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/research/umls/rxnorm/docs/rxnormfiles.html

UMLS Knowledge Sources [dataset on the Internet]. Release 2011AA. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2011 May 5 [cited 2011 Jul 14]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/research/umls/licensedcontent/umlsknowledgesources.html

SNOMED CT [dataset on the Internet]. Release January 2011 International. Copenhagen: International Health Terminology Standards Development Organization; 2011 Jan 31 [cited 2011 Jul 14]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/research/umls/licensedcontent/snomedctfiles.html

Hayes B, Tesar B, Zurow K. OTSoft: Optimality Theory Software. Version 2.3.2 [software]. 2013 Jan 14 [cited 2015 Feb 14]. Available from: http://www.linguistics.ucla.edu/people/hayes/otsoft

Golda TG, Hough PD, Gay G. APPSPACK (Asynchronous Parallel Pattern Search). Version 5.0.1 [software]. Sandia National Laboratories. 2007 Feb 16 [cited 2016 Apr 4; downloaded 2010 Jan 5]. Available from: https://software.sandia.gov/appspack/version5.0/index.html Note: homepage advises as of 2010 May 17 to switch to HOPSPACK; available from: https://software.sandia.gov/trac/hopspack/wiki

19. Database/retrieval system on the Internet with well known place of publication

Current Controlled Trials [Internet]. London: BioMed Central. [date unknown] -   [cited 2007 Jan 31]. Available from: http://www.controlled-trials.com/.

Resource Guide for Public Health Preparedness [Internet]. New York: New York Academy of Medicine. c2003 -   [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.phpreparedness.info/rgdatabase.php

20. Database/retrieval system on the Internet with geographic qualifier added to place of publication for clarity

The Cochrane Library [Internet]. Hoboken (NJ): Wiley InterScience. c1999 -   [cited 2007 Jan 31]. Available from: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/mrwhome/106568753/HOME?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0

The Alberta Atlas of Human Pathology: a Resource for Teachers and Learners in the Health Sciences [Internet]. Edmonton (AB): University of Alberta, Museums and Collections Services. 1999 Sep -   [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://project.lse.ualberta.ca/pathology/.

BELIT: Bioethics Literature Database [Internet]. Bonn (Germany): German Reference Centre for Ethics in the Life Sciences. [date unknown] -   [updated 2006 Sep 9; cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.drze.de/BELIT?la=enintute: health & life sciences [Internet]. Nottingham (UK): University of Nottingham. c2006 -   [cited 2007 Feb 23]. Available from: http://www.intute.ac.uk/healthandlifesciences/.

The PILOTS Database: an Electronic Index to the Traumatic Stress Literature [Internet]. White River Junction (VT): Department of Veterans Affairs (US), National Center for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. [date unknown] -   [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.ncptsd.va.gov/ncmain/publications/pilots/index.html

21. Database/retrieval system on the Internet with place of publication inferred

WormBase: the Biology and Genome of C. elegans [Internet]. Release WS170. [Pasadena (CA)]: California Institute of Technology. c1999 -   [updated 2007 Jan 19; cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.wormbase.org/.

Cohen BA, Lehmann CU. dermatlas.org: Dermatology Image Atlas [Internet]. [Baltimore (MD)]: Johns Hopkins University. c2000 -   [updated 2007 Jan 29; cited 2007 Feb 2]. Available from: http://dermatlas.med.jhmi.edu/derm/.

The GDB Human Genome Database [Internet]. [Research Triangle Park (NC)]: RTI International. 1998 -   [cited 2007 Feb 22]. Available from: http://www.gdb.org/.

Patrocles: the database of polymorphic miRNA-target interactions [Internet]. Version 1.0. [Liege (Belgium)]: Unit Animal Genomics. [date unknown] -   [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.patrocles.org/Patrocles.htm

22. Database/retrieval system on the Internet with unknown place of publication

Pfam [Internet]. Version 21.0. [place unknown]: Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. [date unknown] -   [updated Nov 2006; cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.sanger.ac.uk/Software/Pfam/.

The Comprehensive Microbial Resource [Internet]. Date release 20.0; Website release 3.0. [place unknown]: Institute for Genomic Research. 2000 -   [updated 2006 Sep 27; cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://cmr.tigr.org/.

23. Database/retrieval system on the Internet with publisher having subsidiary division

Nutrition Education for Diverse Audiences [Internet]. Urbana (IL): University of Illinois, College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences. [date unknown] -   [cited 2007 Jan 31]. Available from: http://necd.aces.uiuc.edu/.

Antimicrobial Resistance Information Bank [Internet]. Geneva: World Health Organization, Department of Communicable Disease Surveillance and Response, Anti-infective Drug Resistance and Containment Team. 1999 -   [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://rhone.b3e.jussieu.fr/arinfobank/ResistanceDataSearch.php

24. Database/retrieval system on the Internet with government agency or other national body as publisher

REHABDATA [Internet]. Lanham (MD): National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (US), National Rehabilitation Information Center. [1956] -   [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.naric.com/research/rehab/default.cfm

Entrez: the Life Sciences Search Engine [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US), National Center for Biotechnology Information. 1991 -   [cited 2007 Jan 31]. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gquery/gquery.fcgi

ERIC: the Education Resources Information Center [Internet]. Washington: Department of Education (US), Institute of Education Sciences. [1966] -   [cited 2007 Jan 31]. Available from: http://eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal

Genetics Home Reference [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): U.S. National Library of Medicine, Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications. [2003] -   [last updated 2015 Apr 28; cited 2015 May 1]. Available from: http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/.

Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB) [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): U.S. National Library of Medicine, Division of Specialized Information Services. [1985] -   [cited 2015 Jan 9]. Available from: http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/htmlgen?HSDB

25. Database/retrieval system on the Internet with joint publication

WormBase: the Biology and Genome of C. elegans [Internet]. Release WS170. [Pasadena (CA)]: California Institute of Technology. c1999 -   [updated 2007 Jan 19; cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.wormbase.org/. Jointly published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Washington University at St. Louis, and The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute.

26. Database/retrieval system on the Internet with standard date of publication

Database of Human Disease Causing Gene Homologues in Dictyostelium Discoideum [Internet]. San Diego (CA): San Diego Supercomputer Center; 2003 [modified 2003 Mar 30; cited 2007 Feb 2]. Available from: http://dictyworkbench.sdsc.edu/HDGDD/.

Antimicrobial Resistance Information Bank [Internet]. Geneva: World Health Organization, Department of Communicable Disease Surveillance and Response, Anti-infective Drug Resistance and Containment Team. 1999 -   [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://rhone.b3e.jussieu.fr/arinfobank/ResistanceDataSearch.php

27. Database/retrieval system on the Internet with month/day included in date of publication

NLM Classification [Internet]. 2015 ed. Bethesda (MD): U.S. National Library of Medicine. 2002 Oct -   [updated 2015 Apr 29; cited 2015 Apr 29]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/class/.

Swiss Life Sciences Database [Internet]. Zurich (Switzerland): Venture Valuation AG. 2003 Mar -   [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.swisslifesciences.ch/page/index.html

Ribosomal Database Project II [Internet]. Release 9.47. East Lansing (MI): Michigan State University. 2002 Sep 13 -   [updated 2007 Feb 1; cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://rdp.cme.msu.edu

FlyBase: a Database of Drosophila Genes & Genomes [Internet]. Version FB2006_01. Bloomington (IN): Indiana University. 2006 Dec 8 -   [cited 2007 Feb 21]. Available from: http://flybase.bio.indiana.edu/.

The Alberta Atlas of Human Pathology: a Resource for Teachers and Learners in the Health Sciences [Internet]. Edmonton (AL): University of Alberta, Museums and Collections Services. 1999 Sep -   [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://project.lse.ualberta.ca/pathology/.

Reinhardt V, Reinhardt A. Environmental Enrichment for Primates: Annotated Database on Environmental Enrichment and Refinement of Husbandry for Nonhuman Primates [Internet]. Washington: Animal Welfare Institute. 1998 Jul 1 -   [updated 2006 Dec 8; cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.awionline.org/Lab_animals/biblio/enrich.htm

PubMed Central (PMC) [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US), National Center for Biotechnology Information; 2000 Feb -   [cited 2011 Jun 23]. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/.

28. Database/retrieval system on the Internet with multiple years

EARSS: the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System [Internet]. Bilthoven (Netherlands): RIVM. 2001 - 2005 [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.rivm.nl/earss/.

DocFinder [Internet]. [place unknown]: Administrators in Medicine. c1997 - c2005 [cited 2007 Feb 2]. Available from: http://www.docboard.org/docfinder.html

29. Database/retrieval system on the Internet with date of copyright instead of date of publication

Biozon [Internet]. Release 2.4. Ithaca (NY): Cornell University. c2005 -   [updated 2006 Aug; cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.biozon.org/.

ProQolid: Patient-Reported Outcome and Quality of Life Instruments Database [Internet]. Lyon (France): Mapi Research Institute. c2001 -   [updated 2005 Nov; cited 2007 Jan 31]. Available from: http://www.proqolid.org/.

DocFinder [Internet]. [place unknown]: Administrators in Medicine. c1997 - c2005 [cited 2007 Feb 2]. Available from: http://www.docboard.org/docfinder.html

30. Database/retrieval system on the Internet with date obtained from earliest material in it

PubMed [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US). [1946] -   [cited 2011 Jan 31]. Available from: http://pubmed.gov/.

CINAHL [Internet]. Glendale (CA): Cinahl Information Systems. [1982] -   [cited 2007 Jan 31]. Available from: http://www.cinahl.com/prodsvcs/prodsvcs.htm

31. Database/retrieval system on the Internet with date estimated

NLM Catalog [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information. [2004] -   [cited 2015 Apr 30]. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/catalog

Nederlands Trialregister [Internet]. Amsterdam (Netherlands): Dutch Cochrane Centre. [2005?] -   [cited 2007 Feb 23]. Available from: http://www.trialregister.nl/. Dutch.

The Digital Database for Screening Mammography [Internet]. Tampa (FL): University of South Florida. [1999 - 2000?] [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://marathon.csee.usf.edu/Mammography/Database.html

32. Database/retrieval system on the Internet with unknown date

The Internet Acronym Server [Internet]. Cork (Ireland): Simaril Information Management Consultants. [date unknown] -   [cited 2007 Jan 31]. Available from: http://silmaril.ie/cgi-bin/uncgi/acronyms

Prevention Communication Research Database [Internet]. Rockville (MD): Department of Health and Human Services (US), Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. [date unknown] -   [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.health.gov/communication/default.asp

33. Database/retrieval system on the Internet with update/revision date

Health Library for Disasters [Internet]. Version 3.0. Geneva: World Health Organization. 2003 -   [updated 2006 May; cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.helid.desastres.net/.

Household Products Database [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): U.S. National Library of Medicine, Division of Specialized Information Services. [2003 Jun] -   [updated 2014 Aug; cited 2015 May 1]. Available from: http://hpd.nlm.nih.gov/.

Images from the History of Medicine (IHM) [Internet]. U.S. National Library of Medicine, History of Medicine Division. 2009 Apr 20 -   [updated 2015 Apr 24; cited 2015 May 1]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/hmd/ihm/index.html

Rotchford JK, editor. Acubriefs.com [Internet]. Port Townsend (WA): Best of Both Worlds Foundation. [date unknown] -   [modified 2006 Jul; cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.acubriefs.com/.

Database of Human Disease Causing Gene Homologues in Dictyostelium Discoideum [Internet]. San Diego (CA): San Diego Supercomputer Center; 2003 [modified 2003 Mar 30; cited 2007 Feb 2]. Available from: http://dictyworkbench.sdsc.edu/HDGDD/.

Cornell University Poisonous Plants Informational Database [Internet]. Ithaca (NY): Cornell University, Department of Animal Science. [date unknown] -   [updated 2006 Oct 27; cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.ansci.cornell.edu/plants/index.html

34. Database/retrieval system on the Internet with multiple URLs

WHOSIS: WHO Statistical Information System [Internet]. Geneva: World Health Organization. c2007 -   [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.who.int/whosis/en/ ; http://www.who.int/whosis/fr/index.html English, French.

35. Database/retrieval system on the Internet with optional system requirements

MEDMARX [Internet]. Version 6.5. Rockville (MD): United States Pharmacopeial Convention, Inc. c2007 -   [updated 1999 Aug 6; cited 2007 Jan 31]. Available from: https://www.medmarx.com/. System Requirements: Windows 95 or higher; 200-megaHertz Pentium or higher; Random Access Memory 128-megabytes or higher; Modem Speed 56 Kilobits per second or higher; 20-MB hard disk space; 17-inch video graphics array; 800 x 600 pixels/high with color; Adobe Acrobat Reader 5.0; Internet Explorer 6.0 or higher.

FlyBase: a Database of Drosophila Genes & Genomes [Internet]. Version FB2006_01. Bloomington (IN): Indiana University. 2006 Dec 8 -   [cited 2007 Feb 21]. Available from: http://flybase.bio.indiana.edu/. System Requirements: Compatible with Internet Explorer Mac 5.2 and Internet Explorer 6; Internet Explorer 7 is incompatible.

36. Database/retrieval system on the Internet that continues another database

BOND: the Biomolecular Object Network Databank [Internet]. Toronto (ON): Unleashed Informatics. 2006 Oct -   [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from:http://bond.unleashedinformatics.com/. Continues: DogBox.

37. Database/retrieval system on the Internet with supplemental note included

Is Your Doctor Certified? [Internet]. Evanston (IL): American Board of Medical Specialties. c2006 -   [updated 2006 Mar 17; cited 2007 Jan 31]. Available from: http://www.abms.org/newsearch.asp Registration and login required.

PDQ®: NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Cancer Institute (US). [date unknown] -   [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/cancerdatabase PDQ stands for Physician Data Query.

EARSS: the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System [Internet]. Bilthoven (Netherlands): RIVM. 2001 - 2005 [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.rivm.nl/earss/. RIVM is the Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu.

BELIT: Bioethics Literature Database [Internet]. Bonn (Germany): German Reference Centre for Ethics in the Life Sciences. [date unknown] -   [updated 2006 Sep 9; cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.drze.de/BELIT?la=en Provides access to about 320,000 records from the integrated German, American, and French databases.

Reinhardt V, Reinhardt A. Environmental Enrichment for Primates: Annotated Database on Environmental Enrichment and Refinement of Husbandry for Nonhuman Primates [Internet]. Washington: Animal Welfare Institute. 1998 Jul 1 -   [updated 2006 Dec 8; cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.awionline.org/Lab_animals/biblio/enrich.htm Comprises published articles, abstracts, book chapters, books, as well as published photographs, slide sets, videotapes, and selected Web site information.

Federal Research in Progress Database (FEDRIP) [Internet]. Springfield (VA): Department of Commerce (US), National Technical Information Service. [date unknown] -   [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://grc.ntis.gov/fedrip.htm Updated monthly. Subscription required, but free trials are available.

GReTA [Internet]. Berlin: Humboldt-Universitat zu Berlin, Zentrum fur transdisziplinare Geschlechterstudien. 1989 -   [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://141.20.150.23:2200/start.fau?prj=ifaust German. Database of German women's studies.

Pfam [Internet]. Version 21.0. [place unknown]: Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. [date unknown] -   [updated Nov 2006; cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.sanger.ac.uk/Software/Pfam/. Pfam is a large collection of multiple sequence alignments and hidden Markov models covering many common protein domains and families.

WormBase: the Biology and Genome of C. elegans [Internet]. Release WS170. [Pasadena (CA)]: California Institute of Technology. c1999 -   [updated 2007 Jan 19; cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.wormbase.org/. Supported by a grant from the National Human Genome Research Institute at the US National Institutes of Health # P41 HG02223 and the British Medical Research Council.

bioProtocol: a Bio Online Site [Internet]. Emeryville (CA): Bio.Com. c1992 -   [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://bioprotocol.bio.com/protocolstools/index.jhtml Protocols contributed by scientists from over 125 academic laboratories.

Online Archive of American Folk Medicine [Internet]. Los Angeles: Regents of the University of California. 1996 -   [cited 2008 Aug 20]. Available from: http://www.folkmed.ucla.edu/. Institutional repository of the University of California Libraries intended to provide comparative and historical information about traditional medical beliefs.

DailyMed [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): U.S. National Library of Medicine. [2005] -   [cited 2015 Jan 26]. Available from: http://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/about.cfm Drug labeling on this Web site is as submitted to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology Database (DART) [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): U.S. National Library of Medicine, Specialized Information Services Division. [1994] -   [cited 2015 Mar 11]. Available from: http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/. Funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, the National Center for Toxicological Research of the Food and Drug Administration, and the NLM.

Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed) [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): U.S. National Library of Medicine. [2006] -   [cited 2015 Mar 11]. Available from: http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/htmlgen?LACT Part of the Toxicology Data Network (TOXNET).

TOXNET [Mobile] [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): U.S. National Library of Medicine. [2012] -   [cited 2015 Mar 11]. Available from: http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/pda/. Mobile-optimized Web interface to the TOXNET databases, covering toxicology, hazardous chemicals, environmental health and related areas.

B. Sample Citation and Introduction to Citing Parts of Databases on the Internet

The general format for a reference to a part of a database on the Internet, including punctuation:

Illustration of the general format for a reference to a part of a database
on the Internet.

Examples of Citations to Parts of Databases on the Internet

Rather than citing a whole database, portions of a database may be cited. Individual records, tables, datasets, and the like are considered parts of databases when they do not have individual authorship, i.e., they are written or compiled by the authors of the database. They are contributions when the database has individual records or other components written by various authors, usually called contributors.

A reference should start with the individual or organization with responsibility for the intellectual content of the publication:

  • Begin a reference to a part of a database with a citation to the database itself, followed by information about the part.
  • Begin a reference to a contribution with information about the contribution, followed by the word "In:" and information about the database. See Chapter 24C Contributions to Databases on the Internet for details.

Provide the length of the part to a database when possible. Calculate the extent of the part using the best means possible, i.e., number of paragraphs, screens, bytes, or pages if printed. Since screen size and print fonts vary, precede the estimated number of screens and pages with the word about and place extent information in square brackets, such as [about 3 screens]. For parts that contain hyperlinks, however, such as those shown in example 11, it will not be possible to provide the length.

See also Chapter 22B Parts of Books on the Internet for further examples of the types of parts.

Continue to Citation Rules with Examples for Parts of Databases on the Internet.

Continue to Examples of Citations to Parts of Databases on the Internet.

Citation Rules with Examples for Parts of Databases on the Internet

Components/elements are listed in the order they should appear in a reference. An R after the component name means that it is required in the citation; an O after the name means it is optional.

Database (R) | Name and Number/Letter (R) | Title (R) | Date of Publication (R) | Date of Update/Revision (R) | Date of Citation (R) | Location (Pagination) (R) | Availability (R) | Language (R) | Notes (O)

Database (required)

General Rules for Database

Name and Number/Letter of the Part of a Database on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Name and Number/Letter

  • Enter the name of the part as it appears in the database
  • Capitalize the name, such as Record, Table, Chart
  • You may abbreviate Number to No., but do not abbreviate other names. For example: convert Rec. to Record.
  • Follow the name with any accompanying number or letter, such as Record 122678 and Accession No. PF03061
  • Use arabic numbers only. For example: convert VI or Six to 6.
  • End name and number/letter information with a comma and a space

Specific Rules for Name and Number/Letter

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Box 66

Non-English names for parts.

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Box 67

No letter or number follows the name.

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Box 68

No name appears.

Title of the Part of a Database on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Title

  • Enter the title of the part as it appears in the database
  • Capitalize only the first word of a title, proper nouns, proper adjectives, acronyms, and initialisms
  • Use a colon followed by a space to separate a title from a subtitle, unless another form of punctuation (such as a question mark, period, or an exclamation point) is already present
  • Follow non-English titles with a translation whenever possible; place the translation in square brackets
  • End title information with a semicolon and a space

Specific Rules for Title

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Box 69

Titles for parts not in English.

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Box 70

Titles in more than one language.

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Box 71

Titles containing a Greek letter, chemical formula, or another special character.

Date of Publication for a Part of a Database on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Date of Publication

  • Enter the date of publication if it differs from the date of the database as a whole
  • Always give the year
  • Convert roman numerals to arabic numbers. For example: MM to 2000.
  • Include the month, if desired, after the year, such as 2004 May
  • Use English names for months and abbreviate them using the first three letters, such as Jan
  • End date information with a space

Specific Rules for Date of Publication

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Box 72

Locating the date of publication.

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Box 73

Multiple years of publication.

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Box 74

Non-English names for months.

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Box 75

Seasons instead of months.

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Box 76

Date of publication and date of copyright.

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Box 77

No date of publication, but a date of copyright.

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Box 78

No date of publication or copyright can be found.

Date of Update/Revision for a Part of a Database on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Date of Update/Revision

  • Parts of databases may be updated or revised separately from the database as a whole
  • Begin update/revision information with a left square bracket
  • Use whatever word for update or revision is provided, such as updated or modified
  • Always give the year of update/revision
  • Convert roman numerals to arabic numbers. For example: MM to 2000.
  • Include the month and day of update/revision, if provided, after the year, such as 2006 May 5
  • Use English names for months and abbreviate them using the first three letters, such as Jan
  • End update/revision information with a semicolon and a space

Specific Rules for Date of Update/Revision

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Box 79

Locating the date of update/revision.

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Box 80

Non-English names for months.

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Box 81

Seasons instead of months.

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Box 82

Both a date of update and a date of revision.

Date of Citation for Part of a Database on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Date of Citation

  • Include the date the part of a database was seen on the Internet
  • Give the year month and day in that order, such as 2006 May 5
  • Use English names for months and abbreviate them using the first three letters, such as Jan
  • If a date of update/revision is given, place the date of citation after it and follow both dates with a right square bracket
  • If no date of update/revision is given, place citation date information in square brackets
  • End date information with a semicolon placed outside the closing bracket

Specific Rules for Date of Citation

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Box 83

Both a date of update/revision and a date of citation.

Location (Pagination) of the Part of a Database on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Location (Pagination)

  • Give location as the total number of screens, paragraphs, lines, or bytes of the part, whichever is most practical
  • Precede the total with the word about and place it in square brackets, such as [about 5 screens]
  • If the part is printed, precede the page total with the word about and place it in square brackets, such as [about 10 p.]
  • End location information with a period placed outside the closing bracket

Availability for a Part of a Database on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Availability

  • Begin with the phrase "Available from" followed by a colon and a space
  • Insert the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) for the part in its entirety; do not omit http://, www, or other beginning components
  • Use the URL for the entire book if the part does not have its own URL
  • End with a period only if the URL ends with a slash, otherwise end with no punctuation

Specific Rules for Availability

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Breaking long URLs.

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URLs not directly addressable.

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Multiple URLs.

Language of the Part of a Database on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Language

  • Give the language of publication if not English
  • Capitalize the language name
  • Follow the language name with a period

Specific Rules for Language

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Parts appearing in more than one language.

Notes for a Part of a Database on the Internet (optional)

General Rules for Notes

  • Notes is a collective term for any further useful information given after the citation itself
  • Complete sentences are not required
  • Be brief

Specific Rules for Notes

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System requirements.

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Other types of material to include in notes.

Examples of Citations to Parts of Databases on the Internet

1. Standard part of a database on the Internet with name and number/letter

Online Archive of American Folk Medicine [Internet]. Los Angeles: Regents of the University of California. 1996 -   . Record No. 1928, Cataracts; [cited 2007 Feb 27]; [about 1 screen]. Available from: http://www.folkmed.ucla.edu/FMDetail.cfm?UID=1_928

Pfam [Internet]. Version 21.0. [place unknown]: Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. [date unknown] -   . Accession No. PF03061, 4HBT; [cited 2007 Feb 16]. Available from: http://www.sanger.ac.uk/cgi-bin/Pfam/getacc?PF03061

2. Standard part of a database on the Internet without a name or number/letter

Jablonski S. Online Multiple Congenital Anomaly/Mental Retardation (MCA/MR) Syndromes [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US), Medical Subject Headings Section; 2001 Apr. Tariverdian syndrome; [cited 2007 Mar 13]; [about 1 screen]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/archive/20061212/mesh/jablonski/cgi/jablonski/syndrome_cgi87d6.html?term=Tariverdian+syndrome&field=name

Cornell University Poisonous Plants Informational Database [Internet]. Ithaca (NY): Cornell University, Department of Animal Science. [date unknown] -   . Pyridine alkaloids; [updated 2001 Oct 4; cited 2007 Feb 16]; [about 2 screens]. Available from: http://www.ansci.cornell.edu/plants/toxicagents/pyridine.html

MeSH Browser (2011 MeSH) [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US), Medical Subject Headings Section. [1999] -   . Heart failure, systolic; [cited 2011 Jul 8]; [about 1 screen]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/cgi/mesh/2011/MB_cgi?mode=&index=24306

PubMed [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US). [1950] -   . Single citation matcher; [cited 2007 Feb 27]; [about 1 screen]. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query/static/citmatch.html

3. Part of a database on the Internet with a name inferred

WHOSIS: WHO Statistical Information System [Internet]. Geneva: World Health Organization. c2007 -   . [Table], GBD 2000: deaths by age, sex and cause for the year 2002; [cited 2007 Feb 16]; 1.19Mb. Available from: http://www.who.int/healthinfo/statistics/gbd1990regionmortality2002.xls

4. Part of a database on the Internet with title containing special scripts/characters

Current Controlled Trials [Internet]. London: BioMed Central. [date unknown] -   . ISRCTN13256080, A phase II study to investigate the effect of Glivec® (imatinib mesylate, formerly known as STI571) in patients with inoperable medullary thyroid carcinoma; 2007 Feb 23 [cited 2007 Feb 27]; [about 3 p.]. Available from: http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN13256080/.

Gene [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US), National Center for Biotechnology Information. [2004] -   . ADRA2A adrenergic, alpha-2A-, receptor [Homo sapiens]; [updated 2011 Jul 31; cited 2011 Aug 1]; [about 5 p.]. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene?term=150 Gene ID:150

FlyBase: a Database of Drosophila Genes & Genomes [Internet]. Version FB2006_01. Bloomington (IN): Indiana University. 2006 Dec 8 -   . Aberration Dmel\Ab(1;?)wm4000; [cited 2007 Feb 27]. Available from: http://flybase.bio.indiana.edu/reports/FBab0023371.html

or

FlyBase: a Database of Drosophila Genes & Genomes [Internet]. Version FB2006_01. Bloomington (IN): Indiana University. 2006 Dec 8 -   . Aberration Dmel\Ab(1;?)w(m4000); [cited 2007 Feb 27]. Available from: http://flybase.bio.indiana.edu/reports/FBab0023371.html

5. Part of a database on the Internet with a title in a language other than English

Depenses en Medicaments au Canada: base de donnees sur les depenses nationales de sante [Internet]. Ottawa (ON): Institut Canadien d'Information sur la Sante. 1985 - 2005. Tableau A.2, Partie 1, Depenses en medicaments par type, source de financement et en tant que part des depenses publiques, privees et totales de sante, Canada, de 1985 a 2005; [cited 2007 Mar 8]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: http://epe.lac-bac.gc.ca/100/201/300/cdn_institute_for_health/depenses_medicaments/1985-2005.pdf French.

with translation

Depenses en Medicaments au Canada: base de donnees sur les depenses nationales de sante [Canadian Drug Expenditures: database of national health expenditures] [Internet]. Ottawa (ON): Institut Canadien d'Information sur la Sante. 1985 - 2005. Tableau A.2, Partie 1, Depenses en medicaments par type, source de financement et en tant que part des depenses publiques, privees et totales de sante, Canada, de 1985 a 2005 [Table A.2, Part 1, Drug expenditures by type, source of financing, and how much was public expenditure, private expenditure, and totals for health, Canada, 1985-2005]; [cited 2007 Mar 8]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: http://epe.lac-bac.gc.ca/100/201/300/cdn_institute_for_health/depenses_medicaments/1985-2005.pdf French.

6. Part of a database on the Internet with a date of publication separate from the date of the database as a whole

Current Controlled Trials [Internet]. London: BioMed Central. [date unknown] -   . ISRCTN13256080, A phase II study to investigate the effect of Glivec® (imatinib mesylate, formerly known as STI571) in patients with inoperable medullary thyroid carcinoma; 2007 Feb 23 [cited 2007 Feb 27]; [about 3 p.]. Available from: http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN13256080/.

7. Part of a database on the Internet with a date of update/revision

Cornell University Poisonous Plants Informational Database [Internet]. Ithaca (NY): Cornell University, Department of Animal Science. [date unknown] -   . Pyridine alkaloids; [updated 2001 Oct 4; cited 2007 Feb 16]; [about 2 screens]. Available from: http://www.ansci.cornell.edu/plants/toxicagents/pyridine.html

Genetics Home Reference [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US). [2003] -   . Alzheimer disease; [updated 2008 Oct 20; reviewed 2006 Oct; cited 2008 Oct 22]; [about 6 screens]. Available from: http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition=alzheimerdisease

ProQolid: Patient-Reported Outcome and Quality of Life Instruments Database [Internet]. Lyon (France): Mapi Research Institute. c2001 -   . QUAlity of Life questionnaire In OSTeoporosis (QUALIOST®); [updated 2007 Jan; cited 2007 Feb 16]; [about 2 screens]. Available from: http://www.proqolid.org/instruments/quality_of_life_questionnaire_in_osteoporosis_qualiost_sup_r_sup

PDQ®: NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Cancer Institute (US). [date unknown] -   . Childhood cerebral astrocytoma/malignant glioma (PDQ®): treatment; [modified 2006 Jul 21; cited 2007 Feb 16]. Available from: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/treatment/child-cerebral-astrocytoma/healthprofessional/.

8. Part of a Database on the Internet with location (pagination) expressed as number of screens

IMGT/HLA Database [Internet]. Release 2.16.0. Cambridge (England): European Bioinformatics Institute. 2007 Jan 12 -   . Alleles with aberrant splice sites; [cited 2007 Feb 27]; [about 2 screens]. Available from: http://www.ebi.ac.uk/imgt/hla/help/splice_help.html

9. Part of a Database on the Internet with location (pagination) expressed as number of pages

Antimicrobial Resistance Information Bank [Internet]. Geneva: World Health Organization, Department of Communicable Disease Surveillance and Response, Anti-infective Drug Resistance and Containment Team. 1999 -   . Network Identifier INTssp-spn-sau, European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System -EARSS; 1999 Jul 2 [cited 2007 Feb 27]; [about 2 p.]. Available from: http://rhone.b3e.jussieu.fr/arinfobank/NetworkDisplay.php?id_network=85

Current Controlled Trials [Internet]. London: BioMed Central. [date unknown] -   . ISRCTN13256080, A phase II study to investigate the effect of Glivec® (imatinib mesylate, formerly known as STI571) in patients with inoperable medullary thyroid carcinoma; 2007 Feb 23 [cited 2007 Feb 27]; [about 3 p.]. Available from: http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN13256080/.

10. Part of a Database on the Internet with location (pagination) expressed as number of bytes

WHOSIS: WHO Statistical Information System [Internet]. Geneva: World Health Organization. c2007 -   . [Table], GBD 2000: deaths by age, sex and cause for the year 2002; [cited 2007 Feb 16]; 1.19Mb. Available from: http://www.who.int/healthinfo/statistics/gbd1990regionmortality2002.xls

11. Part of a Database on the Internet with hyperlinks so that the pagination (extent) cannot be provided

WormBase: the Biology and Genome of C. elegans [Internet]. Release WS170. [Pasadena (CA)]: California Institute of Technology. c1999 -   . Pedigree browser for MSaa; [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.wormbase.org/db/searches/pedigree?name=MSaa

Entrez Genome [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US), National Center for Biotechnology Information. [date unknown] -   . Haloarcula marismortui ATCC 43049 plasmid pNG200, complete sequence; [cited 2007 Feb 27]. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=genome&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=Overview&list_uids=18013

12. Part of a Database on the Internet with a URL not directly addressable

Reinhardt V, Reinhardt A. Environmental Enrichment for Primates: Annotated Database on Environmental Enrichment and Refinement of Husbandry for Nonhuman Primates [Internet]. Washington: Animal Welfare Institute. 1998 Jul 1 -   . Case 1896, Acute staphylococcal endocarditis; [cited 2007 Feb 16]; [about 1 screen]. Available from: http://project.lse.ualberta.ca/pathology/ by clicking on Keyword Search and entering the case number under Fast Find.

Cohen BA, Lehmann CU. dermatlas.org: Dermatology Image Atlas [Internet]. [Baltimore (MD)]: Johns Hopkins University. c2000 -   . Pellagra_1_031007; [updated 2007 Feb 19; cited 2007 Feb 27]; [about 1 screen]. Available from: http://dermatlas.med.jhmi.edu/derm/ by entering pellagra in the Quick Search box.

EARSS: the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System [Internet]. Bilthoven (Netherlands): RIVM. 2001 - 2005. Susceptibility results for E. coli isolates in Denmark (DK) in 2005; [cited 2007 Feb 16]; [about 1 screen]. Available from: http://www.rivm.nl/earss/database/ by selecting Denmark, 2005, E. coli, Aminoglycosides, Table.

Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed) [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US). [2006] -   . LactMed record number 323, Fluoxetine; [rev. 2007 Dec 27; cited 2009 Apr 2]; [about 3 p.]. Available from: http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/htmlgen?LACT by entering fluoxetine in the Search box. CASRN: 54910-89-3.

Drugs@FDA [Internet]. Silver Spring (MD): Food and Drug Administration (US), Center for Drug Evaluation and Research; [2004] -   . Demerol; [cited 2009 Apr 3]. Available from: http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cder/drugsatfda/index.cfm by entering demerol in the Search box and then selecting from the list of drug names retrieved.

13. Part of a Database on the Internet with a note

FlyBase: a Database of Drosophila Genes & Genomes [Internet]. Version FB2006_01. Bloomington (IN): Indiana University. 2006 Dec 8 -   . Aberration Dmel\Ab(1;?)wm4000; [cited 2007 Feb 27]. Available from: http://flybase.bio.indiana.edu/reports/FBab0023371.html System Requirements: Compatible with Internet Explorer Mac 5.2 and Internet Explorer 6; Internet Explorer 7 is incompatible.

WormBase: the Biology and Genome of C. elegans [Internet]. Release WS170. [Pasadena (CA)]: California Institute of Technology. c1999 -   . Pedigree browser for MSaa; [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.wormbase.org/db/searches/pedigree?name=MSaa WormBase is supported by a grant from the National Human Genome Research Institute at the US National Institutes of Health # P41 HG02223 and the British Medical Research Council.

C. Sample Citation and Introduction to Citing Contributions to Databases on the Internet

The general format for a reference to a contribution to a database on the Internet, including punctuation:

- without a separate date of publication for the contribution:

Illustration of the general format for a reference to a contribution to a
database on the Internet without a separate date of publication for the
contribution.

- with a separate date of publication for the contribution:

Illustration of the general format for a reference to a contribution to a
database on the Internet with a separate date of publication for the
contribution.

- with complete publication information for the contribution (see text below for clarification):

Illustration of the general format for a reference to a contribution to a
database on the Internet with complete publication information for the
contribution.

Examples of Citations to Contributions to Databases on the Internet

Contributions are separately identified records, sections, or other portions of Internet databases that are provided by individuals or organizations other than the database builders. They thus have distinct authorship.

There are two types of contributions: those written expressly for the database, such as a review produced for the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and those written for a primary publication such as a journal or book that is cited in the database. A journal article in a bibliographic database such as PubMed is an example of the latter. The first type of contribution contains only an author and title, and sometimes a date of publication; it has no place of publication, publisher, or other publication information separate from the database. The second type, however, contains full publication information.

A reference should start with the individual or organization with responsibility for the intellectual content of the publication. Begin a reference to a contribution with information about the contribution, followed by the word "In:" and information about the database. Use date of citation and the availability (URL) for the contribution, not the database.

Although directions are provided here for creating citations to items published elsewhere and cited in a database, this format for contributions should rarely be used in a reference list. Unless only information found in the database record is used, articles, books, and other publications should be located directly and cited as their original form. This will also assure that any possible errors introduced in creating the database record will not be continued.

In large bibliographies it is usually not practical to identify the source for each citation, but the overall sources used should be identified in introductory text.

Continue to Citation Rules with Examples for Contributions to Databases on the Internet.

Continue to Examples of Citations to Contributions to Databases on the Internet.

Citation Rules with Examples for Contributions to Databases on the Internet

Components/elements are listed in the order they should appear in a reference. An R after the component name means that it is required in the citation; an O after the name means it is optional.

Author (R) | Author Affiliation (O) | Title (R) | Publication Information (R) | Date of Update/Revision (R) | Date of Citation (R) | Connective Phrase (R) | Database (R) | Extent (Pagination) (R) | Availability (R) | Acquisition Number (O) | Language (R) | Notes (O)

Author of a Contribution to a Database on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Author

  • List names in the order they appear in the text
  • Enter surname (family or last name) first for each author
  • Capitalize names and enter spaces within surnames as they appear in the document cited on the assumption that the author approved the form used. For example: Van Der Horn or van der Horn; De Wolf or de Wolf or DeWolf.
  • Convert given (first) names and middle names to initials, for a maximum of two initials following each surname
  • Give all authors, regardless of the number
  • Separate author names from each other by a comma and a space
  • End author information with a period

Specific Rules for Author

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Surnames with hyphens and other punctuation in them.

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Other surname rules.

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Given names containing punctuation, a prefix, a preposition, or particle.

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Degrees, titles, and honors before or after a personal name.

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Designations of rank in a family, such as Jr and III.

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Names in non-roman alphabets (Cyrillic, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Korean) or character-based languages (Chinese, Japanese).

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Organizations as author.

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Options for author names.

Author Affiliation for a Contribution to a Database on the Internet (optional)

General Rules for Author Affiliation

  • Enter the affiliation of all authors or only the first author
  • Begin with the department and name of the institution, followed by city and state/Canadian province/country
  • Use commas to separate parts of the affiliation
  • Place the affiliation in parentheses, such as (Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA)
  • Separate the affiliation from its author by a space
  • Follow the affiliation with a comma placed outside the closing parenthesis, unless it is the affiliation of the last author, then use a period

Specific Rules for Author Affiliation

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Abbreviations in affiliations.

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E-mail address included.

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Organizational names for affiliations not in English.

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Names for cities and countries not in English.

Title of a Contribution to a Database on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Title

  • Enter the title of the contribution as it appears in the database, in the original language
  • Capitalize only the first word of a title, proper nouns, proper adjectives, acronyms, and initialisms
  • Use a colon followed by a space to separate a title from a subtitle unless some other form of punctuation (such as a question mark, period, or an exclamation point) is already present
  • Follow non-English titles with a translation whenever possible; place the translation in square brackets
  • End a title with a period unless a question mark or exclamation point already ends it

Specific Rules for Title

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Titles not in English.

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Titles in more than one language.

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Titles containing a Greek letter, chemical formula, or another special character.

Publication Information for a Contribution to a Database on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Publication Information

  • If the contribution is an item published elsewhere and cited in the database, provide complete publication information according to the other chapters in this guide, i.e. Chapter 1A for journal articles, Chapter 2 for books, etc.
  • If the contribution was written for the database, enter the date of publication (when provided) if it differs from the date of the database as a whole
  • Always give the year of publication
  • Convert roman numerals to arabic numbers. For example: MM to 2000.
  • Include the month and day of publication, if desired, after the year, such as 2004 May 13
  • Use English names for months and abbreviate them using the first three letters, such as Jan
  • End date information with a space

Specific Rules for Date of Publication

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Locating the date of publication.

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Multiple years of publication.

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Non-English names for months.

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Seasons instead of months.

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Date of publication and date of copyright.

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No date of publication, but a date of copyright.

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No date of publication or copyright can be found.

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Options for date of publication.

Date of Update/Revision for a Contribution to a Database on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Date of Update/Revision

  • Contributions to databases may be updated or revised separately from the database as a whole
  • Begin update/revision information with a left square bracket
  • Use whatever word for update or revision is provided, such as updated or modified
  • Always give the year of update/revision
  • Convert roman numerals to arabic numbers. For example: MM to 2000.
  • Include the month and day of update/revision, if provided, after the year, such as 2006 May 5
  • Use English names for months and abbreviate them using the first three letters, such as Jan
  • End update/revision information with a semicolon and a space

Specific Rules for Date of Update/Revision

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Locating the date of update/revision.

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Non-English names for months.

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Seasons instead of months.

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Both a date of update and a date of revision.

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Database also has a date of update/revision.

Date of Citation for a Contribution to a Database on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Date of Citation

  • Give the date the contribution was seen on the Internet
  • Include the year month and day in that order, such as 2006 May 5
  • Use English names for months and abbreviate them using the first three letters, such as Jan
  • If a Date of Update/Revision is given, place the date of citation after it and follow both dates with a right square bracket
  • If no date of update/revision is given, place citation date information in square brackets
  • End date information with a period placed outside the closing bracket

Specific Rules for Date of Citation

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Both a date of update/revision and a date of citation.

Connective Phrase for a Contribution to a Database on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Connective Phrase

  • Place a space and the word "In" after the title (and any dates) of the contribution
  • Follow "In" with a colon and a space

Database on the Internet (required)

General Rules for a Database on the Internet

Extent (Pagination) (required)

General Rules for Extent (Pagination)

  • If the extent is not provided by the database, calculate the extent as the total number of screens, paragraphs, lines, or bytes of the database record or other contribution, whichever is most practical
  • If the extent is calculated, precede the total with the word about and place it in square brackets, such as [about 15 screens]
  • If the contribution is printed, precede the page total with the word about and place it in square brackets, such as [about 10 p.]
  • If the contribution contains hyperlinks, it is not possible to provide the extent
  • End extent information with a period

Specific Rules for Extent (Pagination)

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Extent for items published elsewhere and cited in the database.

Availability for a Contribution to a Database on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Availability

  • Begin with the phrase "Available from" followed by a colon and a space
  • Insert the entire Uniform Resource Locator (URL); do not omit http://, www, or other beginning components
  • End with a period only if the URL ends with a slash, otherwise end with no punctuation

Specific Rules for Availability

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Breaking long URLs.

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URLs not directly addressable.

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Multiple URLs.

Acquisition Number for a Contribution to a Database (optional)

General Rules for Acquisition Number

  • Give the record number or other acquisition number assigned to the contribution by the database
  • Precede the number with the identifying wording used by the database, such as Record No. or PMID
  • Use Acquisition No. if the database does not identify the number
  • Follow the wording with a colon and a space, then add the number, such as PMID: 17236284
  • End number information with a period

Language for a Contribution to a Database on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Language

  • Give the language of publication of the contribution if not English
  • Capitalize the language name
  • Follow the language name with a period

Specific Rules for Language

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Contributions appearing in more than one language.

Notes for a Contribution to a Database on the Internet (optional)

General Rules for Notes

  • Notes is a collective term for any further useful information given after the citation itself
  • Complete sentences are not required
  • Be brief

Specific Rules for Notes

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System requirements.

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Other types of material to include in notes.

Examples of Citations to Contributions to Databases on the Internet

1. Standard contribution to a database on the Internet without a separate date for the item

Kadonaga J. Preparation of a highly efficient transcription extract from Drosophila embryos. [cited 2007 Feb 1]. In: bioProtocol: a Bio Online Site [Internet]. Emeryville (CA): Bio.Com. c1992 -   . [about 5 p.]. Available from: http://bioprotocol.bio.com/protocolstools/protocol.jhtml?id=p9052

2. Standard contribution to a database on the Internet with a separate date for the item

Bunyavejchevin S, Phupong V. Laparoscopic surgery for presumed benign ovarian tumor during pregnancy. 2006 Oct 18 [amended 2007 Jun 14; cited 2007 Feb 20]. In: The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews [Internet]. Hoboken (NJ): John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. c1999 -   . 129K. Available from: http://www.mrw.interscience.wiley.com/cochrane/clsysrev/articles/CD005459/pdf_fs.html Record No.: CD005459.

Cannon R. Rilonacept to improve artery function in patients with atherosclerosis. 2006 Dec 29 [last updated 2012 Apr 25; results first received 2009 Sep 14; cited 2015 Apr 25]. In: ClinicalTrials.gov [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): U.S. National Library of Medicine. 2000 -   . Available from: http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00417417 ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00417417.

Cannon R. Rilonacept to improve artery function in patients with atherosclerosis. 2006 Dec 29 [last updated 2012 Apr 25]. In: ClinicalTrials.gov [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): U.S. National Library of Medicine. 2000 -   . Study results [results first received 2009 Sep 14; cited 2015 Apr 25]. Available from: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/results/NCT00417417 ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00417417 Study Results tab.

Jordan S, Schnepf M, Boeckner L. Hispanic food frequency. 1996 Sep 20 [cited 2007 Feb 16]. In: Nutrition Education for Diverse Audiences [Internet]. Urbana (IL): University of Illinois, College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences. [date unknown] -   . [about 1 screen]. Available from: http://necd.aces.uiuc.edu/inter2_search.cgi?ind=853868171

Rotchford JK. Single-use acupuncture needles: scanning electron-microscopy of needle-tips [review]. 2002 Apr [cited 2007 Mar 9]. In: Rotchford JK, editor. Acubriefs.com [Internet]. Port Townsend (WA): Best of Both Worlds Foundation. [date unknown] -   . [about 3 screens]. Available from: http://www.acubriefs.com/wkstone/webkeystone.py?Profile=ABarticles/search_whole_review.prof&ReviewID=146&UserID=biz_acubriefs Review ID: 146.

British Cardiovascular Intervention Society. Number of coronary bypass operations and percutaneous coronary interventions per year 1980-2004, United Kingdom. 2005 [cited 2007 Mar 9]. In: Allender S, Peto V, Rayner M, Scarborough P, Boxer A. heartstats: British Heart Foundation Statistics Database [Internet]. London: British Heart Foundation. c2003 -   [updated 2006 Nov 3]. [about 2 screens]. Available from: http://www.heartstats.org/temp/Figsp3.3spweb06.xls

Sanofi-Aventis U.S. LLC. Ambien cr (zolpidem tartrate) tablet, coated. 2007 [rev. 2007 Sep; cited 2009 Apr]. In: DailyMed [Internet]. [2005] -   . [about 20 p.]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US). Available from: http://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?id=5420

3. Standard contribution to a database on the Internet with complete publication information for the item

Frank CD, Adler DG. Post-ERCP pancreatitis and its prevention. Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006 Dec [cited 2007 Mar 9];3(12):680-8. In: PubMed [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US). [1950] -   . [about 1 screen]. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=17130878&query_hl=2&itool=pubmed_docsum PMID: 17130878.

Beaver BV. The veterinarian's encyclopedia of animal behavior. Ames (IA): Iowa State University Press; 1994 [cited 2007 Mar 9]. 307 p. In: WorldCat [Internet]. Dublin (OH): OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc. 1971 -   . [about 2 screens]. Available from: http://firstsearch.oclc.org/WebZ/FSFETCH?fetchtype=fullrecord:sessionid=fsappd-50507-ez31hdf6-76zk93:entitypagenum=15:0:recno=1:resultset=3:format=FI:next=html/record.html:bad=error/badfetch.html:entitytoprecno=1:entitycurrecno=1:numrecs=1 Accession No: OCLC: 30700481.

4. Contribution to a database on the Internet with organization as author

British Cardiovascular Intervention Society. Number of coronary bypass operations and percutaneous coronary interventions per year 1980-2004, United Kingdom. 2005 [cited 2007 Mar 9]. In: Allender S, Peto V, Rayner M, Scarborough P, Boxer A. heartstats: British Heart Foundation Statistics Database [Internet]. London: British Heart Foundation. c2003 -   [updated 2006 Nov 3]. [about 2 screens]. Available from: http://www.heartstats.org/temp/Figsp3.3spweb06.xls

5. Contribution to a database on the Internet with author affiliation

Kadonaga J (University of California, San Diego, CA). Preparation of a highly efficient transcription extract from Drosophila embryos. [cited 2007 Feb 1]. In: bioProtocol: a Bio Online Site [Internet]. Emeryville (CA): Bio.Com. c1992 -   . [about 5 p.]. Available from: http://bioprotocol.bio.com/protocolstools/protocol.jhtml?id=p9052

6. Contribution to a database on the Internet with title in a language other than English

Stegenga B, de Bont LG. [Diagnosis and classification of orofacial pain by dental and general practitioners]. Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd. 2006 Nov [cited 2007 Mar 9];113(11):437-41. In: PubMed [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US). [1950] -   . Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=17147024&query_hl=6&itool=pubmed_docsum PMID: 17147024. Dutch.

Piccot-Crezollet C, Casamatta JM, Lepage OM. [Digital semiological anesthesia in horses: technique and elements of interpretation]. Can Vet J. 2005 Sep [cited 2007 Mar 9];46(9):807-13. In: Agricola [Internet]. Beltsville (MD): National Agricultural Library (US). [date unknown] -   . [about 3 screens]. Available from: http://agricola.nal.usda.gov/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?DB=local&CNT=20&CMD=horse&SL=Submit&DATE=2000&DTBL=G%7C&LANG=FRE%7C&STARTDB=AGRIDB Call No.: 41.8 R3224. French.

Loyber I, Varela SB. Bases neurofisiologicas del dolor: dolor referido. Cordoba (Argentina): Universitas; c2002 [cited 2007 Mar 9]. 94 p. In: LocatorPlus [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US). [date unknown] -   . [about 1 screen]. Available from: http://locatorplusv2.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?Search_Arg=101178678&Search_Code=FT*&PID=t@ODl%3COIo@ODm@%3EHs@%3EIm@NIo@%3F%3C&SEQ=20070312150312&CNT=25&HIST=1 NLM Unique ID: 101178678. Spanish.

with translation of original language provided

Stegenga B, de Bont LG. Diagnostiek en classificatie van orofaciale pijnen in de eerste lijn [Diagnosis and classification of orofacial pain by dental and general practitioners]. Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd. 2006 Nov [cited 2007 Mar 9];113(11):437-41. In: PubMed [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US). [1950] -   . Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=17147024&query_hl=6&itool=pubmed_docsum PMID: 17147024. Dutch.

Piccot-Crezollet C, Casamatta JM, Lepage OM. Anesthesies semiologiques digitales chez le cheval: technique et elements d'interpretation [Digital semiological anesthesia in horses: technique and elements of interpretation]. Can Vet J. 2005 Sep [cited 2007 Mar 9];46(9):807-13. In: Agricola [Internet]. Beltsville (MD): National Agricultural Library (US). [date unknown] -   . [about 3 screens]. Available from: http://agricola.nal.usda.gov/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?DB=local&CNT=20&CMD=horse&SL=Submit&DATE=2000&DTBL=G%7C&LANG=FRE%7C&STARTDB=AGRIDB French.

Loyber I, Varela SB. Bases neurofisiologicas del dolor: dolor referido [Neurophysiological basis of pain: referred pain]. Cordoba (Argentina): Universitas; c2002. 94 p. In: LocatorPlus [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US). [date unknown] -   . [about 1 screen]. Available from: http://locatorplusv2.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?Search_Arg=101178678&Search_Code=FT*&PID=t@ODl%3COIo@ODm@%3EHs@%3EIm@NIo@%3F%3C&SEQ=20070312150312&CNT=25&HIST=1 NLM Unique ID: 101178678. Spanish.

7. Contribution to a database on the Internet with date of update/revision

Bunyavejchevin S, Phupong V. Laparoscopic surgery for presumed benign ovarian tumor during pregnancy. 2006 Oct 18 [amended 2007 Jun 14; cited 2007 Feb 20]. In: The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews [Internet]. Hoboken (NJ): John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. c1999 -   . 129K. Available from: http://www.mrw.interscience.wiley.com/cochrane/clsysrev/articles/CD005459/pdf_fs.html Record No.: CD005459.

8. Contribution to a database on the Internet with extent provided by the database

Bunyavejchevin S, Phupong V. Laparoscopic surgery for presumed benign ovarian tumor during pregnancy. 2006 Oct 18 [amended 2007 Jun 14; cited 2007 Feb 20]. In: The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews [Internet]. Hoboken (NJ): John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. c1999 -   . 129K. Available from: http://www.mrw.interscience.wiley.com/cochrane/clsysrev/articles/CD005459/pdf_fs.html Record No.: CD005459.

Di Stefano B, Collombet S, Graf T. Time-resolved gene expression profiling during reprogramming of C/EBPα-pulsed B cells into iPS cells [dataset]. 2014 May 22 [cited 2014 Oct 6]. In: figshare [Internet]. London: Digital Science. 2011 Jan -   . 53.76 MB. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.939408 Referenced in doi: 10.1038/sdata.2014.8

Silver D, Macinko J. State health policy research dataset (SHEPRD): 1980-2010 (ICPSR 34789) [dataset]. 2013 Oct 3 [revised 2014 Sep 24; cited 2014 Oct 29]. In: Health and Medical Care Archive [Internet]. Ann Arbor (MI): University of Michigan, Institute for Social Research, Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research. [date unknown] -   . 3.1 MB. Available from: http://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR34789.v3 Related article in PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3482037.

9. Contribution to a database on the Internet with extent calculated

Jordan S, Schnepf M, Boeckner L. Hispanic food frequency. 1996 Sep 20 [cited 2007 Mar 9]. In: Nutrition Education for Diverse Audiences [Internet]. Urbana (IL): University of Illinois, College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences. [date unknown] -   . [about 1 screen]. Available from: http://necd.aces.uiuc.edu/inter2_search.cgi?ind=853868171

Phillips JA 3rd. Cortisone reductase deficiency. 2000 May [updated 2007 May 22; cited 2009 Jun 15]. In: Hamosh A, editor. Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, OMIM [Internet]. Baltimore (MD): Johns Hopkins University, McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine. c1966-2009. [about 3 p.]. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/dispomim.cgi?id=604931

Van Marck VL, Bracke ME. Epithelial-mesenchymal transitions in human cancer. [2003?] [cited 2010 Jun 9]. In: Madame Curie Bioscience Database [Internet]. Austin (TX): Landes Bioscience. 2000 -   . [about 26 p.]. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bookshelf/br.fcgi?book=eurekah&part=A32382

10. Contribution to a database on the Internet with an acquisition number

Bunyavejchevin S, Phupong V. Laparoscopic surgery for presumed benign ovarian tumor during pregnancy. 2006 Oct 18 [amended 2007 Jun 14; cited 2007 Feb 20]. In: The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews [Internet]. Hoboken (NJ): John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. c1999 -   . 129K. Available from: http://www.mrw.interscience.wiley.com/cochrane/clsysrev/articles/CD005459/pdf_fs.html Record No.: CD005459.

Couzos S, Murray RB, editors. Aboriginal primary health care: an evidence-based approach. 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press; 2003 [cited 2007 Mar 9]. 658 p. In: LocatorPlus [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US). [date unknown] -   . [about 1 screen]. Available from: http://locatorplusv2.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?Search_Arg=101195240&Search_Code=FT*&PID=lPoRW%3D_IlHOHp@oRqXoRm@oRo%3C%3C%3C&SEQ=20070309151319&CNT=25&HIST=1 NLM Unique ID: 101195240.

11. Contribution to a database on the Internet with a note

Beaver BV. The veterinarian's encyclopedia of animal behavior. Ames (IA): Iowa State University Press; 1994 [cited 2007 Mar 9]. 307 p. In: WorldCat [Internet]. Dublin (OH): OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc. 1971 -   . [about 2 screens]. Available from: http://firstsearch.oclc.org/WebZ/FSFETCH?fetchtype=fullrecord:sessionid=fsappd-50507-ez31hdf6-76zk93:entitypagenum=15:0:recno=1:resultset=3:format=FI:next=html/record.html:bad=error/badfetch.html:entitytoprecno=1:entitycurrecno=1:numrecs=1 Accession No: OCLC: 30700481. Subscription required to view.

Dubuis JO, Samanta R, Gregor T. Accurate measurements of dynamics and reproducibility in small genetic networks [dataset]. 2013 Jan 22 [cited 2014 Oct 2]. In: Dryad Digital Repository [Internet]. Durham (NC): Dryad. 2008 Jan -   . Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.5061/dryad.35h8v Referenced in PubMed PMID: 2334085.

[Jacobs B]. NeuroMorpho.Org ID: NMO_03472; neuron name: 1-10-10 [dataset]. 2008 May 16 [cited 2015 Jun 3]. In: NeuroMorpho.Org [Internet]. Fairfax (VA): George Mason University. c2006-2015. Available from: http://neuromorpho.org/neuroMorpho/neuron_info.jsp?neuron_name=1-10-10 Related article reference in PubMed PMID: 11375917.

Rotchford JK. Single-use acupuncture needles: scanning electron-microscopy of needle-tips [review]. 2002 Apr [cited 2007 Mar 9]. In: Rotchford JK, editor. Acubriefs.com [Internet]. Port Townsend (WA): Best of Both Worlds Foundation. [date unknown] -   . [about 3 screens]. Available from: http://www.acubriefs.com/wkstone/webkeystone.py?Profile=ABarticles/search_whole_review.prof&ReviewID=146&UserID=biz_acubriefs Review ID: 146. Acubriefs was established by a grant from the Medical Acupuncture Research Foundation (MARF).

Zheng LY, Guo XS, He B, Sun LJ, Peng Y, Dong SS, Liu TF, Jiang S, Ramachandran S, Liu CM, Jing HC. Genome data from sweet and grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) [dataset]. 2011 Nov 12 [cited 2014 Oct 3]. In: GigaDB [Internet]. [London: BioMed Central]. [2011?] -   . Available from: http://gigadb.org/dataset/100012 doi: 10.5524/100012 Referenced in PubMed PMID: 22104744.