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Patrias K, author; Wendling D, editor. Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers [Internet]. 2nd edition. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2007-.

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Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers [Internet]. 2nd edition.

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Chapter 3Conference Publications

Created: ; Last Update: August 11, 2015.

A. Conference Proceedings

B. Conference Papers

C. Parts of Conference Papers

See also:

Chapter 12 Papers and Poster Sessions Presented at Meetings

A. Sample Citation and Introduction to Citing Conference Proceedings

The general format for a reference to a conference proceedings, including punctuation:

- with a title for the book of proceedings as well as a conference title:

Illustration of the general format for a reference to a conference
proceedings with a title for the book of proceedings as well as a conference
title.

- with only a conference title:

Illustration of the general format for a reference to a conference
proceedings with only a conference title

Examples of Citations to Conference Proceedings

Conference proceedings are a collection of the papers presented at a conference, symposium, congress, or other meeting. They share many characteristics with books; the major difference in citing them lies in their titles and in the provision of information about the dates and places of the conferences.

Conference proceedings always have a conference title. They often have two titles: the title of the book of proceedings (often the name of the specific conference) and the title of the conference. Many organizations hold annual numbered meetings, each of which has a specific topic or theme. For example, "Addressing patient needs: access, parity and humane care." is the name (book title) of the160th Annual Meeting of the American Psychiatric Association (conference title). When both titles are present, give the book title first.

Confusion arises if people preparing references to conference proceedings believe that the date and location of the conference take the place of the date and place of publication. Proceedings are frequently published a year or more after the conference was held, and there is often no correlation between the location of the publisher and the location of the conference. Sponsors of the conference are also often not the publisher.

Citations to conference proceedings involve placing information about the conference in a prescribed format and order, with prescribed punctuation, regardless of the order and punctuation given in the text. For example, if the title page reads:

  • Society for Laboratory Animal Welfare
  • Forty-third Annual Meeting
  • San Francisco
  • June 3-5, 2005

The format and order for the citation should be:

  • 43rd Annual Meeting of the Society for Laboratory Animal Welfare; 2005 Jun 3-5; San Francisco.

In addition, because conference proceedings are a collection of papers, they have editors, not authors. Editors are usually considered secondary authors and placed after the title, but since no authors are present in proceedings, place their editors in the author position at the beginning of the reference.

The chief source for information about a proceedings is its title page. The back of the title page, called the verso or copyright page, and the cover of the book of proceedings are additional sources of authoritative information not found on the title page.

Conference papers are cited in the same way as contributions to books. See Chapter 3B Conference Papers for details. For information on citing papers presented at conferences but never published, see Chapter 12 Papers and Poster Sessions Presented at Meetings. For a proceedings appearing on the Internet, see Chapter 18 Books and Other Individual Titles on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk and Chapter 22 Books and Other Individual Titles on the Internet.

Continue to Citation Rules with Examples for Conference Proceedings.

Continue to Examples of Citations to Conference Proceedings.

Citation Rules with Examples for Conference Proceedings

Components/elements are listed in the order they should appear in a reference. An R after the component name means that it is required in the citation; an O after the name means it is optional.

Editor (R) | Editor Affiliation (O) | Book Title (R) | Type of Medium (R) | Conference Number (R) | Conference Title (R) | Date of Conference (O) | Place of Conference (O) | Type of Medium (if no title) (R) | Edition (R) | Other Secondary Authors (O) | Place of Publication (R) | Publisher (R) | Date of Publication (R) | Pagination (O) | Physical Description (O) | Series (O) | Language (R) | Notes (O)

Editor for Conference Proceedings (required)

General Rules for Editor

  • List names in the order they appear in the text
  • Enter surname (family or last name) first for each editor
  • Capitalize surnames and enter spaces within surnames as they appear in the document cited on the assumption that the editor approved the form used. For example: Van Der Horn or van der Horn; De Wolf or de Wolf or DeWolf.
  • Convert given (first) names and middle names to initials for a maximum of two initials following each surname
  • Give all editors, regardless of the number
  • Separate editor names from each other by a comma and a space
  • Follow the last named editor with a comma and the word editor or editors
  • End editor information with a period

Specific Rules for Editor

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Surnames with hyphens and other punctuation in them.

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Other surname rules.

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Given names containing punctuation, a prefix, a preposition, or particle.

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Degrees, titles, and honors before or after a personal name.

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Designations of rank in a family, such as Jr and III.

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Names in non-roman alphabets (Cyrillic, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Korean) or character-based languages (Chinese, Japanese).

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Non-English words for editor.

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No editor can be found.

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Options for editor names.

Editor Affiliation for Conference Proceedings (optional)

General Rules for Editor Affiliation

  • Enter the affiliation of all editors or only the first editor
  • Begin with the department and name of the institution, followed by city and state/Canadian province/country
  • Use commas to separate parts of the address
  • Place the affiliation in parentheses, such as (Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA)
  • Separate the affiliation from its editor by a space
  • Follow the affiliation with a comma which falls outside the closing parenthesis

Specific Rules for Editor Affiliation

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Abbreviations in affiliations.

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E-mail address included.

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Organizational names for affiliations not in English.

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Names for cities and countries not in English.

Example Entries for Editor Affiliation

Book Title for Conference Proceedings (required)

General Rules for Book Title

  • Enter the title of a book as it appears in the original document, in the original language
  • Capitalize only the first word of a title, proper nouns, proper adjectives, acronyms, and initialisms
  • Use a colon followed by a space to separate a title from a subtitle, unless some other form of punctuation (such as a question mark, period, or an exclamation point) is already present
  • Follow non-English titles with a translation whenever possible; place the translation in square brackets
  • End a title with a period unless a question mark or exclamation point already ends it or a Type of Medium follows it (see below)

Specific Rules for Book Title

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Book titles not in English.

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Book titles in more than one language.

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Book titles containing a Greek letter, chemical formula, or another special character.

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No book title can be found.

Type of Medium for Conference Proceedings (required)

General Rules for Type of Medium

  • Indicate the specific type of medium (microfiche, ultrafiche, microfilm, microcard, etc.) following the title when a proceedings is published in a microform
  • Place the name of the medium in square brackets and end with a period, such as [microfiche].
  • Add information about the medium according to the instructions under Physical Description below
  • See Chapter 15 for proceedings in audiovisual formats and Chapter 18 and Chapter 22 for proceedings in electronic formats

Specific Rules for Type of Medium

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Book titles ending in punctuation other than a period.

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Book titles not in English.

Example Entries for Type of Medium

Conference Number for Conference Proceedings (required)

General Rules for Conference Number

  • Express conference numbers in arabic ordinals. For example: Second becomes 2nd and III becomes 3rd.
  • Enter a space following the number

Specific Rules for Conference Number

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Numbers not in English.

Conference Title for Conference Proceedings (required)

General Rules for Conference Title

  • Enter the title of the conference as it appears in the original document, in the original language
  • Capitalize all significant words in the title (i.e., do not capitalize of, the, and, etc.)
  • Use a colon followed by a space to separate a title from a subtitle, unless another form of punctuation (such as a question mark, period, or an exclamation point) is already present
  • Follow non-English titles with a translation whenever possible; place the translation in square brackets
  • End the conference title with a semicolon unless no Date and Place of the Conference (see below) are provided, then end with a period

Specific Rules for Conference Title

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Conference titles not in English.

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Conference titles in more than one language.

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Conference titles containing a Greek letter, chemical formula, or another special character.

Date of Conference for Conference Proceedings (optional)

General Rules for Date of Conference

  • Use inclusive dates on which the conference was held
  • The format for conference date information is year, month, beginning day, hyphen, ending day. For example: 2005 Mar 20-24.
  • Convert roman numerals to arabic numbers. For example: MM to 2000.
  • Use English names for months and abbreviate them using the first three letters, such as Jan
  • End date information with a semicolon unless no Place of the Conference (see below) is provided, then end with a period

Specific Rules for Date of Conference

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Dates cross months.

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Dates cross years.

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Non-English names for months.

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Seasons instead of months.

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No date for the conference can be found.

Place of Conference for Conference Proceedings (optional)

General Rules for Place of Conference

  • Include the city in which the conference was held
  • Follow US and Canadian cities with the two-letter abbreviation for the state or province (see Appendix E) to avoid confusion when citing lesser known cities or when cities in different locations have the same name, such as Palm Springs, CA and Palm Springs, FL
  • Follow cities in other countries with the name of the country, either written out or as the two-letter ISO country code (see Appendix D), when citing lesser known cities or when cities in different locations have the same name, such as London, ON and London, England
  • Use the anglicized form for a non-US city, such as Munich for Munchen
  • End place information with a period

Specific Rules for Place of Conference

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Optional inclusion of institution where conference was held.

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Non-US cities.

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No place for the conference can be found.

Type of Medium (if no title) for Conference Proceedings (required)

General Rules for Type of Medium (if no title)

  • If the proceedings has no book title, place the type of medium (microfiche, ultrafiche, microfilm, microcard, etc.) following the place of the conference when a proceedings is published in a microform
  • Place the name of the medium in square brackets and end it with a period, such as [microfiche]
  • Add information about the medium according to the instructions under Physical Description below
  • See Chapter 15 for proceedings in audiovisual formats and Chapter 18 and Chapter 22 for proceedings in electronic formats

Example Entries for Type of Medium (if no title)

Edition for Conference Proceedings (required)

General Rules for Edition

  • Indicate the edition/version being cited when a proceedings is published in more than one edition or version
  • Abbreviate common words (see Abbreviation rules for editions below)
  • Capitalize only the first word of the edition statement, proper nouns, and proper adjectives
  • Express numbers representing editions in arabic ordinals. For example: second becomes 2nd and III becomes 3rd.
  • End the edition statement with a period
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Abbreviation rules for editions.

Specific Rules for Edition

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Non-English words for editions.

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First editions.

Example Entries for Edition

Other Secondary Authors for Conference Proceedings (optional)

General Rules for Other Secondary Authors

  • A secondary author for a proceedings modifies the work of the editor. Examples include translators and illustrators.
  • Use the same rules for the format of names presented in Editor above
  • Follow the last named secondary author with a comma and the role played. For example: the word illustrator or illustrators, translator or translators.
  • End secondary author information with a period
  • If there is no editor, move any translators to the editor position in the reference

Specific Rules for Other Secondary Authors

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More than one type of secondary author.

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Secondary author performing more than one role.

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Non-English names for secondary authors.

Example Entries for Other Secondary Authors

Place of Publication for Conference Proceedings (required)

General Rules for Place of Publication

  • Place is defined as the city where the book of proceedings was published
  • Follow US and Canadian cities with the two-letter abbreviation for the state or province (see Appendix E) to avoid confusion when citing lesser known cities or when cities in different locations have the same name, such as Palm Springs (CA) and Palm Springs (FL)
  • Follow cities in other countries with the name of the country, either written out or as the two-letter ISO country code (see Appendix D), when citing lesser known cities or when cities in different locations have the same name, such as London (ON) and London (England)
  • Use the anglicized form for a non-US city, such as Vienna for Wein
  • End place information with a colon

Specific Rules for Place of Publication

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Non-US cities.

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Joint publication.

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Multiple places of publication.

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No place of publication can be found.

Publisher for Conference Proceedings (required)

General Rules for Publisher

  • Record the name of the publisher as it appears in the publication, using whatever capitalization and punctuation is found there
  • Abbreviate well-known publisher names with caution to avoid confusion. For example, "John Wiley & Sons, Ltd." may become simply "Wiley".
  • When a division or other subsidiary part of a publisher appears in the publication, enter the publisher name first. For example: McGraw-Hill, Health Professions Division.
  • End publisher information with a semicolon

Specific Rules for Publisher

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Abbreviated words in publisher names.

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Non-English names for publishers.

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Government agencies and other national and international bodies as publisher.

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Joint publication.

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Multiple publishers.

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No publisher can be found.

Date of Publication for Conference Proceedings (required)

General Rules for Date of Publication

  • Always give the year of publication
  • Convert roman numerals to arabic numbers. For example: MM to 2000.
  • Include the month of publication, if desired, after the year, such as 2004 May
  • Use English names for months and abbreviate them using the first three letters, such as Jan
  • End date information with a period

Specific Rules for Date of Publication

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Multiple years of publication.

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Non-English names for months.

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Seasons instead of months.

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Date of publication and date of copyright.

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No date of publication, but a date of copyright.

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No date of publication or copyright can be found.

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Options for date of publication.

Pagination for Conference Proceedings (optional)

General Rules for Pagination

  • Give the total number of pages on which the text of the book appears
  • Do not count pages for items such as introductory material, appendixes, and indexes unless they are included in the pagination of the text
  • Follow the page total with a space and the letter p
  • For books published in more than one physical volume, cite the total number of volumes instead of the number of pages, such as 4 vol.
  • End pagination information with a period

Specific Rules for Pagination

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Roman numerals used as page numbers.

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No numbers appear on the pages of the proceedings.

Physical Description for Conference Proceedings (optional)

General Rules for Physical Description

  • Give information on the physical characteristics if a book of proceedings is published in a microform (microfilm, microfiche, etc.), such as 3 microfiche: black & white, 2 x 4 in.

Specific Rules for Physical Description

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Language for describing physical characteristics.

Example Entries for Physical Description

Series for Conference Proceedings (optional)

General Rules for Series

  • Begin with the name of the series
  • Capitalize only the first word and proper nouns
  • Follow the name with any numbers provided. For example, vol. 3 for a volume or no. 12 for an issue number.
  • Separate the title and the number by a semicolon and a space
  • Place series information in parentheses
  • End series information with a period placed outside the closing parenthesis

Specific Rules for Series

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Series editor's name provided.

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Proceedings published as part of more than one series.

Language for Conference Proceedings (required)

General Rules for Language

  • Give the language of publication if not English
  • Capitalize the language name
  • Follow the language name with a period

Specific Rules for Language

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Proceedings appearing in more than one language.

Notes for Conference Proceedings (optional)

General Rules for Notes

  • Notes is a collective term for any type of useful information given after the citation itself
  • Complete sentences are not required
  • Be brief

Specific Rules for Notes

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Proceedings accompanied by a videocassette, CD-ROM, DVD, etc.

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Other types of material to include in notes.

Examples of Citations to Conference Proceedings

1. Standard proceedings with a book title in addition to the conference title

van Pelt J, Kamermans M, Levelt CN, van Ooyen A, Ramakers GJA, Roelfsema PR, editors. Development, dynamics, and pathology of neuronal networks: from molecules to functional circuits. Proceedings of the 23rd International Summer School of Brain Research; 2003 Aug 25-29; Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 2005. 385 p. (Progress in brain research; vol. 147).

Ferreira de Oliveira MJ, editor. Accessibility and quality of health services. Proceedings of the 28th Meeting of the European Working Group on Operational Research Applied to Health Services (ORAHS); 2002 Jul 28-Aug 2; Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Frankfurt (Germany): Peter Lang; c2004. 287 p.

Furton EJ, Dort V, editors. Addiction and compulsive behaviors. Proceedings of the 17th Workshop for Bishops; 1999; Dallas, TX. Boston: National Catholic Bioethics Center (US); 2000. 258 p.

2. Standard proceedings without a book title in addition to the conference title

Dittmar A, Beebe D, editors. 1st Annual International IEEE-EMBS Special Topic Conference on Microtechnologies in Medicine & Biology; 2000 Oct 12-14; Palais des Congres, Lyon, France. Piscataway (NJ): IEEE; c2000. 643 p.

Rammstedt B, Riemann R, editors. 11th European Conference on Personality; 2002 Jul 21-27; Friedrich-Schiller-Universitat Jena, Jena, Germany. Lengerich (Germany): Pabst Science Publishers; c2002. 259 p.

3. Proceedings with all editors names given

Bruhat M, Silva Carvalho JL, Campo R, Fradique A, Dequesne J, Setubal A, editors. Proceedings of the 10th Congress of the European Society for Gynaecological Endoscopy; 2001 Nov 22-24; Lisbon, Portugal. Bologna (Italy): Monduzzi Editore, International Proceedings Division; c2001. 474 p.

4. Proceedings with editors limited to the optional first three

Bruhat M, Silva Carvalho JL, Campo R, et al., editors. Proceedings of the 10th Congress of the European Society for Gynaecological Endoscopy; 2001 Nov 22-24; Lisbon, Portugal. Bologna (Italy): Monduzzi Editore, International Proceedings Division; c2001. 474 p.

or

Bruhat M, Silva Carvalho JL, Campo R, and others, editors. Proceedings of the 10th Congress of the European Society for Gynaecological Endoscopy; 2001 Nov 22-24; Lisbon, Portugal. Bologna (Italy): Monduzzi Editore, International Proceedings Division; c2001. 474 p.

5. Proceedings with optional full first names for editors

Pacak, Karel; Aguilera, Greti; Sabban, Esther; Kvetnansky, Richard, editors. Stress: current neuroendocrine and genetic approaches. 8th Symposium on Catecholamines and Other Neurotransmitters in Stress; 2003 Jun 28-Jul 3; Smolenice Castle, Slovakia. New York: New York Academy of Sciences; 2004 Jun. 590 p. (Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1018).

Dostrovsky, Jonathan O.; Carr, Daniel B.; Koltzenburg, Martin, editors. Proceedings of the 10th World Congress on Pain; 2002 Aug 17-22; San Diego, CA. Seattle: IASP Press; c2003. 937 p. (Progress in pain research and management; vol. 24).

6. Proceedings with address added for editors

Kimchi A, editor (School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA). Advances in heart failure. Proceedings of the 8th World Congress on Heart Failure: Mechanisms and Management; 2002 Jul 13-16; Washington, DC. Bologna (Italy): MEDIMOND Medical Publications; c2002. 540 p.

Dittmar A (Microcapteurs et Microsystemes Biomedicaux, Lyon, France), Beebe D (Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI ), editors. 1st Annual International IEEE-EMBS Special Topic Conference on Microtechnologies in Medicine & Biology; 2000 Oct 12-14; Palais des Congres, Lyon, France. Piscataway (NJ): IEEE; c2000. 643 p.

7. Proceedings with no editor named

Practical points in dentistry: the alternatives. International Dental Congress of the Mekong River Region; 2004 Jun 7-10; Century Park Hotel, Bangkok, Thailand. Bangkok: Mahidol University, Faculty of Dentistry; [2004].

10th International Psoriasis Symposium; 2004 Jun 10-13; Toronto, ON. Chicago: Skin Disease Education Foundation; 2004. 160 p.

8. Titles containing a Greek letter, chemical formula, or another special character

Huang YS, Ziboh VA, editors. γ-linolenic acid: recent advances in biotechnology and clinical applications. 2nd International Symposium on GLA; 2000 Apr; San Diego, CA. Champaign (IL): AOCS Press; 2001. 259 p.

if font not available

Huang YS, Ziboh VA, editors. Gamma-linolenic acid: recent advances in biotechnology and clinical applications. 2nd International Symposium on GLA; 2000 Apr; San Diego, CA. Champaign (IL): AOCS Press; 2001. 259 p.

9. Proceedings in a language other than English

Boker W, Brenner HD, editors. Integrative Therapie der Schizophrenie. 4th Internationale Schizophrenie-Symposium; 1993 Sep 16-18; Bern. Bern (Switzerland): Huber; 1996. 426 p. German.

with translation

Boker W, Brenner HD, editors. Integrative Therapie der Schizophrenie [Integrative therapy for schizophrenia]. 4th Internationale Schizophrenie-Symposium [4th International Schizophrenia Symposium]; 1993 Sep 16-18; Bern. Bern (Switzerland): Huber; 1996. 426 p. German.

10. Proceedings in two or more equal languages

Bidart A, editor. 4th Congres International de Pneumologie Pediatrique: Livre des Communications = 4th International Congress on Pediatric Pulmonology: Proceedings; 2000 Feb 21-24; Nice, France. Paris: EDK; c2000. 271 p. French, English.

Sherman M, Bain V, Villeneuve JP, Myers RP, Cooper C, Martin S, Lowe C, editors. Management of Viral Hepatitis: a Canadian Consensus Conference = Prise en Charge des Hepatites Virales: Conference Canadienne de Consensus; 2003-2004. Toronto (ON): Morris Sherman; 2004. 70 p. English, French.

11. Proceedings in multiple languages

Oud N, editor. ACENDIO 2003: making nursing visible. 4th European Conference of ACENDIO; 2003; Paris. Bern (Switzerland): Huber; 2003. 347 p. English, French, German.

Acta. 34th Congressus Internationalis Historiae Pharmaciae; 1999 Oct 20-23; Florence, Italy. Piacenza (Italy): Accademia Italiana di Storia della Farmacia; 2001. 351 p. Italian, English, French, German, Spanish.

Fast Food und Gesundheit. Vortrage und Zusammenfassungen der nationalen Fachtagung der SGE; 2004 Jun 18; Bern. Bern (Switzerland): SGE/SSN; 2005. 153 p. German, French, Italian.

12. Name of institution where conference held included

Bushy A, editor. Community voices calling us to action. 5th Annual Rural Minority Health Conference Proceedings; 1999 Dec 9-11; Hyatt Regency Tech Center, Denver, CO. Kansas City (MO): National Rural Health Association; c2000. 167 p.

Dittmar A, Beebe D, editors. 1st Annual International IEEE-EMBS Special Topic Conference on Microtechnologies in Medicine & Biology; 2000 Oct 12-14; Palais des Congres, Lyon, France. Piscataway (NJ): IEEE; c2000. 643 p.

Rammstedt B, Riemann R, editors. Conference program and abstracts. 11th European Conference on Personality; 2002 Jul 21-27; Friedrich-Schiller-Universitat, Jena, Germany. Lengerich (Germany): Pabst Science Publishers; c2002. 259 p.

13. Proceedings in a microform

when a book title is present

Sheppard NF, Eden M, Kantor G, editors. Engineering advances: new opportunities for biomedical engineers [microfiche]. Proceedings of the 16th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society; 1994 Nov 3-6; Baltimore, MD. Piscataway (NJ): IEEE; 1994. 4 microfiche: black & white, negative, 4 x 6 in.

Chase TN, editor. Mortality among Negroes in cities [microfilm]. Proceedings of the Conference for Investigations of City Problems; 1896 May 26-27; Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA. 2nd ed. abridged. Atlanta: Atlanta University Press; 1903. 1 reel: negative, 35 mm.

Hematologie, hemotherapie, reanimation [Hematology, blood therapy, resuscitation] [microfilm]. 5th Congress International de Transfusion Sanguine [5th International Congress on Blood Transfusion]; 1954; Paris. Paris: [publisher unknown]; 1954. 29 p. French. 1 reel: negative, 35 mm.

when there is no book title

1993 Radiation Protection Workshop proceedings; 1993 Apr 13-15; Las Vegas, NV [microfiche]. Washington: Department of Energy (US); 1993. 5 microfiche: black & white, negative, 4 x 6 in.

National Conference on Drug Abuse Prevention Research; 1996 Sep 19-20; Washington, DC [microfiche]. Rockville (MD): National Institute on Drug Abuse (US); 1998. 182 p. 2 microfiche: black & white, negative, 4 x 6 in. (NIH publication; no. 98-4293).

14. Proceedings with a conference date crossing months or years

Ferreira de Oliveira MJ, editor. Accessibility and quality of health services. Proceedings of the 28th Meeting of the European Working Group on Operational Research Applied to Health Services (ORAHS); 2002 Jul 28-Aug 2; Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Frankfurt (Germany): Peter Lang; c2004. 287 p.

Sherman M, Bain V, Villeneuve JP, Myers RP, Cooper C, Martin S, Lowe C, editors. Management of Viral Hepatitis: a Canadian Consensus Conference = Prise en Charge des Hepatites Virales: Conference Canadienne de Consensus; 2003-2004. Toronto (ON): Morris Sherman; 2004. 70 p. English, French.

15. Proceedings with an unknown conference date and location

Forestieri P, Mazzeo F, Varoux G, editors. Il carcinoma gastrico. SICO 1st Consensus Conference. Naples (Italy): Giuseppe de Nicola Editore; 2000. 190 p. Italian. SICO stands for Societa Italiana di Chirurgia Oncologica.

16. Proceedings with an unknown conference location

Fitzpatrick DP, Carr AJ, editors. Bioengineering - in Ireland. Proceedings of the 7th Annual Conference of the Section of Bioengineering of the Royal Academy of Medicine in Ireland; 2001 Jan 27-28. Dublin: University College Dublin, Department of Mechanical Engineering; c2001. 43 p.

Sherman M, Bain V, Villeneuve JP, Myers RP, Cooper C, Martin S, Lowe C, editors. Management of Viral Hepatitis: a Canadian Consensus Conference = Prise en Charge des Hepatites Virales: Conference Canadienne de Consensus; 2003-2004. Toronto (ON): Morris Sherman; 2004. 70 p. English, French.

17. Proceedings with an edition

Chase TN, editor. Mortality among Negroes in cities [microfilm]. Proceedings of the Conference for Investigations of City Problems; 1896 May 26-27; Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA. 2nd ed. abridged. Atlanta: Atlanta University Press; 1903. 1 reel: negative, 35 mm.

Development of international collaboration in infectious disease research. International Conference; 2004 Sep 8-10; Sosnovka, Russia. Sci. ed. Novosibirsk (Russia): CERIS; 2004. 346 p.

18. Proceedings with translators

Doring R, editor. The German health reporting system and current approaches in Europe: a comparative view on differences, parallels, and trends. Proceedings of the International Conference; 2001 Nov; Berlin. Carney A, Frank M, translators. Berlin: Robert Koch-Institut; 2002. 150 p. Translated from the German.

19. Proceedings with well-known place of publication

10th International Psoriasis Symposium; 2004 Jun 10-13; Toronto, ON. Chicago: Skin Disease Education Foundation; 2004. 160 p.

IRBs and new approaches: assessing, evaluating, discarding, and moving forward. 2001 Annual IRB Conference; 2001 Dec 3-4; Boston. Boston: Public Responsibility in Medicine and Research; c2003. 201 p.

20. Proceedings with qualifier added to place

Milburn P, Wilson B, Yanai T, editors. The human body in motion: congress handbook and book of abstracts. 19th Congress of the International Society of Biomechanics; 2003 Jul 6-11; Dunedin, New Zealand. Dunedin (New Zealand): University of Otago; 2003. 442 p.

Peek WJ, Lankhorst GJ, editors. 1st World Congress of the International Society of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (ISPRM I); 2001 Jul 7-13; Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Bologna (Italy): Monduzzi Editore, International Proceedings Division; c2001. 875 p.

21. Proceedings with place of publication inferred

Palulonis RM, editor. 19th Conference on the Medical Aspects of Sports; 1977; San Francisco, CA. [Chicago]: American Medical Association; c1978. 75 p.

22. Proceedings with unknown place of publication

2nd Annual Meeting of the Indian Leptospirosis Society (ILS); 2001 May 12-13; Cochin, India. [place unknown]: Indian Leptospirosis Society; 2001. 70 p.

23. Publisher with subordinate division included

Andrew MA, Crum LA, Vaezy S, editors. 2nd International Symposium on Therapeutic Ultrasound; 2002 Jul 29-Aug 1; Seattle, WA. Seattle: University of Washington, Applied Physics Laboratory, Center for Industrial & Medical Ultrasound; c2003. 564 p.

24. Governmental or national agency as publisher

Macdonald KB, Weinmann F, editors. Wetland and riparian restoration: taking a broader view; contributed papers and selected abstracts. Society for Ecological Restoration International Conference; 1995 Sep 14-16; Seattle, WA. Seattle: Environmental Protection Agency (US), Region 10; 1997. 284 p. (EPA publication; 910-R-97-007).

McGorry PD, Nordentoft M, Simonsen E, editors. Early psychosis: a bridge to the future. 3rd International Conference on Early Psychosis; 2002 Sep; Copenhagen, Denmark. London: Royal College of Psychiatrists (GB); c2005. 124 p.

25. Joint publication

Accelerating quality improvement in health care: strategies to speed the diffusion of evidence-based innovations: proceedings from a conference; 2003 Jan 27-28; Washington, DC. Washington: NIHCM Foundation; c2003. 27 p. Jointly published by the National Committee for Quality Health Care.

26. Proceedings with unknown publisher

Final program and abstracts. 25th Annual International Gravitational Physiology Meeting; 2004 Jun 6-11; Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia. [Moscow]: [publisher unknown]; 2004. 233 p. International Society for Gravitational Physiology, sponsor.

28th Annual Lorne Conference on Protein Structure & Function; 2003 Feb 9-13; Lorne, Victoria, Australia. Lorne (Australia): [publisher unknown]; 2003.

27. Proceedings with unknown place of publication and publisher

2001 National HIV Prevention Conference; 2001 Aug 12-15; Atlanta, GA. [place unknown: publisher unknown]; 2001.

28. Proceedings with no date of publication but a date of copyright

2005 2nd International IEEE/EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering; 2005 Mar 16-19; Arlington, VA. Piscataway (NJ): IEEE; c2005. 693 p.

Progress in AIDS research in the Federal Republic of Germany. Proceedings of the 2nd Statusseminar of the BMFT Research Program on AIDS; 1989 Oct 12-14; Bonn, Germany. Munich (Germany): MMV Medizin Verlag; c1990. 399 p.

29. Proceedings with date of publication estimated

6th Congress on Equine Medicine and Surgery; 1999 Dec 12-14; Geneva, Switzerland. Chene-Bourg (Switzerland): Editions Medecine et Hygiene; [1999?]. 181 p. English, French, German.

Proceedings of the Symposium on Perspectives in Epilepsy; 1990. New Delhi: G.B. Pant Hospital, Department of Neurology; [1990?]. 124 p.

30. Proceedings with date of publication unknown

Proceedings of the 1993 Medical Defense Bioscience Review; 1993 May 10-13; Baltimore, MD. Frederick (MD): US Army Medical Research and Development Command; [date unknown]. 3 vols.

31. Proceedings with place, publisher, and date unknown

Australian Society for the Advancement of Anaesthesia and Sedation in Dentistry. Seminar on Pain Control; 1973 Jul 12-13; University of New South Wales, Australia. [place, publisher, date unknown]. 78 p.

32. Proceedings published in multiple volumes

Mayhew DR, Dussault C, editors. Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Alcohol, Drugs, and Traffic Safety; 2002 Aug 4-9; Monteal, QC. Quebec (QC): Societe de l'Assurance Automobile du Quebec; [2002]. 3 vols.

Blanchard SM, Eckstein EC, Fouke JM, Nerem RM, Yoganathan AP, editors. Serving humanity, advancing technology. Proceedings of the 1st Joint BMES/EMBS Conference; 1999 Oct 13-16; Atlanta, GA. Piscataway (NJ): IEEE; 1999. 2 vols.

33. Proceedings with no printed page numbers

Massberg W, Reinhars G, editors. 1st Symposium, Neue Technologien fur die Medizin: Forschung, Praxis, Innovation; 1999; Munich, Germany. Munich (Germany): Herbert Utz Verlag; 1999. 160 leaves. German.

34. Proceedings also published as part of a journal

Dostrovsky JO, Carr DB, Koltzenburg M, editors. Proceedings of the 10th World Congress on Pain; 2002 Aug 17-22; San Diego, CA. Seattle: IASP Press; c2003. 937 p. (Progress in pain research and management; vol. 24).

35. Proceedings published as part of a series

Satoh K, Suzuki S, Matsunaga M, editors. Advances in brain research: cerebrovascular disorders and neurodegeneration. Proceedings of the 6th Hirosaki International Forum of Medical Science; 2002 Oct 15-16; Hirosaki, Japan. Amsterdam (Netherlands): Elsevier; 2003. 234 p. (Excerpta Medica international congress series; no. 1251).

36. Proceedings published as part of more than one series

Zhu J, editor. 2004 Shanghai International Conference on Laser Medicine and Surgery; 2004 Nov 5-7; Shanghai, China. Bellingham (WA): SPIE; c2005. (Progress in biomedical optics and imaging; vol. 6, no. 35); (Proceedings of SPIE; vol. 5967).

37. Proceedings with availability or location statement

Acevedo SE, DeVincenzi DL, Chang S, editors. 6th Symposium on Chemical Evolution and the Origin and Evolution of Life; 1997 Nov 17-20; NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA. Moffett Field (CA): National Aeronautics and Space Administration (US), Ames Research Center; [1998]. 105 p. (NASA conference publication; 10156). Available from: NTIS, Springfield, VA; N19980236014.

Takeuchi M, Lagakos SW, editors. Simultaneous, worldwide development strategies: implementation of global clinical trials and introduction of new sciences and technologies. The 3rd Kitasato University-Harvard School of Public Health Symposium; 2002 Oct 2-3; Tokyo, Japan. Tokyo: Dejitarupuresu; c2003. 308 p. English, Japanese. Located at: National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD; 2003 N-441.

38. Proceedings accompanied by a CD-ROM

Laurell H, Schlyter F, editors. Alcohol, drugs and traffic safety: T 2000. Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Alcohol, Drugs, and Traffic Safety; 2000 May 22-26; Stockholm, Sweden. Stockholm: ICADTS; [2000]. 4 vols. Accompanied by: 1 CD-ROM.

Salyer KE, editor. Craniofacial surgery. Proceedings of the 10th International Congress of the International Society of Craniofacial Surgery; 2003; Monterey, CA. Bologna (Italy): Medimond International Proceedings; c2003. 506 p. Accompanied by: 1 CD-ROM.

39. Proceedings with supplementary notes

Marcus S, editor. Neuroethics: mapping the field. Conference Proceedings; 2002 May 13-14; San Francisco, CA. New York: Dana Press; c2002. 367 p. Sponsored by the Dana Foundation. Hosted by Stanford University and University of California, San Francisco. Introduced by William Safire.

Vyas GN, Williams AE, editors. Advances in transfusion safety. Proceedings of the Advances in Transfusion Safety Symposium; 2003 Jun 4-6; National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD. Basel (Switzerland): Karger; 2005. 224 p. (Developments in biologicals; vol. 120). Symposium co-sponsored by US Food and Drug Administration, AABB, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, US Department of Defense, and the International Association of Biologicals.

Building new bridges at the frontiers of engineering and medicine. 23rd Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society; 2001 Oct 25-28; Istanbul, Turkey. Piscataway (NJ): IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society; c2001. 4 vols. Yorgo Istefanopulos, conference chair.

Bayes de Luna A, Cosin J, editors. Diagnosis and treatment of cardiac arrhythmias. Proceedings of an International Symposium on Diagnosis and Treatment of Cardiac Arrhythmias; 1977 Oct 5-8; Barcelona, Spain. New York: Pergamon Press; 1980. 1003 p. Translation of: Diagnostico y Tratamiento de las Arritmias Cardiacas.

Fichtel C, Hunter S, Sreekumar P, Stecker F, editors. The Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) Science Symposium; 1989 Nov 15-16; NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. Washington: NASA Headquarters; 1990. 344 p. (NASA conference publication; 3071). Report No.: NASA 00023865.

Forestieri P, Mazzeo F, Varoux G, edigttors. Il carcinoma gastrico. SICO 1st Consensus Conference. Naples (Italy): Giuseppe de Nicola Editore; 2000. 190 p. Italian. SICO stands for Societa Italiana di Chirurgia Oncologica.

B. Sample Citation and Introduction to Citing Conference Papers

The general format for a reference to a conference paper, including punctuation:

- with a title for the book of proceedings as well as a conference title:

Illustration of the general format for a reference to a conference paper
with a title for the book of proceedings as well as a conference
title.

- with only a conference title:

Illustration of the general format for a reference to a conference paper
with only a conference title.

Examples of Citations to Conference Papers

Conference papers appear in the proceedings of a conference, congress, symposium, or other meeting. See Chapter 3A for information on citing proceedings. In medicine and science, papers are usually presented to report the results of research or other studies or to review the work on a particular subject or in a particular field. In the published proceedings, a paper may be given in its entirety or as an abstract or summary of what was presented.

Cite conference papers the same way as contributions to books. The authors and title of the paper begin a reference, followed by the connecting phrase "In:" and information about the conference. For information on citing papers:

Continue to Citation Rules with Examples for Conference Papers.

Continue to Examples of Citations to Conference Papers.

Citation Rules with Examples for Conference Papers

Components/elements are listed in the order they should appear in a reference. An R after the component name means that it is required in the citation; an O after the name means it is optional.

Author (R) | Author Affiliation (O) | Title (R) | Article Type (O) | Connective Phrase (R) | Conference Proceedings (R) | Location (Pagination) (R) | Language (R) | Notes (O)

Author for Conference Papers (required)

General Rules for Author

  • List names in the order they appear in the text
  • Enter surname (family or last name) first for each author
  • Capitalize surnames and enter spaces within surnames as they appear in the document cited on the assumption that the author approved the form used. For example: Van Der Horn KH or van der Horn KH; De Wolf F or de Wolf F or DeWolf F.
  • Convert given (first) names and middle names to initials, for a maximum of two initials following each surname
  • Give all authors, regardless of the number
  • Separate author names from each other by a comma and a space
  • End author information with a period

Specific Rules for Author

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Surnames with hyphens and other punctuation in them.

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Other surname rules.

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Given names containing punctuation, a prefix, a preposition, or particle.

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Degrees, titles, and honors before or after a personal name.

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Designations of rank in a family, such as Jr and III.

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Names in non-roman alphabets (Cyrillic, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Korean) or character-based languages (Chinese, Japanese).

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Options for author names.

Author Affiliation for Conference Papers (optional)

General Rules for Author Affiliation

  • Enter the affiliation of all authors or only the first author
  • Begin with the department and name of the institution, followed by city and state/Canadian province/country
  • Use commas to separate parts of the affiliation
  • Place the affiliation in parentheses, such as (Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA)
  • Separate the affiliation from its author by a space
  • Follow the affiliation with a comma placed outside the closing parenthesis, unless it is the affiliation of the last author, then use a period

Specific Rules for Author Affiliation

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Abbreviations in affiliations.

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E-mail address included.

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Organizational names for affiliations not in English.

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Names for cities and countries not in English.

Example Entries for Author Affiliation

Title for Conference Papers (required)

General Rules for Title

  • Enter the title of a paper as it appears in the original document
  • Capitalize only the first word of a title, proper nouns, proper adjectives, acronyms, and initialisms
  • Use a colon followed by a space to separate a title from a subtitle, unless another form of punctuation (such as a question mark, period, or an exclamation point) is already present
  • Follow non-English titles with a translation whenever possible; place the translation in square brackets
  • End a title with a period unless a question mark or exclamation point already ends it or an Article Type follows it (see below)

Specific Rules for Title

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Titles of papers not in English.

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Titles of papers in more than one language.

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Titles of papers containing a Greek letter, chemical formula, or another special character.

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Titles with headers.

Article Type for Conference Papers (optional)

General Rules for Article Type

  • An article type alerts the user that the reference is to an abstract of a paper, not to the full paper
  • Place [abstract] after the title of the paper
  • Follow the bracketed article type with a period

Specific Rules for Article Type

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Titles of papers ending in punctuation other than a period.

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Titles of papers not in English.

Example Entries for Article Type

Connective Phrase for Conference Papers (required)

General Rule for Connective Phrase

  • Use the word "In" followed by a colon and a space to connect information about the paper with information on the conference proceedings

Conference Proceedings for Conference Papers (required)

  • Follow the instructions in Chapter 3A to enter proceedings citation information

Location (Pagination) for Conference Papers (required)

General Rules for Location (Pagination)

  • Give the inclusive page numbers on which the paper appears
  • Do not repeat page numbers unless they are followed by a letter. For example: 123-125 becomes 123-5, but 124A-126A is correct.
  • Include a letter (often S for Supplement or A for Appendix) when it precedes the page number. For example: S10-8.
  • End pagination information with a period

Specific Rules for Location (Pagination)

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Roman numerals used as page numbers.

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Discontinuous page numbers.

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Text, such as a discussion, follows the paper.

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No numbers appear on the pages of the paper.

Language for Conference Papers (required)

General Rules for Language

  • Give the language of publication of the paper if not English
  • Follow the language name with a period

Notes for Conference Papers (optional)

General Rules for Notes

  • Notes is a collective term for any useful information given after the citation itself
  • Complete sentences are not required
  • Be brief

Specific Rules for Notes

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Paper accompanied by a videocassette, CD-ROM, DVD, etc.

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Other types of material to include in notes.

Examples of Citations to Conference Papers

1. Paper from a proceedings with a book title

Arendt, T. Alzheimer's disease as a disorder of dynamic brain self-organization. In: van Pelt J, Kamermans M, Levelt CN, van Ooyen A, Ramakers GJ, Roelfsema PR, editors. Development, dynamics, and pathology of neuronal networks: from molecules to functional circuits. Proceedings of the 23rd International Summer School of Brain Research; 2003 Aug 25-29; Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Amsterdam (Netherlands): Elsevier; 2005. p.355-78.

Leonard KJ, Winkelman W. Developing electronic patient records: employing interactive methods to ensure patient involvement. In: Ferreira de Oliveira MJ, editor. Accessibility and quality of health services. Proceedings of the 28th Meeting of the European Working Group on Operational Research Applied to Health Services (ORAHS); 2002 Jul 28-Aug 2; Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Frankfurt (Germany): Peter Lang; c2004. p. 241-55.

Horrobin DF, Lampinskas P. The commercial development of food plants used as medicines. In: Prendergast HD, Etkin NL, Harris DR, Houghton PJ, editors. Plants for food and medicine. Proceedings of the Joint Conference of the Society for Economic Botany and the International Society for Ethnopharmacology; 1996 Jul 1-6; London. Kew (UK): Royal Botanic Gardens; 1998. p. 75-81.

2. Paper from a proceedings without a book title

Rice AS, Farquhar-Smith WP, Bridges D, Brooks JW. Canabinoids and pain. In: Dostorovsky JO, Carr DB, Koltzenburg M, editors. Proceedings of the 10th World Congress on Pain; 2002 Aug 17-22; San Diego, CA. Seattle (WA): IASP Press; c2003. p. 437-68.

Kim H, Wechsler B. Amantadine for arousal in pediatric TBI. In: Peek WJ, Lankhorst GJ, editors. 1st World Congress of the International Society of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (ISPRM I); 2001 Jul 7-13; Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Bologna (Italy): Monduzzi Editore, International Proceedings Division; c2001. p. 629-34.

3. Paper with optional full first names of authors and editors

Rice, Andrew S.; Farquhar-Smith, W. Paul; Bridges, Daniel; Brooks, Jason W. Canabinoids and pain. In: Dostorovsky, Jonathan O.; Carr, Daniel B.; Koltzenburg, Martin, editors. Proceedings of the 10th World Congress on Pain; 2002 Aug 17-22; San Diego, CA. Seattle (WA): IASP Press; c2003. p. 437-68.

4. Paper with surnames containing a prefix or particle

McNeely JA. Biological and cultural diversity: the double helix of sustainable development. In: Arnason JT, Catling PM, Small E, Dang PT, Lambert JD, editors. Biodiversity & health: focusing research to policy = Biodiversite & sante: de la recherche aux politiques. Proceedings of the International Symposium = Actes du Symposium International; 2003 Oct 25-28; Ottawa, ON. Ottawa (ON): NRC-CNRC; 2005. p. 3-9.

de The G. Les priorites de sante dans les pays en development. In: Colloque Energie Solaire et Sante dans les Pays en Developpement = Conference on Solar Energy and Health Care in Developing Countries; 1991 Nov 4-7; Paris. London: Tec & Doc; c1998. p. 19-29. French.

Wieling W, van Dijk N, Ganzeboom KS, Saul JP. Syncope in children and adolescents: what are the peculiar features? In: Raviele A, editor. Cardiac arrhythmias 2005. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Cardiac Arrhythmias; 2005 Oct 2-5; Venice. Milan: Springer; c2006. p. 633-41.

El-Maarri O, Singer H, Brackmann HH, Schroder J, Graw J, Muller CR, Schramm W, Schwabb R, Hanfland P, Oldenburg J. Lack of factor VIII expression represents a novel mechanism leading to hemophilia A. In: Zhang D, Jain AK, editors. Advances in biometrics. Proceedings of the ICB 2006 International Conference; 2006 Jan 5-7; Hong Kong. Berlin: Springer; 2006. p. 81-4.

LeMaire DM. Spirituality. In: Hunter MM, editor. Enriching the circle of care. Report of the 1st National Pediatric Hospice Conference; 1985 May 9-11; Washington, DC. Alexandria (VA): Children's Hospice International; c1985. p. 39-46.

5. Paper with compound surnames for authors

Da Silva Freitas R, Contin Mansur AE, Alonso N, Busato L, Azor de Oliveira e Cruz G. Hemifacial microssomia: 105 cases in 7 years. In: Salyer KE, editor. Craniofacial surgery. Proceedings of the 10th International Congress of the International Society of Craniofacial Surgery; 2003; Monterey, CA. Bologna (Italy): Medimond International Proceedings; c2003. p. 327-9.

Lagos-Witte S. Conservation of medicinal plants in Central America and the Caribbean. In: Arnason JT, Catling PM, Small E, Dang PT, Lambert JD, editors. Biodiversity & health: focusing research to policy = Biodiversite & sante: de la recherche aux politiques. Proceedings of the International Symposium = Actes du Symposium International; 2003 Oct 25-28; Ottawa, ON. Ottawa (ON): NRC-CNRC; 2005. p. 3-9.

6. Paper with organization included as an author

von Auer C, Oldenburg J, Krause M, Miesbach W, Scharrer I; PTP-Study Group. In: Scharrer I, Schramm W, editors. 35th Hemophilia Symposium; 2004; Hamburg, Germany. Berlin: Springer; 2006. p. 201-4.

7. Paper with author affiliation given

SaraivaV (Foot-and-Mouth Disease Centre, PAHO/WHO, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). Foot-and-mouth disease in the Americas: epidemiology and ecologic changes affecting distribution. In: Bokma BH, Blouin EF, Bechara GH, editors. Impact of ecological changes on tropical animal health and disease control. 7th Biennial Conference of the Society for Tropical Veterinary Medicine; 2003 Jun 22-27; Iguacu Falls, Brazil. New York: New York Academy of Sciences; 2004. p.73-8.

Dijkhuizen PA (Amsterdam Molecular Therapeutics, Amsterdam, The Netherlands), Ghosh A (Division of Biology, University of California San Diego, LaJolla, CA). Regulation of dendritic growth by calcium and neurotrophin signaling. In: van Pelt J, Kamermans M, Levelt CN, van Ooyen A, Ramakers GJ, Roelfsema PR, editors. Development, dynamics, and pathology of neuronal networks: from molecules to functional circuits. Proceedings of the 23rd International Summer School of Brain Research; 2003 Aug 25-29; Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Amsterdam (Netherlands): Elsevier; 2005. p.17-27.

Schraft RD (Produktionstechnik und Automatisierung, Fraunhofer-Institut, Stuttgart, Germany. rds@ipa.fhg.de), Hiller A. Entwicklung eines manipulatorgestutzten Operationssystems fur die Neurochirurgie. In: Massberg W, Reinhart G, editors. 1st Symposium: Neue Technologien fur die Medizin; 1999 Mar 5-6; Garching, Germany. Munich (Germany): Herbert Utz Verlag; 1999. p. 48-54. German.

8. Paper with title containing a chemical formula or special character

Sperling P, Lee M, Girke T, Zahringer U, Stymne S, Heinz E. A bifunctional Δ6-acetylenase/desaturase from the moss Ceratodon purpureus. In: Huang YS, Ziboh VA, editors. γ-linolenic acid: recent advances in biotechnology and clinical applications. 2nd International Symposium on GLA; 2000 Apr; San Diego, CA. Champaign (IL): AOCS Press; 2001. p. 29-31.

or

Sperling P, Lee M, Girke T, Zahringer U, Stymne S, Heinz E. A bifunctional Delta(6)-acetylenase/desaturase from the moss Ceratodon purpureus. In: Huang YS, Ziboh VA, editors. Gamma-linolenic acid: recent advances in biotechnology and clinical applications. 2nd International Symposium on GLA; 2000 Apr; San Diego, CA. Champaign (IL): AOCS Press; 2001. p. 29-31.

Mikkelsen JD, Hay-Schmidt A, Kiss A. Serotonergic stimulation of the rat hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis: interaction between 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors. In: Pacak K, Aguilera G, Sabban E, Kvetnansky R, editors. Stress: current neuroendocrine and genetic approaches. 8th Symposium on Catecholamines and Other Neurotransmitters in Stress; 2003 Jun 28 - Jul 3; Smolenice Castle, Slovakia. New York: New York Academy of Sciences; 2004. p. 65-70.

or

Mikkelsen JD, Hay-Schmidt A, Kiss A. Serotonergic stimulation of the rat hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis: interaction between 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A) receptors. In: Pacak K, Aguilera G, Sabban E, Kvetnansky R, editors. Stress: current neuroendocrine and genetic approaches. 8th Symposium on Catecholamines and Other Neurotransmitters in Stress; 2003 Jun 28 - Jul 3; Smolenice Castle, Slovakia. New York: New York Academy of Sciences; 2004. p. 65-70.

Tanguay JF. Coronary artery endothelial protection after local delivery of 17β-estradiol. In: Kimchi A, editor. Advances in heart failure. Proceedings of the 8th World Congress on Heart Failure: Mechanisms and Management; 2002 Jul 13-16; Washington, DC. Bologna (Italy): MEDIMOND Medical Publications; c2002. p. 87-9.

or

Tanguay JF. Coronary artery endothelial protection after local delivery of 17beta-estradiol. In: Kimchi A, editor. Advances in heart failure. Proceedings of the 8th World Congress on Heart Failure: Mechanisms and Management; 2002 Jul 13-16; Washington, DC. Bologna (Italy): MEDIMOND Medical Publications; c2002. p. 87-9.

9. Paper from a proceedings in a language other than English

Boetsch G. Le temps du malheur: les representations artistiques de l'epidemie. In: Guerci A, editor. La cura delle malattie: itinerari storici. 3rd Colloquio Europeo di Etnofarmacologia; 1st Conferenza Internazionale di Antropologia e Storia della Salute e delle Malattie; 1996 May 29-Jun 2; Genoa, Italy. Genoa (Italy): Erga Edizione; 1998. p. 22-32. French.

Azuma J. [Genetics as a means of understanding intrinsic ethnic differences: genetic variation on metabolism/transporter/receptor]. In: Takeuchi M, Lagakos SW, editors. Simultaneous, worldwide development strategies: implementation of global clinical trials and introduction of new sciences and technologies. The 3rd Kitasato University-Harvard School of Public Health Symposium; 2002 Oct 2-3; Tokyo, Japan. Tokyo: Dejitarupuresu; c2003. p. 165-82. Japanese.

Pavsic-Trskan B. Razvoj strokovnega jezika in dileme danasnjega dne. In: Oud N, Sermeus W, Ehnfors M, editors. ACENDIO 2005: documenting nursing care. 5th European Conference of ACENDIO; 2005 Apr; Bled, Slovenia. Bern (Switzerland): Hans Huber; 2005. p. 19-23. Czech.

Zeller H. Les lecons de l'epidemie a virus Marburg a Durba, Republique Democratique du Congo (1998-2000). In: Les fievres hemorragiques virales. 7th Actualites du Pharo; 2000 Sep 8-9; Marseilles, France. Marseilles (France): Institut de Medecine Tropicale; 2000. p. 23-6. French.

10. Paper from a proceedings in a language other than English, with translation

Boetsch G. Le temps du malheur: les representations artistiques de l'epidemie. [Tragic times: artistic representations of the epidemic]. In: Guerci A, editor. La cura delle malattie: itinerari storici [Treating illnesses: historical routes]. 3rd Colloquio Europeo di Etnofarmacologia; 1st Conferenza Internazionale di Antropologia e Storia della Salute e delle Malattie [3rd European Colloquium on Ethnopharmacology; 1st International Conference on Anthropology and History of Health and Disease]; 1996 May 29-Jun 2; Genoa, Italy. Genoa (Italy): Erga Edizione; 1998. p. 22-32. French.

Azuma J. [Genetics as a means of understanding intrinsic ethnic differences: genetic variation on metabolism/transporter/receptor]. In: Takeuchi M, Lagakos SW, editors. Simultaneous, worldwide development strategies: implementation of global clinical trials and introduction of new sciences and technologies. The 3rd Kitasato University-Harvard School of Public Health Symposium; 2002 Oct 2-3; Tokyo, Japan. Tokyo: Dejitarupuresu; c2003. p. 165-82. Japanese.

Pavsic-Trskan B. Razvoj strokovnega jezika in dileme danasnjega dne [Developing professional language and current dilemmas]. In: Oud N, Sermeus W, Ehnfors M, editors. ACENDIO 2005: documenting nursing care. 5th European Conference of ACENDIO; 2005 Apr; Bled, Slovenia. Bern (Switzerland): Hans Huber; 2005. p. 19-23. Czech.

Zeller H. Les lecons de l'epidemie a virus Marburg a Durba, Republique Democratique du Congo (1998-2000) [Lessons from the Marburg virus epidemic in Durba, Democratic Republic of the Congo (1998-2000)]. In: Les fievres hemorragiques virales [Viral hemorrhagic fevers]. 7th Actualites du Pharo [7th Pharo Conference]; 2000 Sep 8-9; Marseilles, France. Marseilles (France): Institut de Medecine Tropicale; 2000. p. 23-6. French.

11. Paper from a proceedings in two equal languages

Tannock GW. Probiotique et prebiotique: lecons de la fin du XXe siecle = Probiotics and prebiotics: lessons from the late 20th century. In: Roy D, editor. La sante par les probiotiques: perspectives biofonctionnelles = Probiotics and health: biofunctional perspectives. Actes du Symposium International de Montreal = Proceedings of the Montreal International Symposium; 2002 Oct 24-25; Montreal, QC. Saint-Hyacinthe (QC): Fondation des Gouverneurs; 2003. p. 1-5, 75-90. French, English.

12. Abstract of a paper

Chiarenza GA, De Marchi I, Colombo L, Olgiati P, Trevisan C, Casarotto S. Neuropsychophysiological profile of children with developmental dyslexia [abstract]. In: Beuzeron-Mangina JH, Fotiou F, editors. The olympics of the brain. Abstracts of the 12th World Congress of Psychophysiology; 2004 Sep 18-23; Thessaloniki, Greece. Amsterdam (Netherlands): Elsevier; 2004. p. 16.

Berger H, Klemm M. Clinical signs of gastric ulcers and its relation to incidence [abstract]. In: Chuit P, Kuffer A, Montavon S, editors. 8th Congress on Equine Medicine and Surgery; 2003 Dec 16-18; Geneva, Switzerland. Ithaca (NY): International Veterinary Information Service (IVIS); 2003. p. 45.

Sigurdsson A. Current guidelines and management of dental trauma [abstract]. In: Practical points in dentistry: the alternatives. International Dental Congress of the Mekong River Region; 2004 Jun 7-10; Century Park Hotel, Bangkok, Thailand. Bangkok: Mahidol University, Faculty of Dentistry; [2004]. p. 29-30.

13. Paper with letters included in page numbers

Danzi GB, Mauri L, Sozzi F. Percutaneous coronary intervention and beyond for ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction. In: Bolognese L, Ferrari R, editors. Acute coronary syndromes management: proceedings; 2005 Apr; Cortona, Italy. Oxford (UK): Oxford University Press; 2005. p. K26-30.

Osman L, Silverman M. Measuring quality of life for young children with asthma and their families. In: Silverman M, Pedersen S, editors. Proceedings of a Workshop on Outcome Measures in Early Childhood Asthma and Other Wheezing Disorders; 1995 Sep 21-23; Gerona, Spain. Copenhagen (Denmark): Munksgaard; 1996. p. 35s-41s.

Gronefeld G, Hohnloser SH. Quality of life in atrial fibrillation: an increasingly important issue. In: Capucci A, editor. Proceedings of the European Atrial Fibrillation Consensus Conference; 2001 Sep 16; Bologna, Italy. Amsterdam (Netherlands): Elsevier Science Ltd.; 2003. p. H25-33.

14. Paper accompanied by a CD-ROM, DVD, videocassette, or other medium

Carter MA, Alcott BA. Suture techniques for jejunojejunal anastomosis. In: Libovitz CC, editor. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Gastroenterology Surgery; 2004 May 3-5; Bonn, Germany. Geneva (Switzerland): Wiener Verlag; 2005. p. 245-8. Accompanied by: 1 CD-ROM.

15. Paper also printed as a part of a journal

Keen CL, Holt RR, Oteiza PI, Fraga CG, Schmitz HH. Cocoa antioxidants and cardiovascular health. In: Scalbert A, Johnson I, Saltmarsh M, editors. Dietary polyphenols and health. Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Polyphenols and Health; 2004 Nov 18-21; Vichy, France. Bethesda (MD): American Society for Clinical Nutrition; 2005. p. 298s-303s. (American journal of clinical nutrition; vol. 81, no.1, suppl.).

Dayhoff JE, DeLeo JM. Artificial neural networks: opening the black box. In: Conference on Prognostic Factors and Staging in Cancer Management: Contributions of Artificial Neural Networks and Other Statistical Methods; 1999 Sep 27-28; Arlington, VA. Atlanta (GA): American Cancer Society; 2001. p.1615-35. (Cancer; vol. 91, no.8, suppl.).

C. Sample Citation and Introduction to Citing Parts of Conference Papers

The general format for a reference to a part of a conference paper, including punctuation:

- with a title for the book of proceedings as well as a conference title:

Illustration of the general format for a reference to a part of a
conference paper with a title for the book of proceedings as well as a
conference title.

- with only a conference title:

Illustration of the general format for a reference to a part of a
conference paper with only a conference title.

Examples of Citations to Parts of Conference Papers

Rather than citing a conference paper as a whole, separately identified portions of a paper may be cited. Tables, figures, charts, graphs, photographs, appendixes, and the like are considered parts of a paper when they are written or compiled by the authors of the paper.

Because a reference should start with the individual or organization with responsibility for the intellectual content of the publication, begin a reference to a part of a paper with the paper itself, then follow it with the information about the part. See Chapter 2C Parts of Books for further details.

Medical texts frequently contain charts, figures, and other illustrative material that has been reproduced with permission from other sources. Do not cite these as parts using the instructions presented here. Consult the original publication and cite the particular item from there.

Continue to Citation Rules with Examples for Parts of Conference Papers.

Continue to Examples of Citations to Parts of Conference Papers.

Citation Rules with Examples for Parts of Conference Papers

Components/elements are listed in the order they should appear in a reference. An R after the component name means that it is required in the citation; an O after the name means it is optional.

Conference Paper (R) | Name and Number/Letter (R) | Title (R) | Location (Pagination) (R)

Conference Paper (required)

Name and Number/Letter of the Part of the Conference Paper (required)

General Rules for Name and Number/Letter of the Part

  • Enter the name of the part, such as Table, Figure, or Appendix
  • Do not abbreviate names. For example, convert Fig. to Figure.
  • Follow the name with any accompanying number or letter, such as Table 2, Figure 3.1, or Appendix A
  • Use arabic numbers only. For example: convert VI or Six to 6.
  • End name and number/letter information with a comma and a space

Specific Rules for Name and Number/Letter of the Part

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Box 84

Non-English names for parts.

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Box 85

No letter or number follows the name.

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Box 86

No name appears.

Title of the Part of the Conference Paper (required)

General Rules for Title of the Part

  • Enter the title of the part as it appears in the book
  • Capitalize only the first word of a title, proper nouns, proper adjectives, acronyms, and initialisms
  • End title information with a semicolon and a space

Specific Rules for Title of the Part

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Box 87

Titles for parts not in English.

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Box 88

Titles of parts containing a Greek letter, chemical formula, or other special character.

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Box 89

No title appears.

Location (Pagination) of the Part of the Conference Paper (required)

General Rules for Location (Pagination)

  • Begin location with "p." followed by a space
  • Enter the page number or numbers on which the part appears. Examples: p. 438 and p. 663-4.
  • Do not repeat page numbers unless they are followed by a letter. For example: 126-127 becomes p. 126-7, but p. 126A-127A is correct.
  • Include a letter (often S for Supplement or A for Appendix) when it precedes the page number. For example: p. S10-8.
  • End page information with a period

Specific Rules for Location (Pagination)

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Box 90

Roman numerals for page numbers.

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Box 91

Part paginated separately.

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Box 92

No page numbers appear on the pages of the part.

Examples of Citations to Parts of Conference Papers

1. A table as part of a paper

Mueller K, Boye-Beaman J, Blankenau J. Assessing health needs of minorities in rural meat-processing communities. In: Bushy A, editor. Community voices calling us to action. 5th Annual Rural Minority Health Conference Proceedings; 1999 Dec 9-11; Denver, CO. Kansas City (MO): National Rural Health Association; c2000. Table 11, Chi square tests of pap smear by selected independent variables; p. 72.

Otto SR, Ebinger K, Staller SJ. Clinical trials with the auditory brain stem implant. In: Waltzman SB, Cohen NL, editors. Cochlear implants. 5th International Cochlear Implant Conference; 1997 May 1-3; New York. New York: Thieme; 2000. Table 17-2, Electrical stimulation results for an ABI patient with multiple nonauditory sensations; p. 362.

Krebs H, Schneider MM, Schramm W. HCV-infection in HIV-infected and non-infected people with hemophilia – a retrospective study: medical aspects. In: Scharrer I, Schramm W, editors. 35th Hemophilia Symposium; 2004; Hamburg, Germany. Berlin: Springer; 2006. Table 1, Distribution of causes of death; p. 169.

2. A figure as part of a paper

Spigulis J, Erts R, Ozols M. Optical multi-channel monitoring of skin blood pulsations for cardiovascular assessment. In: Cohn GE, Grundfest WS, Benaron DA, Vo-Dinh T, editors. Advanced Biomedical and Clinical Diagnostic Systems 2; 2004 Jan 25-26; San Jose, CA. Bellingham (WA): SPIE; 2004. Figure 6, The four-channel PPG monitoring scheme; p. 137.

Foley RA. The emergence of culture in the context of hominin evolutionary patterns. In: Levinson SC, Jaisson P, editors. Evolution and culture: a Fyssen Foundation Symposium; 1999 Nov 12-16; St. Germain en Laye, France. Cambridge (MA): MIT Press; c2006. Figure 3.9, A model of cultural revolution; p. 72.

Pollitt CC. Equine laminitis: a revised pathophysiology. In: 6th Congress on Equine Medicine and Surgery; 1999 Dec 12-14; Geneva, Switzerland. Chene-Bourg (Switzerland): Medecine et Hygiene; [1999]. Figure 1, Sagital section of a horse's foot with severe chronic laminitis; p. 156-7.

3. An appendix as part of a paper

Acar J, Rostel B. Antimicrobial resistance: an overview. In: OIE international standards on antimicrobial resistance, 2003. 2nd International Conference on Antimicrobial Resistance; 2001 Oct 2-4; Paris. Paris: OIC; c2003. Appendix B, World Organisation for Animal Health Guidelines on antimicrobial resistance; p. 67.

Gelepithis PA. Knowledge, truth, time, and topological spaces. In: 12th International Congress on Cybernetics; 1989 Aug 21-29; Namur, Belgium. Namur (Belgium): Association Internationale de Cybernetique; 1989. Appendix, [The basis on which to define a topology on B*]; p. 254.

Fuerxer J, Fuerxer P. Les fluctuations cycliques fondamentales des economies capitalists - le model ω [Fundamental cyclic fluctuations of capitalist economies - the ω model]. In: 12th International Congress on Cybernetics; 1989 Aug 21-29; Namur, Belgium. Namur (Belgium): Association Internationale de Cybernetique; 1989. Annexe, Definition de la transformation de Laplace (1749-1827) [Appendix, Definition of Laplace transformation (1749-1827)]; p. 312-3. French.

4. Other parts of a paper

Clary J. [Formaldehyde] exposure. In: 1986 European Meeting of the Toxicology Forum; 1986 Sep 22-26; Geneva, Switzerland. Washington: Toxicology Forum, Inc.; c1986. Slide 14, Quantities of some aldehydes in cigarette smoke; [preceding p. 114].

Lina PH, Hutson AM. Bat rabies in Europe: a review. In: Dodet B, Schudel A, Pastoret PP, Lombard M, editors. 1st International Conference on Rabies in Europe; 2005 Jun 15-18; Kiev, Ukraine. Basel (Switzerland): Karger; c2006. Bat colonies and rabies; p. 248.

Irie S, Shogenji R, Ogura Y, Tanida J. Photonic information techniques based on compound-eye imaging. In: Ijspeert AJ, Masuzawa T, Kusumoto S, editors. Biologically inspired approaches to advanced information technology. BioADIT 2006. Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop; 2006 Jan 26-27; Osaka, Japan. Berlin: Springer; c2006. [Section] 4.2, Fingerspring capturing; p. 258-9.

5. Part of a paper in a language other than English

Morel E, Vialle R, Rillardon L, Guigui. Analyse de l'equilibre sagittal du rachis dans les spondylolisthesis degeneratifs. In: Deburge A, Saillant G, Benoist M, Guigui P, Laville C, Lazennec JY, Morvan G, editors. 2emes Journees du Rachis de Paris = 2nd Spine Meeting of Paris; 2003; Paris. Montpellier (France): Sauramps Medical; c2004. Tableau 4, Comparison du groupe spondylolisthesis (n=53) au group temoin (n=300); p. 112. French.

with translation

Morel E, Vialle R, Rillardon L, Guigui. Analyse de l'equilibre sagittal du rachis dans les spondylolisthesis degeneratifs [Analysis of the sagittal equilibrium of the spine in degenerative spondylolisthesis]. In: Deburge A, Saillant G, Benoist M, Guigui P, Laville C, Lazennec JY, Morvan G, editors. 2emes Journees du Rachis de Paris = 2nd Spine Meeting of Paris; 2003; Paris. Montpellier (France): Sauramps Medical; c2004. Tableau 4, Comparison du groupe spondylolisthesis (n=53) au group temoin (n=300) [Table 4, Comparison of the spondylolisthesis group (n=53) with the control group (n=300)]; p. 112. French.

6. Part of a paper with title containing a Greek letter or other special character

Sheldon RS. β-blockers for prevention of vasovagal syncope: who benefits from treatment? In: Raviele A, editor. Cardiac arrhythmias 2005. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Cardiac Arrhythmias; 2005 Oct 2-5; Venice. Milan (Italy): Springer; c2006. Patient selection for β-blocker therapy; p. 692.

or

Sheldon RS. Beta-blockers for prevention of vasovagal syncope: who benefits from treatment? In: Raviele A, editor. Cardiac arrhythmias 2005. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Cardiac Arrhythmias; 2005 Oct 2-5; Venice. Milan (Italy): Springer; c2006. Patient selection for beta-blocker therapy; p. 692.

Tassinari CA, Ambrosetto G, Peraita-Adrado MR, Gastaut H. The neuropsychiatric syndrome of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabis intoxication in naive subjects. In: Nahas GG, Sutin KM, Harvey D, Agurell S, Pace N, Cancro R, editors. Conference on Marihuana and Medicine; 1998 Mar 20-21; New York University School of Medicine, New York. Totowa (NJ): Humana Press; c1999. Figure 2, Drawing of a man: before, during, and after Δ9-THC intoxication; p. 654.

or

Tassinari CA, Ambrosetto G, Peraita-Adrado MR, Gastaut H. The neuropsychiatric syndrome of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabis intoxication in naive subjects. In: Nahas GG, Sutin KM, Harvey D, Agurell S, Pace N, Cancro R, editors. Conference on Marihuana and Medicine; 1998 Mar 20-21; New York University School of Medicine, New York. Totowa (NJ): Humana Press; c1999. Figure 2, Drawing of a man: before, during, and after Delta(9)-THC intoxication; p. 654.

7. Part of a paper with a constructed title

Gelepithis PA. Knowledge, truth, time, and topological spaces. In: 12th International Congress on Cybernetics; 1989 Aug 21-29; Namur, Belgium. Namur (Belgium): Association Internationale de Cybernetique; 1989. Appendix, [The basis on which to define a topology on B*]; p. 254.

Carter R. Planning for the practical aspects of implementation. In: Pharming the genome: implications of pharmacogenomics for human health and public policy [Internet]. Conference Report; 2004 Nov 4; National Arts Centre, Ottawa, ON. Ottawa (ON): Government of Canada; 2005. [Table, Infrastructure requirements for three types of applications of pharmacogenomics]; p. 20-22. Available from: http://www.biostrategy.gc.ca/CMFiles/50139_Summary_report_e_final49PKA-412005-6986.pdf

LeMaire DM. Spirituality. In: Hunter MM, editor. Enriching the circle of care. Report of the 1st National Pediatric Hospice Conference; 1985 May 9-11; Washington, DC. Alexandria (VA): Children's Hospice International; c1985. [Figure, Scheme to describe the spiritual and religious aspects of the human person]; p. 41.

8. Part of a paper with a letter included in the location (pagination)

Wolpert C, Haase KK, Suselbeck T, Borggrefe M. Hybrid therapy for atrial fibrillation. In: Capucci A, editor. Proceedings of the European Atrial Fibrillation Consensus Conference; 2001 Sep 16; Bologna, Italy. Amsterdam (Netherlands): Elsevier Science Ltd.; 2003. Figure 1, Concept of hybrid therapy for atrial fibrillation; p. H52.

9. Part of a paper with no page number provided

Clary J. [Formaldehyde] exposure. In: 1986 European Meeting of the Toxicology Forum; 1986 Sep 22-26; Geneva, Switzerland. Washington: Toxicology Forum, Inc.; c1986. Slide 14, Quantities of some aldehydes in cigarette smoke; [preceding p. 114].

Ross K. The Oregon experience with managed care. In: Groome D, editor. Meeting the challenge of change. Proceedings of the 10th Annual Conference of the National Association of Surveillance and Utilization Review Officials; 1994 Jun 19-22; SeaTac, WA. Olympia (Washington): The Association; 1994. Satisfaction questionnaire; [8 p.].