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Patrias K, author; Wendling D, editor. Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers [Internet]. 2nd edition. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2007-.

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Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers [Internet]. 2nd edition.

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Chapter 2Books

Created: ; Last Update: August 11, 2015.

A. Entire Books

B. Individual Volumes of Books

(1) Individual Volumes With a Separate Title but Without Separate Authors/Editors

(2) Individual Volumes With a Separate Title and Separate Authors/Editors

C. Parts of Books

D. Contributions to Books

See also:

Chapter 11B Forthcoming Books

Chapter 15 Books and Other Individual Titles in Audiovisual Formats

Chapter 18 Books and Other Individual Titles on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk

Chapter 22 Books and Other Individual Titles on the Internet

A. Sample Citation and Introduction to Citing Entire Books

The general format for a reference to a book, including punctuation:

Illustration of the general format for a reference to a book.

Examples of Citations to Entire Books

A book is a publication that is complete in one volume or a limited number of volumes; books are therefore often called monographs. Textbooks, technical reports, conference proceedings, master's theses and dissertations, bibliographies, and patents are all examples of monographs. This chapter focuses on the standard book and textbook. Because technical reports and other specific types of monographs have additional special features, they are treated in their own chapters.

References to books in print or in microform (microfilm, microfiche) are included in this chapter. For references to books in audiovisual format, see Chapter 15; in electronic form, see Chapter 18 and Chapter 22.

The chief source for information about a book is its title page. The back of the title page, called the verso or copyright page, and the cover of the book are additional sources of authoritative information not found on the title page.

Note that the rules for creating references to books are not the same as the rules for cataloging books. Therefore records found in the NLM LocatorPlus and the NLM Catalog databases will not always agree with the instructions presented here.

Continue to Citation Rules with Examples for Entire Books.

Continue to Examples of Citations to Entire Books.

Citation Rules with Examples for Entire Books

Components/elements are listed in the order they should appear in a reference. An R after the component name means that it is required in the citation; an O after the name means it is optional.

Author/Editor (R) | Author Affiliation (O) | Title (R) | Content Type (O) | Type of Medium (R) | Edition (R) | Editor and other Secondary Authors (O) | Place of Publication (R) | Publisher (R) | Date of Publication (R) | Pagination (O) | Physical Description (O) | Series (O) | Language (R) | Notes (O)

Author/Editor for Entire Books (required)

General Rules for Author/Editor

  • List names in the order they appear in the text
  • Enter surname (family or last name) first for each author/editor
  • Capitalize surnames and enter spaces within surnames as they appear in the document cited on the assumption that the author approved the form used. For example: Van Der Horn or van der Horn; De Wolf or de Wolf or DeWolf.
  • Convert given (first) names and middle names to initials for a maximum of two initials following each surname
  • Give all authors/editors, regardless of the number
  • Separate author/editor names from each other by a comma and a space
  • If there are no authors, only editors, follow the last named editor with a comma and the word editor or editors; see Editor and Other Secondary Authors below if there are authors and editors
  • End author/editor information with a period

Specific Rules for Author/Editor

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Surnames with hyphens and other punctuation in them.

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Other surname rules.

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Given names containing punctuation, a prefix, a preposition, or particle.

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Degrees, titles, and honors before or after a personal name.

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Designations of rank in a family, such as Jr and III.

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Names in non-roman alphabets (Cyrillic, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Korean) or character-based languages (Chinese, Japanese).

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Non-English words for editor.

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Organizations as author/editor.

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No author can be found.

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Options for author names.

Author Affiliation for Entire Books (optional)

General Rules for Author Affiliation

  • Enter the affiliation of all authors or only the first author
  • Begin with the department and name of the institution, followed by city and state/Canadian province/country
  • Use commas to separate parts of the address
  • Place the address in parentheses, such as (Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA)
  • Separate the affiliation from its author by a space
  • Follow the affiliation with a comma placed outside the closing parenthesis, unless the affiliation is for the last author, then use a period

Specific Rules for Author Affiliation

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Abbreviations in affiliations.

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E-mail address included.

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Organizational names for affiliations not in English.

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Names for cities and countries not in English.

Examples for Author Affiliation

Title for Entire Books (required)

General Rules for Title

  • Enter the title of a book as it appears in the original document, in the original language
  • Capitalize only the first word of a title, proper nouns, proper adjectives, acronyms, and initialisms
  • Use a colon followed by a space to separate a title from a subtitle, unless another form of punctuation (such as a question mark, period, or an exclamation point) is already present
  • Follow non-English titles with a translation whenever possible; place the translation in square brackets
  • End a title with a period unless a question mark or exclamation point already ends it or a Content Type or Type of Medium follows it (see below), then end with a space

Specific Rules for Title

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Titles containing a Greek letter, chemical formula, or another special character.

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Titles not in English.

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Titles in more than one language.

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Titles ending in punctuation other than a period.

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No title can be found.

Content Type for Entire Books (optional)

General Rules for Content Type

  • A content type alerts the user that the reference is not to a standard book but to a dissertation, master's thesis, or bibliography
  • Place [dissertation], [master's thesis], or [bibliography] after the book title
  • Follow the bracketed content type with a period unless the book is in a non-print medium (see Type of Medium below)

Specific Rules for Content Type

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Titles ending in punctuation other than a period.

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Titles not in English.

Examples for Content Type

Type of Medium for Entire Books (required)

General Rules for Type of Medium

  • Indicate the type of medium (microfiche, ultrafiche, microfilm, microcard, etc.) following the title (and Content Type, if present) when a book is published in a microform
  • Place the name of the medium in square brackets and end with a period outside the closing bracket, such as [microfiche].
  • Add information about the medium according to the instructions under Physical Description below
  • See Chapter 15 for books in audiovisual formats, Chapter 18 for books on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk, and Chapter 22 for Internet books

Specific Rules for Type of Medium

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Both a content type and a type of medium.

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Titles ending in punctuation other than a period.

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Titles not in English.

Examples for Type of Medium

Edition for Entire Books (required)

General Rules for Edition

  • Indicate the edition/version being cited after the title (and Content Type or Type of Medium if present) when a book is published in more than one edition or version
  • Abbreviate common words (see Abbreviation rules for editions below)
  • Capitalize only the first word of the edition statement, proper nouns, and proper adjectives
  • Express numbers representing editions in arabic ordinals. For example: second becomes 2nd and III becomes 3rd.
  • End the edition statement with a period
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Abbreviation rules for editions.

Specific Rules for Edition

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Non-English words for editions.

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First editions.

Editor and other Secondary Authors for Entire Books (optional)

General Rules for Editor and other Secondary Authors

  • A secondary author modifies the work of the author. Examples include editors, translators, and illustrators.
  • Place the names of secondary authors after the title, following any Content Type, Type of Medium, or Edition statement
  • Use the same rules for the format of names presented in Author/Editor above
  • Follow the last named editor with a comma and the word editor or editors; the last named illustrator with a comma and the word illustrator or illustrators, etc.
  • End secondary author information with a period
  • If there is no author, move secondary authors such as editors and translators to the author position in the reference

Specific Rules for Editor and other Secondary Authors

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More than one type of secondary author.

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Secondary author performing more than one role.

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Non-English names for secondary authors.

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Organization as editor.

Place of Publication for Entire Books (required)

General Rules for Place of Publication

  • Place is defined as the city where the book was published
  • Follow US and Canadian cities with the two-letter abbreviation for the state or province (see Appendix E) to avoid confusion when citing lesser known cities or when cities in different locations have the same name, such as Palm Springs (CA) and Palm Springs (FL)
  • Follow cities in other countries with the name of the country, either written out or as the two-letter ISO country code (see Appendix D), when citing lesser known cities or when cities in different locations have the same name, such as Cambridge (MA) and Cambridge (England)
  • Use the anglicized form for a non-US city, such as Vienna for Wien
  • End place information with a colon

Specific Rules for Place of Publication

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Non-US cities.

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Joint publication.

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Multiple places of publication.

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No place of publication can be found.

Publisher for Entire Books (required)

General Rules for Publisher

  • A publisher is defined as the individual or organization issuing the book
  • Record the name of the publisher as it appears in the publication, using whatever capitalization and punctuation is found there
  • Abbreviate well-known publisher names if desired but with caution to avoid confusion. For example, "John Wiley & Sons, Ltd." may become simply "Wiley".
  • When a division or other subsidiary part of a publisher is given, enter the publisher name first. For example: McGraw-Hill, Health Professions Division.
  • End publisher information with a semicolon

Specific Rules for Publisher

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Abbreviated words in publisher names.

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Non-English names for publishers.

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Government agencies and other national and international bodies as publisher.

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Joint publication.

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Multiple publishers.

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No publisher can be found.

Date of Publication for Entire Books (required)

General Rules for Date of Publication

  • Always give the year of publication
  • Convert roman numerals to arabic numbers. For example: MM to 2000.
  • Include the month of publication, if desired, after the year, such as 2004 May
  • Use English names for months and abbreviate them using the first three letters, such as Jan
  • End date information with a period

Specific Rules for Date of Publication

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Multiple years of publication.

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Non-English names for months.

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Seasons instead of months.

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Date of publication and date of copyright.

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No date of publication, but a date of copyright.

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No date of publication or copyright can be found.

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Options for date of publication.

Pagination for Entire Books (optional)

General Rules for Pagination

  • Provide the total number of pages on which the text of the book appears
  • Do not count pages for such items as introductory material, appendixes, and indexes unless they are included in the pagination of the text
  • Follow the page total with a space and the letter p
  • For books published in more than one physical volume, cite the total number of volumes instead of the number of pages, such as 4 vol.
  • End pagination information with a period

Specific Rules for Pagination

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Roman numerals used as page numbers.

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No numbers appear on the pages of the book.

Physical Description for Entire Books (optional)

General Rules for Physical Description

  • Give information on the physical characteristics if a book is published in a microform (microfilm, microfiche, etc.), such as 3 microfiche: black & white, 2 x 4 in. Such information helps the reader select the appropriate equipment with which to view the microform.

Specific Rules for Physical Description

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Language for describing physical characteristics.

Examples for Physical Description

Series for Entire Books (optional)

General Rules for Series

  • Begin with the name of the series
  • Capitalize only the first word and proper nouns
  • Follow the name with any numbers provided. For example, vol. 3 for a volume or no. 12 for an issue number.
  • Separate the title and the number by a semicolon and a space
  • Place series information in parentheses
  • End series information with a period placed outside the closing parenthesis

Specific Rules for Series

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Series editor's name provided.

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Multiple series.

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Non-English names for volumes.

Language for Entire Books (required)

General Rules for Language

  • Give the language of publication if not English
  • Capitalize the language name
  • Follow the language name with a period

Specific Rules for Language

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Books appearing in more than one language.

Notes for Entire Books (optional)

General Rules for Notes

  • Notes is a collective term for further information given after the citation itself
  • Complete sentences are not required
  • Be brief

Specific Rules for Notes

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Book accompanied by a videocassette, CD-ROM, DVD, etc.

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Book with an ISBN.

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Other types of material to include in notes.

Examples of Citations to Entire Books

1. Standard book with initials for authors

Jenkins PF. Making sense of the chest x-ray: a hands-on guide. New York: Oxford University Press; 2005. 194 p.

Eyre HJ, Lange DP, Morris LB. Informed decisions: the complete book of cancer diagnosis, treatment, and recovery. 2nd ed. Atlanta: American Cancer Society; c2002. 768 p.

2. Book authors with optional full first names given

Hamric, Ann B.; Spross, Judith A.; Hanson, Charlene M. Advanced practice nursing: an integrative approach. 3rd ed. St. Louis (MO): Elsevier Saunders; c2005. 979 p.

3. Book with many authors (list all)

Iverson C, Flanagin A, Fontanarosa PB, Glass RM, Glitman P, Lantz JC, Meyer HS, Smith JM, Winker MA, Young RK. American Medical Association manual of style. 9th ed. Baltimore (MD): Williams & Wilkins; c1998. 660 p.

Wenger NK, Sivarajan Froelicher E, Smith LK, Ades PA, Berra K, Blumenthal JA, Certo CME, Dattilo AM, Davis D, DeBusk RF, Drozda JP Jr, Fletcher BJ, Franklin BA, Gaston H, Greenland P, McBride PE, McGregor CGA, Oldridge NB, Piscatella JC, Rogers FJ. Cardiac rehabilitation. Rockville (MD): Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (US); 1995. 202 p.

4. Book with optional limit to the first three authors

Iverson C, Flanagin A, Fontanarosa PB, et al. American Medical Association manual of style. 9th ed. Baltimore (MD): Williams & Wilkins; c1998. 660 p.

Wenger NK, Sivarajan Froelicher E, Smith LK, and others. Cardiac rehabilitation. Rockville (MD): Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (US); 1995. 202 p.

5. Book with author/editor name having designations of rank in a family

Bodenheimer HC Jr, Chapman R. Q&A color review of hepatobiliary medicine. New York: Thieme; 2003. 192 p.

Lewis RJ Sr. Hazardous chemicals desk reference. 5th ed. New York: Wiley-Interscience; c2002. 1695 p.

Langabeer JR 2nd, Napiewocki J. Competitive business strategy for teaching hospitals. Westport (CT): Quorum Books; 2000. 296 p.

Panjabi MM, White AA 3rd. Biomechanics in the musculoskeletal system. New York: Churchill Livingstone; c2001. 196 p.

Weise WJ 4th. Baby catcher: true stories from the life of an obstetrician. Enumclaw (WA): Pleasant Word; c2003. 105 p.

6. Book authors/editors with particles, prefixes, or prepositions in their names

O'Brien JA. Common problems in clinical laboratory management. New York: McGraw-Hill, Health Professions Division; c2000. 557 p.

O'Connor KP. Cognitive-behavioral management of tic disorders. Hoboken (NJ): John Wiley & Sons; c2005. 308 p.

Friedman EA, L'Esperance FA Jr, editors. Diabetic renal-retinal syndrome: pathogenesis and management update 2002. Boston: Kluwer Academic; c2002. 246 p.

MacDonald DD, Ben-Gashir MA, Robson AM. Dermatopathology. Malden (MA): Blackwell Publishing; 2005.

Van de Velde R, Degoulet P. Clinical information systems: a component-based approach. New York: Springer; c2003. 294 p.

de Groot WP, translator and editor. A colour atlas of venous disease. Engl. ed. London: Manson; c2003. 112 p.

7. Book authors/editors with compound last names having a hyphen

Lopez-Goni I, Moriyon I, editors. Brucella: molecular and cellular biology. Wymondham (England): Horizon Bioscience; c2004. 432 p.

Puig-Samper MA, Ruiz R, Galera Andres A, editors. Evolucionismo y cultura: darwinismo en Europa e Iberoamerica. Aranjuez (Spain): Ediciones Doce Calles; 2002. 407 p. Spanish, English, French, Portuguese.

8. Book authors/editors with compound last names without a hyphen

Garcia y Griego M, Verea Campos M. Mexico y Estados Unidos frente a la migracion de indocumentados. Mexico City: Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Coordinacion de Humanidades; 1988. 175 p. Spanish.

Lopez Castellano B, Nieto-Sampedro M, editors. Glial cell function. New York: Elsevier; 2001. 757 p.

9. Book with editors or translators when there is no author

Izzo JL Jr, Black HR, editors. Hypertension primer: the essentials of high blood pressure. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2003. 532 p.

Celli L, editor. The elbow: traumatic lesions. Warr A, translator. Vienna (Austria): Springer-Verlag; c1991. 203 p.

Flaws B, translator. The classic of difficulties: a translation of the Nan Jing. 3rd ed. Boulder (CO): Blue Poppy Press; 2004. 140 p.

Krachmer JH, Mannis MJ, Holland EJ, editors. Cornea. Finch M, illustrator. St. Louis (MO): Mosby; c1997. 3 vol.

10. Book with author(s) and editor(s)/translator(s)/illustrator(s)

Martin EW. Hazards of medication. 2nd ed. Ruskin A, Napke E, Alexander S, Kelsey FO, Farage DJ, Mills DH, Elkas RW, editors. Philadelphia: Lippincott; 1978. 686 p.

Stein E. Anorectal and colon diseases: textbook and color atlas of proctology. 1st Engl. ed. Burgdorf WH, translator. Berlin: Springer; c2003. 522 p.

Richer PM. Artistic anatomy. Hale RB, translator and editor. New York: Watson-Guptill; 1971. 255 p.

Luzikov VN. Mitochondrial biogenesis and breakdown. Galkin AV, translator; Roodyn DB, editor. New York: Consultants Bureau; 1985. 362 p.

Bosch F, Klomp R. Running: biomechanics and exercise physiology applied in practice. Bosch F, illustrator; Boer-Stallman DW, translator. Edinburgh (Scotland): Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; c2005. 413 p.

11. Book with organization as author/editor

Advanced Life Support Group. Acute medical emergencies: the practical approach. London: BMJ Books; 2001. 454 p.

Swiss Pharmaceutical Society, editor. Index nominum: international drug directory. 18th ed. Stuttgart (Germany): Medpharm Scientific Publications; 2004. 1823 p.

Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals of Environmental Relevance, editor. Naphthalin. Hicks R, translator. Weinheim (Germany): VCH; c1992. 155 p.

with place added for clarity

Beth Israel Hospital (Boston). Obstetrical decision making. Philadelphia: B.C. Decker; 1987. 320 p.

National Safety Council (US). AED, automated external defibrillation. Sudbury (MA): Jones and Bartlett; c1998. 54 p.

12. Book with organization as author and subsidiary department/division named

American Occupational Therapy Association, Ad Hoc Committee on Occupational Therapy Manpower. Occupational therapy manpower: a plan for progress. Rockville (MD): The Association; 1985 Apr. 84 p.

13. Book with organization as author which is also the publisher

Virginia Law Foundation, Committee on Continuing Legal Education. The medical and legal implications of AIDS. Charlottesville (VA): The Foundation; 1987. 148 p.

as an option, the full publisher name may be given

Virginia Law Foundation, Committee on Continuing Legal Education. The medical and legal implications of AIDS. Charlottesville (VA): Virginia Law Foundation; 1987. 148 p.

14. Book with organization as author and an editor(s)

American Association of Neuroscience Nursing. AANN core curriculum for neuroscience nursing. Bader MK, Littlejohns LR, editors. 4th ed. St. Louis (MO): Saunders; c2004. 1038 p.

15. Book with organization as author/editor including a translation

Medicinska Forskningsradet [Medical Research Council] (SE). MFR och forskning om AIDS och HIV: oversyn och rekommendationer av medicinska forskingsradets AIDS-grupp [MFR and research on AIDS and HIV: overview and recommendations of the Medical Research Council's AIDS group]. Stockholm: The Council; 1988. 46 p. Swedish.

Rinsho Shokaki Naika Henshu Iinkai [Clinical Gastroenterology Editorial Committee] (JP), editor. Daicho naishikyo sonyu shugi no kihon [Basic technical procedure of colonoscopy]. Dai 1-pan. Tokyo: Nihon Medikara Senta; 2003. 135 p. Japanese.

16. Book with multiple organizations as authors

National Lawyer's Guild AIDs Network (US); National Gay Rights Advocates (US). AIDS practice manual: a legal and educational guide. 2nd ed. San Francisco: The Network; 1988.

17. Book with no authors or editors

HIV/AIDs resources: a nationwide directory. 10th ed. Longmont (CO): Guides for Living; c2004. 792 p.

18. Book with author affiliation included

Fleisher GR (Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA), Ludwig S, Baskin MN, editors. Atlas of pediatric emergency medicine. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2004. 478 p.

Oermann MH (College of Nursing, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI), Gaberson KB (Department of Nursing Education, Shepherd University, Shepherdstown, WV). Evaluation and testing in nursing education. 2nd ed. New York: Springer; c2006. 403 p.

19. Book title in a language other than English

Katsunori K. [Euthanasia and criminal law]. Shohan. Tokyo: Seibundo; 2003. 198 p. Japanese.

Han'guk yagop 100-yon. Seoul (Korea): Yakop Sinmun; 2004. 2 vol. Korean.

Ochoa S. Base molecular de la expresion del mensaje genetico. Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas; 2000. 219 p. Spanish.

Tsimmerman IaS. Diagnostika i kompleksnoe lechenie osnovnykh gastroenterologicheskikh zabolevanii: klinicheskie ocherki. Perm (Russia): Permskaia Gosudarstvenennaia Meditsinskaia Akademiia; 2003. 286 p. Russian.

Hartmeier W. Immobilisierte Biokatalysstoren. Berlin: Springer-Verlag; 1988. 212 p. German.

with translation

Katsunori K. [Euthanasia and criminal law]. Shohan. Tokyo: Seibundo; 2003. 198 p. Japanese.

Han'guk yagop 100-yon [100-year pharmaceutical industry history]. Seoul (Korea): Yakop Sinmun; 2004. 2 vol. Korean.

Ochoa S. Base molecular de la expresion del mensaje genetico [Molecular basis of gene expression]. Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas; 2000. 219 p. Spanish.

Tsimmerman IaS. Diagnostika i kompleksnoe lechenie osnovnykh gastroenterologicheskikh zabolevanii: klinicheskie ocherki [Diagnosis and complex treatment of basic gastrointestinal diseases: clinical studies]. Perm (Russia): Permskaia Gosudarstvenennaia Meditsinskaia Akademiia; 2003. 286 p. Russian.

Hartmeier W. Immobilisierte Biokatalysstoren [Immobilized biocatalysts]. Berlin: Springer-Verlag; 1988. 212 p. German.

20. Book published with equal text in two languages

Chemically-defined flavouring substances = Substances aromatisantes chimiquement definies. 4th ed. Strasbourg (France): Council of Europe; c2000. 616 p. English, French.

Institut de Recherches Internationales Servier. Le genome: avancees scientifiques et therapeutiques et consequences sociales = The genome: scientific and therapeutic developments and social consequences. Paris: Elsevier; c2002. 271 p. French, English.

21. Book with text in multiple languages

Puig-Samper MA, Ruiz R, Galera Andres A, editors. Evolucionismo y cultura: darwinismo en Europa e Iberoamerica. Aranjuez (Spain): Ediciones Doce Calles; 2002. 407 p. Spanish, English, French, Portuguese.

Lopez Ferez JA, editor. La lengua cientifica griega: origenes, desarrollo e influencia en las lenguas modernas europeas. Madrid: Ediciones Clasicas; 2000. 2 vol. Spanish, French, German, Greek, Italian.

with translation included

Puig-Samper MA, Ruiz R, Galera Andres A, editors. Evolucionismo y cultura: darwinismo en Europa e Iberoamerica [Evolution and culture: Darwinism in Europe and Latin America]. Aranjuez (Spain): Ediciones Doce Calles; 2002. 407 p. Spanish, English, French, Portuguese.

Lopez Ferez JA, editor. La lengua cientifica griega: origenes, desarrollo e influencia en las lenguas modernas europeas [The Greek scientific language: origins, development and influence on modern European languages]. Madrid: Ediciones Clasicas; 2000. 2 vol. Spanish, French, German, Greek, Italian.

22. Book title with special characters

Greek letters may be written out if special fonts are not available

Huang YS, Ziboh VA, editors. γ-linolenic acid: recent advances in biotechnology and clinical applications. Champaign (IL): AOCS Press; 2001. 259 p.

or

Huang YS, Ziboh VA, editors. Gamma-linolenic acid: recent advances in biotechnology and clinical applications. Champaign (IL): AOCS Press; 2001. 259 p.

Juaristi E, Soloshonok VA. Enantioselective synthesis of β-amino acids. 2nd ed. Hoboken (NJ): Wiley; c2005. 634 p.

or

Juaristi E, Soloshonok VA. Enantioselective synthesis of beta-amino acids. 2nd ed. Hoboken (NJ): Wiley; c2005. 634 p.

Superscripts/subscripts may be enclosed within parentheses if fonts are not available

Schmidt KH, Manheim J. TiO2 nanoparticles. Weinheim (Germany): VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.; 2005. 278 p.

or

Schmidt KH, Manheim J. TiO(2) nanoparticles. Weinheim (Germany): VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.; 2005. 278 p.

23. Book with content type added

Liu-Ambrose TY. Studies of fall risk and bone morphology in older women with low bone mass [dissertation]. [Vancouver (BC)]: University of British Columbia; 2004. 290 p.

Grayson L, compiler. Animals in research: for and against [bibliography]. London: British Library; c2000. 320 p.

24. Book in a microform with type of medium given

Pennell S, editor. Women and medicine: remedy books, 1533-1865, from the Wellcome Library for the History and Understanding of Medicine, London [microfilm]. London: Wellcome Library for the History and Understanding of Medicine; c2004. 35 reels: black & white, negative, 35 mm.

Lombardo NE, Ooi WL, Gornstein ES. Dance/movement therapy with frail older adults: a controlled experiment to demonstrate effect on mood, social interaction, and physical functioning of nursing home residents and adult day health clients [microfiche]. Boston: Hebrew Rehabilitation Center for Aged, Research and Training Institute; 1996. 2 microfiche: blue & white, negative, 4 x 6 in.

Monnier H. Etude medicale de quelques guerisons survenues a Lourdes [microfilm]. Paris: Frison-Roche; c1997. 1 reel: black & white, negative, 35 mm. French.

25. Book with an edition

Modlin IM, Sachs G. Acid related diseases: biology and treatment. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2004. 522 p.

Brown AF. Accident and emergency: diagnosis and management. 4th ed. New York: Arnold; 2002. 442 p.

Belitz HD, Grosch W, Schieberle P. Food chemistry. 3rd rev. ed. Burghagen MM, translator. Berlin: Springer; 2004. 1070 p.

Schulz V, Hansel R, Tyler VE. Rational phytotherapy: a physician's guide to herbal medicine. 3rd ed., fully rev. and expand. Berlin: Springer; c1998. 306 p.

American Medical Association, Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs. Code of medical ethics: current opinions with annotations. 2004-2005 ed. Chicago: AMA Press; c2004. 377 p.

Ness BD, editor. Encyclopedia of genetics. Rev. ed. Pasadena (CA): Salem Press; c2004. 2 vol.

Stein E. Anorectal and colon diseases: textbook and color atlas of proctology. 1st Engl. ed. Burgdorf WH, translator. Berlin: Springer; c2003. 522 p.

26. Book with an edition in a language other than English

Arrighi AA. Biologia del envejecimiento en la mujer. 2° ed. ampliada y actualizada. Buenos Aires: Editorial Ascune; 2004. 142 p. Spanish.

Maldonado Ballon R. Sexualidad y reproduccion humana: vision medica; enciclopedia. 5a ed. La Paz (Bolivia): [publisher unknown]; 1988. 4 vol. Spanish.

Deutsch E, Lippert HD, editors. Kommentar zum Arzneimittelgesetz (AMG). 2., Aufl. Berlin: Springer; 2007. 885 p. German.

Giberti F. Manuale di psichiatria: per studenti, medici, assistenti sociali, operatori psichiatrici. 5 ed. interamente rielaborata. Padova (Italy): Piccin; c2005. 599 p. Italian.

Radzinskii VE. Biokhimiia platsentarnoi nedostatochnosti: monografiia. Izd. 3-e, rasshirennoe i dop. Moscow: Izd-vo Rossiiskogo Universiteta Druzhby Narodov; 2001. 275 p. Russian.

Katsunori K. Anrakushi to keihoi. Shohan. Tokyo: Seibundo; 2003. 198 p. Japanese.

Li S. Binhu mai xue bai hua jie. Di 3 ban. Beijing (China): Ren min wei sheng chu ban she; 2001. 117 p. Chinese.

27. Book with well-known place of publication

Kunzel W. Breech delivery. Paris: Elsevier; c2002. 274 p.

Stocksley M. Abdominal ultrasound. San Francisco: Greenwich Medical Media; 2001. 286 p.

28. Book place of publication with geographic qualifier added for clarity

Minkler M. Community organizing and community building for health. 2nd ed. New Brunswick (NJ): Rutgers University Press; c2005. 489 p.

Hall N. The role of the social welfare sector in Africa: strengthening the capacities of vulnerable children and families in the context of HIV/AIDS. Berne (Switzerland): International Federation of Social Workers; 2000. 10 p.

29. Book with place of publication inferred

Marquis DK. Advance care planning: a practical guide for physicians. [Chicago]: AMA Press; c2001. 105 p.

Liu-Ambrose TY. Studies of fall risk and bone morphology in older women with low bone mass [dissertation]. [Vancouver (BC)]: University of British Columbia; 2004. 290 p.

30. Book with unknown place of publication

Kuttner L. A child in pain: how to help, what to do. [place unknown]: Hartley & Marks; 1996. 271 p.

Hoobler S. Adventures in medicine: one doctor's life amid the great discoveries of 1940-1990. [place unknown]: S.W. Hoobler; 1991. 109 p.

31. Book publisher with subsidiary department/division named

Kinzbrunner BM, Weinreb NJ, Policzer JS, editors. 20 common problems in end-of-life care. New York: McGraw-Hill, Medical Publishing Division; c2002. 446 p.

Grannerg A, Armelius K, Armelius BA. Self-image pattern and treatment outcome in severely disturbed psychiatric patients. Umea (Sweden): Umea University, Department of Psychology; 2001. 13 p.

32. Book with government agency as publisher

Allison M, Hubbard RL, Rachal JV. Treatment process in methadone, residential, and outpatient drug free programs. Rockville (MD): National Institute on Drug Abuse (US), Division of Clinical Research; 1985. 89 p.

33. Book with joint publishers

Chandler F, editor. Herbs: everyday reference for health professionals. Ottawa: Canadian Pharmacists Association; c2000. 240 p. Co-published by the Canadian Medical Association.

34. Book with non-English publisher name including translation

Lindholm LH, Agenas I, Beerman B, Berglund G, Dahlgren H, Elmfeldt D, de Faire U, Jern S, Hjemdahl P, Johannesson M, Jonsson E, Jonsson B, Kahan T, Lundvall O, Samuelsson O, Svardsudd K, Waaler HT, Werko L, Aberg H. Mattligt forhojt blodtryck [Moderately elevated blood pressure]. Stockholm: Statens Beredning for Utvardering av Medicinsk Metodik [Swedish Council on Technology Assessment in Health Care]; 1994. 340 p. Swedish.

35. Book with unknown publisher

Maldonado Ballon R. Sexualidad y reproduccion humana: vision medica; enciclopedia. 5a ed. La Paz (Bolivia): [publisher unknown]; 1988. 4 vol. Spanish.

Sciarra C. Harvey Cushing fondatore della neurochirurgia. Rome: [publisher unknown]; [1971?]. Italian.

36. Book with unknown place of publication and publisher

Amjad H, translator. On the joints, arthritic pain: an early 13th century treatise on arthritis. [place unknown: publisher unknown]; 1996. 13 p.

Wilson JD. Steroid 5 alpha-reductase 2 deficiency. [place unknown: publisher unknown]; 1992. 36 p.

de Tartas P. Oeuvres de Ambrose Pare de La Val au Maine. Herni H, illustrator. [place unknown: publisher unknown; 1977?]. 3 vol. French, Latin.

37. Book with multiple dates of publication

Chang TM. Blood substitutes: principles, methods, products, and clinical trials. New York: Karger Landes Systems; 1997-1998. 2 vol.

Appenzeller O, editor. The autonomic nervous system. Amsterdam (Netherlands): Elsevier; 1999-2000. 2 vol.

Chevalier JM. The 3-D mind. Montreal (QC): McGill-Queen's University Press; 2002-2003. 3 vol.

38. Book with date of copyright instead of date of publication

Modlin IM, Sachs G. Acid related diseases: biology and treatment. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2004. 522 p.

Kruger L, editor. Pain and touch. San Diego (CA): Academic Press; c1996. 394 p.

Mark BS, Incorvaia J, editors. The handbook of infant, child, and adolescent psychotherapy. Northvale (NJ): Jason Aronson Inc.; c1995-1997. 2 vol.

de Varennes F, editor. Asia-Pacific human rights documents and resources. Boston: M. Nijhoff Publishers; c1998-2000. 2 vol.

39. Book with date of publication and date of copyright

Herrick CJ. The thinking machine. 2nd ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press; 1960, c1932. 372 p. (Chicago reprint series).

Research Task Force on Risk-Based Inservice Testing Guidelines. Risk-based testing: development of guidelines. New York: American Society of Mechanical Engineers; 2000, c1996.

40. Book with estimated date of publication

Pathak L, editor. Echocardiography non invasive diagnosis. Bombay: Cardiological Society of India; [1980?].

Lederer J. Alimentation et cancer. 3e ed. Brussels: Nauwelaerts; [1986?]. 315 p. French.

de Tartas P. Oeuvres de Ambrose Pare de La Val au Maine. Herni H, illustrator. [place unknown: publisher unknown; 1977?]. 3 vol. French, Latin.

41. Book with unknown date of publication

Marcuzzi A. Alimentazione: risorse e possibilita. Bologna (Italy): Malipiero S.p.A. Editore; [date unknown]. 72 p. Italian.

42. Book with unknown place, publisher, and date of publication

Steriu D, Stefanoiu V. Terapia si combaterea zoonozelor parazitare. [place, publisher, date unknown]. 205 p. Romanian.

43. Book with standard pagination

Annas GJ. American bioethics: crossing human rights and health law boundaries. New York: Oxford University Press; 2005. 244 p.

Blanc B, Siproudhis L. Pelvi-perineologie. Paris: Springer; 2005. 619 p. French.

44. Book published in more than one volume

Hamilton S, editor. Animal welfare & antivivisection 1870-1910: nineteenth century women's mission. London: Routledge; 2004. 3 vol.

45. Book with no numbers on the pages

Howell E. Access to children's mental health services under Medicaid and SCHIP. Washington: Urban Institute; c2004. 7 leaves.

Zaadstra BM, Staats PG, Davidse W. Aard en omvang van cannabis gebruik bij mensen met MS. Leiden (Netherlands): TNO Preventie en Gezondheid; 1998. 37 leaves. Dutch.

46. Book in a series with a number given

Indryan A, Sarmukaddam SB. Medical biostatistics. New York: Marcel Dekker; c2001. 645 p. (Biostatistics; 7).

Best SJ, Krueger BS. Internet data collection. Thousand Oaks (CA): Sage Publications; 2004. 91 p. (Quantitative applications in the social sciences; no. 07/041).

Bergstresser PR, Takashima A, editors. Gamma-delta T cells. New York: Karger; 2001. 142 p. (Chemical immunology; vol. 79).

47. Book in a series without a number

Evans LK, Lang NM, editors. Academic nursing practice. New York: Springer; c2004. 278 p. (Springer series on the teaching of nursing).

48. Book in a series with editor(s)

Forsman RB, editor. Administration and management in health sciences libraries. Lanham (MD): Medical Library Association; c2000. 222 p. (Bunting A, editor. Current practice in health sciences librarianship; vol. 8).

Redmond CK, Colton T, editors. Biostatistics in clinical trials. Chichester (England): John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.; c2001. 501 p. (Armitage P, Colton T, editors. Wiley reference series in biostatistics).

Ollendick T, editor. Children & adolescents: clinical formulation and treatment. Amsterdam (Netherlands): Elsevier Science; 1998. 754 p. (Bellack AS, Hersen M, editors. Comprehensive clinical psychology; vol. 5).

49. Book in multiple series

Rugg DL, Peersman G, Carael M, editors. Global advances in HIV/AIDS monitoring and evaluation. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass; c2004. 180 p. (New directions for evaluation; no. 103); (Jossey-Bass education series).

50. Book published also as a journal issue

Cardena E, Croyle K, editors. Acute reactions to trauma and psychotherapy: a multidisciplinary and international perspective. Binghamton (NY): Haworth Medical Press; 2005. 130 p. (Journal of trauma & dissociation; vol. 6, no. 2).

51. Book accompanied by a CD-ROM or other medium

Franco KL, Verrier ED, editors. Advanced therapy in cardiac surgery. 2nd ed. Hamilton (ON): B.C. Decker; 2003. 642 p. Accompanied by: 1 CD-ROM.

52. Book assigned an International Standard Book Number (ISBN)

Stern SD, Cifu AS, Altkorn D. Symptom to diagnosis: an evidence-based guide. New York: Lange Medical Books; c2006. 434 p. ISBN: 9780071463898.

53. Book available from a distributor

What kind of birth control is best for you? Rockville (MD): Food and Drug Administration (US); 2000. 12 p. Available from: US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC; HE 20.4050:B 53/2000.

54. Book with information on a library where it may be found

Lederer J. Alimentation et cancer. 3e ed. Brussels: Nauwelaerts; [1986?]. 315 p. French. Located at: National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD; FF9414.

55. Book with other note included

McRae J. AIDS, agencies and drug abuse: the Edinburgh experience. Norwich (England): Social Work Monographs; 1989. 40 p. Revised version of a dissertation originally submitted as part of an MSc. in applied social studies at Oxford University.

Stahl PH, Wermuth CG, editors. Handbook of pharmaceutical salts: properties, selection, and use. New York: Wiley-VCH; c2002. 374 p. Prepared for the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry.

Amjad H, translator. On the joints, arthritic pain: an early 13th century treatise on arthritis. [place unknown: publisher unknown]; 1996. 13 p. Translation from the Arabic of the work by Al-Sammarqandi.

Palazzo RE, Davis TN, editors. Centrosomes and spindle pole bodies. San Diego: Academic Press; c2001. 375 p. 16 pages of plates, some color.

Duac topical gel. Coral Gables (FL): Stiefel Laboratories, Inc.; 2008 Jan. Package insert. NDC 0145-2371-05.

Nasarel (flunisolide) nasal spray, 29 mcg. Mississauga (ON): Pantheon, Inc.; 2006 Sep. Package insert. Distributed by TEVA Specialty Pharmaceuticals.

B(1). Sample Citation and Introduction to Citing Individual Volumes With a Separate Title but Without Separate Authors/Editors

The general format for a reference to a volume of a book with a separate title but without separate authors/editors, including pagination:

Illustration of the general format for a reference to an individual volume
of a book with a separate title but without separate authors/editors.

Examples of Citations to Individual Volumes With a Separate Title but Without Separate Authors/Editors

Many medical texts are published in more than one volume because the number of pages is too large to be contained in one physical volume. If a book is published in multiple volumes, and if each volume has a separate title, the volumes may be cited individually:

  • Use the title page and the verso (back) of the title page of the individual volume as the source for authoritative information.
  • Place volume information immediately following the overall title for the book and any edition information or secondary author.
  • Give the pagination for the individual volume following the date of publication.

Continue to Citation Rules with Examples for Individual Volumes With a Separate Title but Without Separate Authors/Editors.

Continue to Examples of Citations to Individual Volumes With a Separate Title but Without Separate Authors/Editors.

Citation Rules with Examples for One Volume of a Book Without Separate Authors/Editors

Components/elements are listed in the order they should appear in a reference. An R after the component name means that it is required in the citation; an O after the name means it is optional.

Book (R) | Volume and Number (R) | Title (R) | Location (Pagination) (O)

Book (required)

General Rules for Book

Volume and Number of Volume (required)

General Rules for Volume and Number of Volume

  • Place volume and number information after the title of the book and any Content Type, Type of Medium, Edition statement, or Secondary Author
  • Enter "Vol." and a space
  • Follow the abbreviation for volume with the number of the volume
  • Use arabic numbers only. For example: convert VI or Six to 6.
  • End volume information with a comma and a space

Specific Rules for Volume and Number of Volume

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Non-English names for volumes.

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Numbers labeled other than volume.

Title of Volume (required)

General Rules for Title of Volume

  • Enter the title of the volume as it appears in the book
  • Capitalize only the first word of a title, proper nouns, proper adjectives, acronyms, and initialisms
  • End title information with a period

Specific Rules for Title of Volume

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Non-English titles for volumes.

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Titles containing a Greek letter, chemical formula, or another special character.

Location (Pagination) of Volume (optional)

General Rules for Pagination of Volume

  • Place pagination after the date of publication
  • Provide the total number of pages on which the text of the volume appears
  • Do not count pages for such items as introductory material, appendixes, and indexes unless they are included in the pagination of the text
  • Follow the number by a space and "p." Examples: 438 p. and 1025 p.

Specific Rules for Pagination of Volume

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Roman numerals for page numbers.

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Volumes continuously paginated.

Examples of Citations to Volumes of Books with a Separate Title for the Volume but Without Separate Authors/Editors

1. Standard volume of a book without separate authors/editors

Tos M. Manual of middle ear surgery. Vol. 3, Surgery of the external auditory canal. Stuttgart (Germany): Georg Thieme Verlag; 1997. 305 p.

Cicchetti D, Cohen DJ, editors. Developmental psychopathology. Vol. 1, Theory and methods. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; c1995. 787 p.

2. Volumes of books without separate authors/editors following an edition statement

Krachmer JH, Mannis MJ, Holland DJ. Cornea. 2nd ed. Vol. 1, Fundamentals, diagnosis and management. Philadelphia: Elsevier Mosby; 2005. 1409 p.

Voet D, Voet JG. Biochemistry. 3rd ed. Vol. 2, The expression and transmission of genetic information. New York: J. Wiley & Sons; c2004. p. 1107-560.

3. Volumes of books without separate authors/editors following an edition statement and secondary authors

Moller TB, Reif E. Pocket atlas of sectional anatomy: computer tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. 2nd ed., rev. and enl. Telger T, translator. Vol. 2, Thorax, abdomen, and pelvis. Stuttgart (Germany): Thieme; 2001. 226 p.

4. Volumes of books without separate authors/editors following a content type

Merbach W, Muller-Uri C. Lead in the environment [bibliography]. Pt. 3, Distribution of the environmental lead. Halle (Germany): Universitats- und Landesbibliothek Sachsen-Anhalt; 1993. 211 p. English, German, French, Spanish, Polish, Italian.

5. Volumes of books without separate authors/editors with numbers labeled other than volume

Merbach W, Muller-Uri C. Lead in the environment [bibliography]. Pt. 3, Distribution of the environmental lead. Halle (Germany): Universitats- und Landesbibliothek Sachsen-Anhalt; 1993. 211 p. English, German, French, Spanish, Polish, Italian.

6. Volumes of non-English books without separate authors/editors

Lagunas Rodriguez Z. Manual de osteologia antropologica. 1. ed. Vol. 1, Principios de anatomia osea y dental. Mexico City: Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia; 2000. 216 p. Spanish.

Han'guk yagop 100-yon. 2-kwon, 21-segi yakop ui chwapyo wa pijon. Seoul (Korea): Yakop Sinmun; 2004. Korean.

with translation

Lagunas Rodriguez Z. Manual de osteologia antropologica [Manual of anthropologic osteology]. 1. ed. Vol. 1, Principios de anatomia osea y dental [Vol. 1, Principles of bone and dental anatomy]. Mexico City: Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia; 2000. 216 p. Spanish.

Han'guk yagop 100-yon [100-year pharmaceutical industry history]. 2-kwon, 21-segi yakop ui chwapyo wa pijon [Vol. 2, Pharmaceutical perspective and vision in the 21st century]. Seoul (Korea): Yakop Sinmun; 2004. Korean.

7. Volumes of books without separate authors/editors continuously paginated

Oppenheim JJ, Feldmann M, Durum SK, Hirano T, Vilcek J, Nicola NA, editors. Cytokine reference: a compendium of cytokines and other mediators of host defense. Vol. 2, Receptors. London: Academic Press; c2001. p. 1437-2260.

Goldstein RE, Haywood VA, editors. Esthetics in dentistry. 2nd ed. Vol. 2, Esthetic problems of individual teeth, missing teeth, malocclusion, special populations. Hamilton (ON): BC Decker Inc; 2002. p. 471-884.

B(2). Sample Citation and Introduction to Citing Individual Volumes With a Separate Title and Separate Authors/Editors

The general format for a reference to a volume with a separate title and separate authors/editors:

Illustration of the general format for a reference to a volume with a
separate title and separate authors/editors.

Examples of Citations to Individual Volumes With a Separate Title and Separate Authors/Editors

If each volume of a book in a multivolume set has its own author(s) or its own editor(s) distinct from the authors/editors of the set of volumes, the individual volume may be cited. Begin the reference with the authors or editors and title of the individual volume; cite the overall set of volumes as a series.

For example, each volume in the following publication has its own editors, who are not the editors of the publication as a whole:

  • Bellack AS, Hersen M, editors. Comprehensive clinical psychology. Amsterdam (Netherlands): Elsevier Science; 1998. 11 vols.

To cite one volume only of this multivolume set:

  • Ollendick T, editor. Children & adolescents: clinical formulation and treatment. Amsterdam (Netherlands): Elsevier Science; 1998. 723 p. (Bellack AS, Hersen M, editors. Comprehensive clinical psychology; vol. 5).

Multivolume sets are bound alike with an essentially identical appearance and have one publisher. The volumes in them are considered primarily as a part of the set and often, but not always, have the same date of publication or are published over a short span of years. This is in contrast to large open series such as Methods in Enzymology and Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences which have published hundreds of volumes over decades. Such large series may be cited as journals (see Chapter 1), as NLM does in PubMed, but individual volumes may also be cited as part of the series.

Each volume in a multivolume set may have two title pages, one for the set and one for the individual volume. Use these title pages or their verso (back) for authoritative information to use in a citation. See also Chapter 2A for further details on the components of books.

Continue to Citation Rules with Examples for Individual Volumes With a Separate Title and Separate Authors/Editors.

Continue to Examples of Citations to Individual Volumes With a Separate Title and Separate Authors/Editors.

Citation Rules with Examples for Individual Volumes With a Separate Title and Separate Authors/Editors

Components/elements are listed in the order they should appear in a reference. An R after the component name means that it is required in the citation; an O after the name means it is optional.

Author/Editor (R) | Author Affiliation (O) | Title (R) | Type of Medium (R) | Edition (R) | Editor and other Secondary Authors (O) | Place of Publication (R) | Publisher (R) | Date of Publication (R) | Pagination (O) | Physical Description (O) | Series (O) | Language (R) | Notes (O)

Author/Editor for the Volume (required)

General Rules for Author/Editor

  • List names in the order they appear in the text
  • Enter surname (family or last name) first for each author/editor
  • Capitalize surnames and enter spaces within surnames as they appear in the document cited on the assumption that the author approved the form used. For example: Van Der Horn or van der Horn; De Wolf or de Wolf or DeWolf.
  • Convert given (first) names and middle names to initials for a maximum of two initials following each surname
  • Give all authors/editors, regardless of the number
  • Separate author/editor names from each other by a comma and a space
  • If there are no authors, only editors, follow the last named editor with a comma and the word editor or editors; see Editor and Other Secondary Authors below if there are authors and editors
  • End author/editor information with a period

Specific Rules for Author/Editor

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Surnames with hyphens and other punctuation in them.

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Other surname rules.

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Given names containing punctuation, a prefix, a preposition, or particle.

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Degrees, titles, and honors before or after a personal name.

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Designations of rank in a family, such as Jr and III.

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Names in non-roman alphabets (Cyrillic, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Korean) or character-based languages (Chinese, Japanese).

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Non-English words for editor.

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Organizations as author/editor.

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No author can be found.

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Options for author names.

Author Affiliation for the Volume (optional)

General Rules for Author Affiliation

  • Enter the affiliation of all authors or only the first author
  • Begin with the department and name of the institution, followed by city and state/Canadian province/country
  • Use commas to separate parts of the address
  • Place the address in parentheses, such as (Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA)
  • Separate the affiliation from its author by a space
  • Follow the affiliation with a comma placed outside the closing parenthesis, unless the affiliation is for the last author, then use a period

Specific Rules for Author Affiliation

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Abbreviations in affiliations.

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E-mail address included.

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Organizational names for affiliations not in English.

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Names for cities and countries not in English.

Examples for Author Affiliation

Title for the Volume (required)

General Rules for Title

  • Enter the title of a volume as it appears in the original document, in the original language
  • Capitalize only the first word of a title, proper nouns, proper adjectives, acronyms, and initialisms
  • Use a colon followed by a space to separate a title from a subtitle, unless another form of punctuation (such as a question mark, period, or an exclamation point) is already present
  • Follow non-English titles with a translation whenever possible; place the translation in square brackets
  • End a title with a period unless a question mark or exclamation point already ends it

Specific Rules for Title

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Titles containing a Greek letter, chemical formula, or another special character.

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Titles not in English.

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Titles in more than one language.

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Titles ending in punctuation other than a period.

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No title can be found.

Type of Medium for the Volume (required)

General Rules for Type of Medium

  • Indicate the type of medium (microfiche, ultrafiche, microfilm, microcard, etc.) following the title (and Content Type, if present) when a book is published in a microform
  • Place the name of the medium in square brackets and end with a period outside the closing bracket, such as [microfiche].
  • Add information about the medium according to the instructions under Physical Description below
  • See Chapter 15 for books in audiovisual formats, Chapter 18 for books on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk, and Chapter 22 for Internet books

Specific Rules for Type of Medium

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Titles ending in punctuation other than a period.

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Titles not in English.

Edition for the Volume (required)

General Rules for Edition

  • Indicate the edition/version being cited after the title when a volume is published in more than one edition or version
  • Abbreviate common words (see Abbreviation rules for editions below)
  • Capitalize only the first word of the edition statement, proper nouns, and proper adjectives
  • Express numbers representing editions in arabic ordinals. For example: second becomes 2nd and III becomes 3rd.
  • End the edition statement with a period
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Abbreviation rules for editions.

Specific Rules for Edition

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Non-English words for editions.

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First editions.

Examples for Edition

Editor and other Secondary Authors for the Volume (optional)

General Rules for Editor and other Secondary Authors

  • A secondary author modifies the work of the author. Examples include editors, translators, and illustrators.
  • Place the names of secondary authors after the title, following any Type of Medium or Edition statement
  • Use the same rules for the format of names presented in Author/Editor above
  • Follow the last named editor with a comma and the word editor or editors; the last named illustrator with a comma and the word illustrator or illustrators, etc.
  • End secondary author information with a period
  • If there is no author, move secondary authors such as editors and translators to the author position in the reference

Specific Rules for Editor and other Secondary Authors

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More than one type of secondary author.

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Secondary author performing more than one role.

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Non-English names for secondary authors.

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Organization as editor.

Examples for Editor and other Secondary Authors

Place of Publication for the Volume (required)

General Rules for Place of Publication

  • Place is defined as the city where the volume was published
  • Follow US and Canadian cities with the two-letter abbreviation for the state or province (see Appendix E) to avoid confusion when citing lesser known cities or when cities in different locations have the same name, such as Palm Springs (CA) and Palm Springs (FL)
  • Follow cities in other countries with the name of the country, either written out or as the two-letter ISO country code (see Appendix D), when citing lesser known cities or when cities in different locations have the same name, such as Cambridge (MA) and Cambridge (England)
  • Use the anglicized form for a non-US city, such as Vienna for Wien
  • End place information with a colon

Specific Rules for Place of Publication

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Non-US cities.

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Joint publication.

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Multiple places of publication.

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No place of publication can be found.

Publisher for the Volume (required)

General Rules for Publisher

  • A publisher is defined as the individual or organization issuing the volume
  • Record the name of the publisher as it appears in the publication, using whatever capitalization and punctuation is found there
  • Abbreviate well-known publisher names if desired but with caution to avoid confusion. For example, "John Wiley & Sons, Ltd." may become simply "Wiley".
  • When a division or other subsidiary part of a publisher is given, enter the publisher name first. For example: McGraw-Hill, Health Professions Division.
  • End publisher information with a semicolon

Specific Rules for Publisher

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Abbreviated words in publisher names.

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Non-English names for publishers.

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Government agencies and other national and international bodies as publisher.

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Joint publication.

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Multiple publishers.

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No publisher can be found.

Date of Publication for the Volume (required)

General Rules for Date of Publication

  • Always give the year of publication
  • Convert roman numerals to arabic numbers. For example: MM to 2000.
  • Include the month of publication, if desired, after the year, such as 2004 May
  • Use English names for months and abbreviate them using the first three letters, such as Jan
  • End date information with a period

Specific Rules for Date of Publication

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Multiple years of publication.

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Non-English names for months.

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Seasons instead of months.

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Date of publication and date of copyright.

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No date of publication, but a date of copyright.

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No date of publication or copyright can be found.

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Options for date of publication.

Pagination for the Volume (optional)

General Rules for Pagination

  • Provide the total number of pages on which the text of the volume appears
  • Do not count pages for such items as introductory material, appendixes, and indexes unless they are included in the pagination of the text
  • Follow the page total with a space and the letter p
  • For volumes published in more than one physical book, cite the total number of volumes instead of the number of pages, such as 4 vol.
  • End pagination information with a period

Specific Rules for Pagination

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Volume in a set continuously paginated.

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Roman numerals used as page numbers.

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No numbers appear on the pages of the volume.

Physical Description for the Volume (optional)

General Rules for Physical Description

  • Give information on the physical characteristics if a volume is published in a microform (microfilm, microfiche, etc.), such as 3 microfiche: black & white, 2 x 4 in. Such information helps the reader select the appropriate equipment with which to view the microform.

Specific Rules for Physical Description

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Language for describing physical characteristics.

Series for the Volume (optional)

General Rules for Series

  • Begin with the name of the series
  • Capitalize only the first word and proper nouns
  • Follow the name with any numbers provided. For example, vol. 3 for a volume or no. 12 for an issue number.
  • Separate the title and the number by a semicolon and a space
  • Place series information in parentheses
  • End series information with a period placed outside the closing parenthesis

Specific Rules for Series

Box Icon

Box 114

Series editor's name provided.

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Box 115

Non-English names for volume.

Box Icon

Box 116

Numbers labeled other than volume.

Language for the Volume (required)

General Rules for Language

  • Give the language of publication if not English
  • Capitalize the language name
  • Follow the language name with a period

Specific Rules for Language

Box Icon

Box 117

Volumes appearing in more than one language.

Notes for the Volume (optional)

General Rules for Notes

  • Notes is a collective term for further information given after the citation itself
  • Complete sentences are not required
  • Be brief

Specific Rules for Notes

Box Icon

Box 118

Volume accompanied by a videocassette, CD-ROM, DVD, etc.

Box Icon

Box 119

Volume with an ISBN.

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Box 120

Other types of material to include in notes.

Examples of Citations to Volumes With a Separate Title and Separate Author/Editors

1. Standard volume with a separate title and separate authors/editors for each volume

Bays RA, Quinn PD, editors. Temporomandibular disorders. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company; c2000. 426 p. (Fonseca RJ, editor. Oral and maxillofacial surgery; vol. 4).

Frank RG, Baum A, Wallander JL, editors. Models and perspectives in health psychology. Washington: American Psychological Association; c2004. 641 p. (Boll TJ, editor. Handbook of clinical health psychology; vol. 3).

Stephens D, editor. Adult audiology. Oxford (UK): Butterworth-Heinemann; c1997. 657 p. (Kerr AG, editor. Scott-Brown's otolaryngology; vol. 2).

2. Volume with optional full first names for editors

Gottsch, John D.; Stark, Walter J.; Goldberg, Morton F., editors. Ophthalmic surgery. 5th ed. London: Arnold; c1999. 506 p. (Carter, David C.; Russell, R.C.; Pitt, Henry A., editors. Operative surgery; vol. 6).

3. Volume editor/series editor with designation of family rank

Mishell DR Jr, editor. Reproductive endocrinology. Philadelphia: Appleton & Lange; c1999. (Stenshever MA, editor. Atlas of clinical gynecology; vol. 3).

Guyuron B, editor. Aesthetic surgery. Kanasz J, illustrator. St. Louis (MO): Mosby; c2000. p. 2427-887. (Achauer BM, Eriksson E, Guyuron B, Coleman JJ 3rd, Russell RC, Vander Kolk CA, editors. Plastic surgery: indications, operations, and outcomes; vol. 5).

4. Volume with author(s), not editor(s)

Reichart PA, Philipson HP. Oral pathology. Hassel T, translator; Hormann J, illustrator. Stuttgart (Germany): Thieme; 2000. 285 p. (Rateitschak KH, Wolf HF, editors. Color atlas of dental medicine).

Pott S. Medizin, Medizinethik und schone Literatur. Berlin: Walter De Gruyter; 2002. 284 p. (Sakularisierung in den Wissenschaften seit der Fruhen Neuzeit; bd. 3). German.

5. Volume with author/editor affiliation

Schachat AP (Johns Hopkins University and Hospital, Baltimore, MD), editor. Medical retina. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Mosby; c2006. p. 873-1889. (Ryan SJ, editor. Retina; vol. 2).

Poppas D (New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center, New York, NY), Retik AB, editors. Pediatric urology. Philadelphia: Current Medicine, Inc.; c2003. 182 p. (Vaughan ED Jr, Perlmutter AP, editors. Atlas of clinical urology; vol. 4).

Reichart PA (Zentrum fur Zahnmedizin Charite, Berlin, Germany), Philipson HP (San Pedro de Alcantara, Spain). Oral pathology. Hassel T, translator; Hormann J, illustrator. Stuttgart (Germany): Thieme; 2000. 285 p. (Rateitschak KH, Wolf HF, editors. Color atlas of dental medicine).

6. Volume title with special characters

Brenner DJ, Krieg NR, Staley JT, editors. The proteobacteria. Part C, The alpha-, beta-, delta-, and epsilonproteobacteria. 2nd ed. New York: Springer; c2005. 1388 p. (Garrity GM, editor. Bergey's manual of systematic bacteriology; vol. 2, pt. C).

7. Volume not in English

Stoopen ME, Kimura K, Ros PR, editors. Abdomen: higado, bazo, vias biliares, pancreas y peritoneo. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1998. 415 p. (Taveras JM, Cardoso JM, editors. Radiologia e imagen diagnostica y terapeutica; t. 2). Spanish.

Kastenbauer E, editor. Nase, Nasennebenhohlen, Gesicht, Mundhohle und Pharynx, Kopfspeicheldrusen. Stuttgart (Germany): George Thieme Verlag; 1992. 823 p. (Naumann HH, Helms J, Herberhold C, Kastenbauer, editors. Oto-Rhino-Laryngologie in Klinik und Praxis; bd. 2). German.

with translation

Stoopen ME, Kimura K, Ros PR, editors. Abdomen: higado, bazo, vias biliares, pancreas y peritoneo [Abdomen: liver, spleen, bile ducts, pancreas and peritoneum]. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1998. 415 p. (Taveras JM, Cardoso JM, editors. Radiologia e imagen diagnostica y terapeutica; t. 2 [Radiology and diagnostic and therapeutic imaging; vol. 2]). Spanish.

8. Volume published in multiple languages

Toomingas A, editor. Yttre arbetsmiljofaktorer som halsorisker bland halso- och sjukvardspersonal. Copenhagen: Nordisk Ministerrad; 1994. 195 p. (Halsovardens arbetsmiljo i Norden; d. 2). Swedish, Norwegian, Danish.

with translation

Toomingas A, Pettersen RB, Lindstrom K, Bach E, editors. Yttre arbetsmiljofaktorer som halsorisker bland halso- och sjukvardspersonal [Health risks in the work environment of health care personnel].Copenhagen: Nordisk Ministerrad; 1994. 195 p. (Halsovardens arbetsmiljo i Norden [The work and health of health care personnel in the Nordic countries]; d. 2). Swedish, Norwegian, Danish.

9. Volume published with equal text in two or more languages

Klunker W. Sleep, dreams, sexuality = Sommeil, reves, sexualite = Schlaf, Traume, Sexualitit. 3rd improved ed. Schmidt P, Baur J, translators. Heidelberg (Germany): Karl F. Haug Verlag; 1987. 611 p. (Barthel H, editor. Synthetic repertory: psychic and general symptoms of the homeopathic materia medica = Repertoire synthetique: symptomes psychiques et generaux de la matiere medicale homeopathique = Synthetisches Reportorium: Gemuts- und Allgemeinsymptome der homoopathischen Materia hedica; vol. 3). English. French, German.

10. Volume with edition

Kaufmann SH, Steward MW, editors. Immunology. 10th ed. London: Hodder Arnold; c2005. 1033 p. (Topley and Wilson's microbiology & microbial infections; vol. 7).

Freedman DX, Dyrud JE, editors. Treatment. 2nd ed. New York: Basic Books; c1975. 1009 p. (Arieti S, editor. American handbook of psychiatry; vol. 5).

Klunker W. Sleep, dreams, sexuality = Sommeil, reves, sexualite = Schlaf, Traume, Sexualitit. 3rd improved ed. Schmidt P, Baur J, translators. Heidelberg (Germany): Karl F. Haug Verlag; 1987. 611 p. (Barthel H, editor. Synthetic repertory: psychic and general symptoms of the homeopathic materia medica = Repertoire synthetique: symptomes psychiques et generaux de la matiere medicale homeopathique = Synthetisches Reportorium: Gemuts- und Allgemeinsymptome der homoopathischen Materia medica; vol. 3). English. French, German.

11. Volume with secondary author(s)

Guyuron B, editor. Aesthetic surgery. Kanasz J, illustrator. St. Louis (MO): Mosby; c2000. p. 2427-887. (Achauer BM, Eriksson E, Guyuron B, Coleman JJ 3rd, Russell RC, Vander Kolk CA, editors. Plastic surgery: indications, operations, and outcomes; vol. 5).

Reichart PA, Philipson HP. Oral pathology. Hassel T, translator; Hormann J, illustrator. Stuttgart (Germany): Thieme; 2000. 285 p. (Rateitschak KH, Wolf HF, editors. Color atlas of dental medicine).

Klunker W. Sleep, dreams, sexuality = Sommeil, reves, sexualite = Schlaf, Traume, Sexualitit. 3rd improved ed. Schmidt P, Baur J, translators. Heidelberg (Germany): Karl F. Haug Verlag; 1987. 611 p. (Barthel H, editor. Synthetic repertory: psychic and general symptoms of the homeopathic materia medica = Repertoire synthetique: symptomes psychiques et generaux de la matiere medicale homeopathique = Synthetisches Reportorium: Gemuts- und Allgemeinsymptome der homoopathischen Materia medica; vol. 3). English. French, German.

12. Volume with well-known place of publication

Reves JG, editor. Cardiothoracic anesthesia. Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone; c1999. (Miller RD, editor. Atlas of anesthesia; vol.8).

Moss J, Iglewski B, Vaughan M, Tu AT, editors. Bacterial toxins and virulence factors in disease. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc.; c1995. 627 p. (Tu AT, editor. Handbook of natural toxins; vol. 8).

Goldstein RE, Haywood VB, editors. Esthetic problems of individual teeth, missing teeth, malocclusion, special populations. 2nd ed. London: BC Dekker, Inc.; 2002. p. 473-884. (Goldstein RE, editor. Esthetics in dentistry; vol. 2).

13. Volume with geographic qualifier added to place of publication for clarity

Borman WC, Ilgen DR, Klimoski RJ, editors. Industrial and organizational psychology. Hoboken (NJ): John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; c2003. 649 p. (Weiner IB, editor. Handbook of psychology; vol. 12).

Gross AM, Drabman RS, editors. Child clinical applications. Thousand Oaks (CA): Sage Publications; c2005. p. 653-1118. (Hersen M, editor. Encyclopedia of behavior modification and cognitive behavior therapy; vol. 2).

Sudarshan SR, editor. Diseases and their causes. Taredo (India): Popular Prakashan; 2005. 319 p. (Encyclopaedia of Indian medicine; vol. 6).

Adams DA, Cinnamond MJ, editors. Paediatric otolaryngology. Oxford (UK): Butterworth Heinemann; c1997. (Kerr AG, editor. Scott-Brown's otolaryngology; vol. 6).

14. Volume with government agency as publisher

Jones FD, Sparacino LR, Wilcox VL, Rothberg JM, Stokes JW, editors. War psychiatry. Falls Church (VA): Department of the Army (US), Office of the Surgeon General; 1995. 508 p. (Lounsbury DE, editor. Textbooks of military medicine).

15. Volume with unknown publisher

Alizai S, Zia A. [Chanesar Goth and Landhi]. Islamabad (Pakistan): [publisher unknown]; [1993?]. 53 p. (Gender differentials in access to health care for Pakistani children; vol. 3). Study conducted for Unicef in November 1990.

16. Volume with date of publication

Sudarshan SR, editor. Diseases and their causes. Taredo (India): Popular Prakashan; 2005. 319 p. (Encyclopaedia of Indian medicine; vol. 6).

Belar CD, editor. Sociocultural and individual differences. New York: Pergamon; 1998. 384 p. (Bellack AS, Hersen M, editors. Comprehensive clinical psychology; vol. 10).

17. Volume with date of copyright instead of date of publication

Renninger KA, Sigel IE, editors. Child psychology in practice. 6th ed. Hoboken (NJ): John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; c2006. 1073 p. (Damon W, Lerner RM, editors. Handbook of child psychology; vol. 4).

Wilcox CS, editor. Hypertension and the kidney. Philadelphia: Current Medicine, Inc.; c1999. (Schrier RW, editor. Atlas of diseases of the kidney; vol. 3).

18. Volume with estimated date of publication

Alizai S, Zia A. [Chanesar Goth and Landhi]. Islamabad (Pakistan): [publisher unknown]; [1993?]. 53 p. (Gender differentials in access to health care for Pakistani children; vol. 3).

19. Volume in more than one physical volume

Page E, Fozzard HA, Solaro RJ, editors. The cardiovascular system. Vol. 1, The heart. Oxford (UK): Oxford University Press; 2002. 822 p. (Handbook of physiology; Sect. 2).

20. Volume with standard pagination

Harrison SI, Eth S, editors. Clinical assessment and intervention planning. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; c1998. 832 p. (Noshpitz JD, editor. Handbook of child and adolescent psychiatry; vol. 5).

21. Volume in a set continuously paginated

Gross AM, Drabman RS, editors. Child clinical applications. Thousand Oaks (CA): Sage Publications; c2005. p. 653-1118. (Hersen M, editor. Encyclopedia of behavior modification and cognitive behavior therapy; vol. 2).

Guyuron B, editor. Aesthetic surgery. Kanasz J, illustrator. St. Louis (MO): Mosby; c2000. p. 2427-887. (Achauer BM, Eriksson E, Guyuron B, Coleman JJ 3rd, Russell RC, Vander Kolk CA, editors. Plastic surgery: indications, operations, and outcomes; vol. 5).

22. Volume in a series with multiple editors

Porter TM, Ross D, editors. The modern social sciences. Cambridge (UK): Cambridge University Press; c2003. 762 p. (Lindberg DC, Numbers RL, editors. Cambridge history of science; vol. 7).

Ammerman RT, editor. Child psychopathology. Hoboken (NJ): John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; c2006. 493 p. (Hersen M, Thomas JC, editors. Comprehensive handbook of personality and psychopathology; vol. 3).

Guyuron B, editor. Aesthetic surgery. Kanasz J, illustrator. St. Louis (MO): Mosby; c2000. p. 2427-887. (Achauer BM, Eriksson E, Guyuron B, Coleman JJ 3rd, Russell RC, Vander Kolk CA, editors. Plastic surgery: indications, operations, and outcomes; vol. 5).

23. Volume with optional full names for series editors

Gottsch, John D.; Stark, Walter J.; Goldberg, Morton F., editors. Ophthalmic surgery. 5th ed. London: Arnold; c1999. 506 p. (Carter, David C.; Russell, R.C.; Pitt, Henry A., editors. Operative surgery; vol. 6).

24. Volume without an editor for the series

Kaufmann SH, Steward MW, editors. Immunology. 10th ed. London: Hodder Arnold; c2005. 1033 p. (Topley and Wilson's microbiology & microbial infections; vol. 7).

Pott S. Medizin, Medizinethik und schone Literatur. Berlin: Walter De Gruyter; 2002. 284 p. (Sakularisierung in den Wissenschaften seit der Fruhen Neuzeit; bd. 3). German.

25. Volume with series title having a subtitle

Guyuron B, editor. Aesthetic surgery. Kanasz J, illustrator. St. Louis (MO): Mosby; c2000. p. 2427-887. (Achauer BM, Eriksson E, Guyuron B, Coleman JJ 3rd, Russell RC, Vander Kolk CA, editors. Plastic surgery: indications, operations, and outcomes; vol. 5).

26. Volume with series title published with equal text in two or more languages

Klunker W. Sleep, dreams, sexuality = Sommeil, reves, sexualite = Schlaf, Traume, Sexualitit. 3rd improved ed. Schmidt P, Baur J, translators. Heidelberg (Germany): Karl F. Haug Verlag; 1987. 611 p. (Barthel H, editor. Synthetic repertory: psychic and general symptoms of the homeopathic materia medica = Repertoire synthetique: symptomes psychiques et generaux de la matiere medicale homeopathique = Synthetisches Reportorium: Gemuts- und Allgemeinsymptome der Homoopathischen Materia Medica; vol. 3). English. French, German.

27. Volume with other name for series number than volume

Hoffman JH, Jamieson JD, editors. Cell physiology. New York: Oxford; 1997. 960 p. (Handbook of physiology; Sect. 14).

Brenner DJ, Krieg NR, Staley JT, editors. The proteobacteria. Part C, The alpha-, beta-, delta-, and epsilonproteobacteria. 2nd ed. New York: Springer; c2005. 1388 p. (Garrity GM, editor. Bergey's manual of systematic bacteriology; vol. 2, pt. C).

28. Volume without a series number

Jones FD, Sparacino LR, Wilcox VL, Rothberg JM, Stokes JW, editors. War psychiatry. Falls Church (VA): Department of the Army (US), Office of the Surgeon General; 1995. 508 p. (Lounsbury DE, editor. Textbooks of military medicine).

Reichart PA, Philipson HP. Oral pathology. Hassel T, translator; Hormann J, illustrator. Stuttgart (Germany): Thieme; 2000. 285 p. (Rateitschak KH, Wolf HF, editors. Color atlas of dental medicine).

29. Volume with accompaniment

Goldstein RE, Haywood VB, editors. Esthetic problems of individual teeth, missing teeth, malocclusion, special populations. 2nd ed. London: BC Dekker, Inc.; 2002. p. 473-884. (Goldstein RE, editor. Esthetics in dentistry; vol. 2). Accompanied by: 1 CD-ROM.

30. Volume with an ISBN

Bays RA, Quinn PD, editors. Temporomandibular disorders. Winn WM, illustrator. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company; c2000. 426 p. (Fonseca RJ, editor. Oral and maxillofacial surgery; vol. 4). ISBN: 9780721696355.

31. Other types of notes

Jones FD, Sparacino LR, Wilcox VL, Rothberg JM, Stokes JW, editors. War psychiatry. Falls Church (VA): Department of the Army (US), Office of the Surgeon General; 1995. 508 p. (Lounsbury DE, editor. Textbooks of military medicine). Available from: US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC; D 104.35:PT.1/V.4.

Sudarshan SR, editor. Diseases and their causes. Taredo (India): Popular Prakashan; 2005. 319 p. (Encyclopaedia of Indian medicine; vol. 6). Located at: National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD; WZ 13 E56 1985.

Alizai S, Zia A. [Chanesar Goth and Landhi]. Islamabad (Pakistan): [publisher unknown]; [1993?]. 53 p. (Gender differentials in access to health care for Pakistani children; vol. 3). Study conducted for UNICEF in November 1990.

C. Sample Citation and Introduction to Citing Parts of Books

The general format for a reference to a part of a book, including pagination:

Illustration of the general format for a reference to a part of a
book.

Examples of Citations to Parts of Books

Rather than citing a book as a whole, separately identified portions of a book may be cited. Chapters, sections, tables, charts, graphs, photographs, appendixes, and the like are considered parts of books when they are written or compiled by the authors of the book. They are contributions when the book has an overall editor or editors and the individual chapters or other components in the book are written by various authors, usually called contributors.

In general, most modern texts have standardized to three types of parts: figures, tables, and appendixes. However, other names may be found for parts, including section, chart, graph, box, and photograph.

Because a reference should start with the individual or organization with responsibility for the intellectual content of the publication:

Medical texts frequently contain charts, figures, and other illustrative material that have been reproduced with permission from other sources. Do not cite these as parts using the instructions presented here. Consult the original publication and cite the particular item from there.

Continue to Citation Rules with Examples for Parts of Books.

Continue to Examples of Citations to Parts of Books.

Citation Rules with Examples for Parts of Books

Components/elements are listed in the order they should appear in a reference. An R after the component name means that it is required in the citation; an O after the name means it is optional.

Book (R) | Name and Number/Letter (R) | Title (R) | Location (Pagination) (R) | Language (R)

Book (required)

Name and Number/Letter of the Part of a Book (required)

General Rules for Name and Number/Letter

  • Enter the name of the part as it appears in the book
  • Capitalize the name, such as Chapter, Table, Figure, or Appendix
  • Do not abbreviate names. For example, convert Fig. to Figure.
  • Follow the name with any accompanying number or letter, such as Chapter 12, Table 2, Figure 3.1, or Appendix A
  • Use arabic numbers only. For example: convert VI or Six to 6.
  • End name and number/letter information with a comma and a space

Specific Rules for Name and Number/Letter

Box Icon

Box 121

Non-English names for parts.

Box Icon

Box 122

No letter or number follows the name.

Box Icon

Box 123

No name appears.

Title of the Part of a Book (required)

General Rules for Title

  • Enter the title of the part as it appears in the book
  • Capitalize only the first word of a title, proper nouns, proper adjectives, acronyms, and initialisms
  • Use a colon followed by a space to separate a title from a subtitle unless some other form of punctuation (such as a question mark, period, or an exclamation point) is already present
  • Follow non-English titles with a translation when possible; place the translation in square brackets
  • End title information with a semicolon and a space

Specific Rules for Title

Box Icon

Box 124

Titles for parts not in English.

Box Icon

Box 125

Titles for parts in more than one language.

Box Icon

Box 126

Titles for parts containing a Greek letter, chemical formula, or another special character.

Box Icon

Box 127

No title appears.

Location (Pagination) of the Part of a Book (required)

General Rules for Location (Pagination)

  • Begin location with "p." followed by a space
  • Enter the page number or numbers on which the part appears. Examples: p. 438 and p. 663-4
  • Do not repeat page numbers unless they are followed by a letter. For example: 126-127 becomes p. 126-7, but p. 126A-127A is correct.
  • Include a letter (often S for Supplement or A for Appendix) when it precedes the page number. For example: p. S10-8.
  • End location information with a period

Specific Rules for Location (Pagination)

Box Icon

Box 128

Roman numerals for page numbers.

Box Icon

Box 129

Part paginated separately.

Box Icon

Box 130

No page numbers appear on the part.

Language of the Part of a Book (required)

General Rules for Language

  • Give the language of publication if not English
  • Capitalize the language name
  • Follow the language name with a period

Specific Rules for Language

Examples for Language

Examples of Citations to Parts of Books

1. Standard chapter in a book

Riffenburgh RH. Statistics in medicine. 2nd ed. Amsterdam (Netherlands): Elsevier Academic Press; c2006. Chapter 24, Regression and correlation methods; p. 447-86.

Reed JG, Baxter PM. Library use: handbook for psychology. 3rd ed. Washington: American Psychological Association; c2003. Chapter 2, Selecting and defining the topic; p. 11-25.

Goldstein RE. Esthetics in dentistry. 2nd ed. Vol. 1, Principles, communications, treatment methods. Hamilton (ON): B.C. Decker; c1998. Chapter 13, Composite resin bonding; p. 277-338.

2. Chapter in a book with optional full first names of authors

Speroff, Leon; Fritz, Marc A. Clinical gynecologic endocrinology and infertility. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2005. Chapter 29, Endometriosis; p. 1103-33.

3. Standard figure in a book with number

Lashley FR. Clinical genetics in nursing practice. 3rd ed. New York: Springer Publishing Company; c2005. Figure 2.5, Meiosis with two autosomal chromosome pairs; p. 27-8.

Thibodeau GA, Patton KT. Anatomy & physiology. 5th ed. St. Louis (MO): Mosby; c2003. Figure 6-13, Onycholysis; p. 179.

Munro BH. Statistical methods for health care research. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2005. Exercise figure 14-1, Factor analysis of IPA items; p. 347.

Lancaster FW, Joncich MJ. The measure and evaluation of library services. Washington: Information Resources Press; c1977. Figure 9, Questionnaire used in U.K. catalog use study; p. 47-50.

4. Figure in a book with a letter

Nielsen-Bohlman L, Panzer AM, Kindig DA, editors. Health literacy: a prescription to end confusion. Washington: National Academies Press; c2004. Figure B-2, Improving chronic disease care: a framework based on health literacy and related research; p. 271.

Wood AF, Smith MJ. Online communication: linking technology, identity, and culture. Mahwah (NJ): Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; c2001. Figure A.1, Linear versus hypertext; p. 204.

5. Figure in a book without a number or letter

Eroschenko VP. Di Fiore's atlas of histology with functional correlations. 10th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2005. Overview figure, Comparison (transverse sections) of a muscular artery, large vein, and the three types of capillaries; p. 152.

6. Figure in a book without a number with name implied

American health: demographics and spending of health care consumers. Ithaca (NY): New Strategist Publications, Inc.; c2005. [Figure], Percent distribution of visits to emergency rooms by urgency of problem, 2002; p. 383.

7. Figure in a book with a constructed title

Grundy F, Grundy PF. Community health and social services: an introduction for medical undergraduates, health visitors, social workers and midwives. London: H.K. Lewis & Co. Ltd.; 1974. Figure 4, [Map of County Councils and District Councils in Wales]; p. 24.

8. Standard table in a book with a number

Larone DH. Medically important fungi: a guide to identification. 4th ed. Washington: ASM Press; c2002. Table 15, Characteristics of some of the "black yeasts"; p. 200.

American health: demographics and spending of health care consumers. Ithaca (NY): New Strategist Publications, Inc.; c2005. Table 11.19, Percent distribution of hospital discharges by diagnosis and age, 2002; p. 395-6.

Burant CF. Medical management of type 2 diabetes. 5th ed. Alexandria (VA): American Diabetes Association; c2004. Table 3.12, Sample regimens for achieving glycemic control; p. 68.

Moore KL, Persaud TV. The developing human: clinically oriented embryology. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; c2003. Table 6-1, Criteria for estimating fertilization age during the fetal period; p.103.

9. Table in a book with a letter

Nielsen-Bohlman L, Panzer AM, Kindig DA, editors. Health literacy: a prescription to end confusion. Washington: National Academies Press; c2004. Table B-7, Percentage of adult population groups with literacy skills at NALS levels 1 or 2; p. 294.

10. Table in a book without a number or letter

Pennington JA, Douglas JS. Bowes & Church's food values of portions commonly used. 18th ed. Baltimore (MD): Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2005. Supplementary tables: Fatty acids; p. 331-7.

11. Table in a book without a number or letter with name implied

Lide DR, editor. CRC handbook of chemistry and physics: a ready-reference book of chemical and physical data. 86th ed. Boca Raton (FL): Taylor & Francis; 2005. [Table], Vapor pressure of fluids at temperatures below 300 K; p. 6–84-6–91.

Mosley AD, Romaine DS. The encyclopedia of Parkinson's disease. New York: Facts on File; c2004. [Table], Hoehn and Yahr stage scale for Parkinson's disease; p. 158.

12. Standard appendix in a book with a number

Finberg L, Kravath RE, Hellerstein S, Saenger P. Water and electrolytes in pediatrics: physiology, pathology, and treatment. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company; c1993. Appendix 2, Time line; p. 267-70.

13. Appendix in a book with a letter

Zuber TJ, Mayeaux EJ. Atlas of primary care procedures. Jackelow WB, Gast P, Duprey LP, illustrators. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2004. Appendix H, Skin preparation recommendations; p. 596.

14. Appendix in a book without a number or letter

Moore KL, Persaud TV. The developing human: clinically oriented embryology. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; c2003. Appendix, Timetable of human prenatal development 1 to 6 weeks; p. 516-7.

Reed JG, Baxter PM. Library use: handbook for psychology. 3rd ed. Washington: American Psychological Association; c2003. Appendix, Brief guide to literature searching; p. 145-7.

15. Appendix in a book with name implied

University of Cape Town, Medical School, Department of Pharmacology. South African medicines formulary. 4th ed. Pinelands (South Africa): Medical Association of South Africa; c1997. [Appendix], Adverse drug event and product quality problem report form; [following p. 510.].

Blumenthal M, Hall T, Goldberg A, Kunz T, Dinda D, editors. The ABC clinical guide to herbs. Austin (TX): American Botanical Council; 2003. [Appendix], Post test; p. 425-30.

16. Appendix in a book with a constructed title

Woelfel JB, Scheid RC. Dental anatomy: its relevance to dentistry. 6th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2002. Appendix, [Drawings of permanent and primary teeth which are labeled (with letters) to highlight features of each tooth]; Appendix page 1-10.

17. Other named parts in a book with numbers

Ettinger SJ, Feldman EC. Textbook of veterinary medicine: diseases of the dog and cat. 6th ed. St. Louis (MO): Elsevier Saunders; c2005. Section 7, Dietary considerations of systemic problems; p. 553-98.

Berman A, Snyder S, Kozier B, Erb G. Kozier and Erb's techniques in clinical nursing. 5th ed. Upper Saddle River (NJ): Prentice Hall; c2002. Unit 3, Mobility and safety; p. 173-257.

Thibodeau GA, Patton KT. Anatomy & physiology. 5th ed. St. Louis (MO): Mosby; c2003. Box 10-1, Sports and fitness: assessing muscle strength; p. 283.

Timby BK. Fundamental skills and concepts in patient care. 8th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2005. Skill 16-4, Giving oral care to unconscious patients; p. 332-4.

18. Other named parts in a book with letters

Katz DL. Nutrition in clinical practice: a comprehensive, evidence-based manual for the practitioner. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2001. Part B, Dietary management in clinical practice: diet and exercise; p. 35-194.

19. Other parts in a book with numbers with name implied

Chapman CB. Dartmouth medical school: the first 100 years. Hanover (NH): University Press of New England; 1973. [Photograph] 8, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Professor of Anatomy and Physiology from 1838 to 1841; p. 31.

Gillmer M, Gordon D, Sever P, Steer P. 100 cases for students of medicine: medicine, surgery, obstetrics and gynaecology. Edinburgh (Scotland): Churchill Livingstone; 1979. [Case] 26, [Two patients were admitted complaining of difficulty in swallowing]; p. 71-2.

20. Other parts in a book without numbers or letters with name implied

American Medical Association. American Medical Association family medical guide. 4th ed., completely rev. and updated. Hoboken (NJ): John Wiley & Sons; c2004. [Chart], Impaired memory: difficulty remembering specific facts, events, or periods of time; p. 236.

21. Unnamed parts in a book without numbers or letters

Riffenburgh RH. Statistics in medicine. 2nd ed. Amsterdam (Netherlands): Elsevier Academic Press; c2006. Data and calculations required for a life table; p. 146.

Larone DH. Medically important fungi: a guide to identification. 4th ed. Washington: ASM Press; c2002. Malassezia furfur; p. 136.

Pagana KD, Pagana TJ. Mosby's manual of diagnostic and laboratory tests. 2nd ed. St. Louis (MO): Mosby; c2002. Sialography; p. 1029-30.

United States Pharmacopeial Convention. The United States pharmacopeia. The national formulary. USP 32nd rev., NF 27th ed. Vol 2. Rockville (MD): The Convention; 2009. Doxycycline capsules; p. 2211-2.

Physicians' desk reference: PDR. 63rd ed. Montvale (NJ): Thomson Reuters; c2008. Wellbutrin XL; p. 1659-66.

22. Dictionary entry, unsigned

Dorland's illustrated medical dictionary. 30th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; c2003. Encephalomalacia; p. 609.

23. Encyclopedia article, unsigned

Turkington C, Tzeel A. The encyclopedia of children's health and wellness. New York: Facts on File, Inc.; c2004. Papilloma virus, human (HPV); p. 381-3.

24. Part in a book with Greek letters or other special symbols in the title

The Merck index: an encyclopedia of chemicals, drugs, and biologicals. 13th ed. Whitehouse Station (NJ): Merck & Co., Inc.; 2001. α-Bisabolol; p. 212.

or

The Merck index: an encyclopedia of chemicals, drugs, and biologicals. 13th ed. Whitehouse Station (NJ): Merck & Co., Inc.; 2001. alpha-Bisabolol; p. 212.

25. Part in a book with superscripts or subscripts in the title

Kahl G. The dictionary of gene technology: genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics. 3rd ed. Weinheim (Germany): Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; c2004. Melting temperature (Tm, tm, t1/2m; melting point); p. 639-40.

or

Kahl G. The dictionary of gene technology: genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics. 3rd ed. Weinheim (Germany): Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; c2004. Melting temperature (T(m), t(m), t(1/2m); melting point); p. 639.

26. Part in a book with unusual pagination or no pagination

Owens RE. Language disorders: a functional approach to assessment and intervention. 4th ed. Boston: Pearson; c2004. Appendix D, Language tests for children with LEP and different dialects; p. A15-25.

Shingleton HM, Orr JW Jr. Cancer of the cervix. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott Company; c1995. Color figure 7-7, Excised uterus with wide vaginal cuff and parauterine tissues; [preceding p. 1].

University of Cape Town, Medical School, Department of Pharmacology. South African medicines formulary. 4th ed. Pinelands (South Africa): Medical Association of South Africa; c1997. [Appendix], Adverse drug event and product quality problem report form; [following p. 510].

Tappan FM, Benjamin PJ. Tappan's handbook of healing massage techniques: classic, holistic, and emerging methods. 4th ed. Upper Saddle River (NJ): Pearson/Prentice Hall; c2005. [Figure], Energy channels of traditional Asian medicine; [inside back cover and facing page].

Woelfel JB, Scheid RC. Dental anatomy: its relevance to dentistry. 6th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2002. Appendix, [Drawings of permanent and primary teeth which are labeled (with letters) to highlight features of each tooth]; Appendix page 1-10.

27. Parts of non-English books

Tischendorf FW. Blickdiagnostik: Compactatlas der klinischen Inspektion und Differenzialdiagnostik. 3., vollstandig uberarbeitete und erweiterte Auflage. Stuttgart (Germany): Schattauer; c2005. Abbildung 15, β-Thalassaemia minor; p. 9. German.

Fleta Zaragozano J. Enfremedades importadas en pediatria. Zaragoza (Spain): Prensas Universitarias de Zaragoza; 2001. Tabla 10, Etiologia de la esplenomegalia secundaria a procesos infecciosos; p. 109. Spanish.

Bercherie P. Lacan. Paris: L'Harmattan; 2004. Chapitre 4, Le virage de la jouissance; p. 91-102. French.

Corea Fonseca E. Historia de la medicina en Nicaragua. Managua (Nicaragua): [publisher unknown]; 2000 Dec. Anexo, Creacion de las especialidades medicas; p. 275-81. Spanish.

Basdekis JC. L'alimentation des personnes agees: et la prevention de la denutrition. Paris: ESTEM; c2004. Tableau 5, Principaux marqueurs biologiques de l'etat nutritionnel; p. 33. French.

with translation

Basdekis JC. L'alimentation des personnes agees: et la prevention de la denutrition [Nutrition in older people: and the prevention of malnutrition]. Paris: ESTEM; c2004. Tableau 5, Principaux marqueurs biologiques de l'etat nutritionnel [Table 5, Principal biological markers of nutritional state]; p. 33. French.

D. Sample Citation and Introduction to Citing Contributions to Books

The general format for a reference to a contribution to a book, including punctuation:

Illustration of the general format for a reference to a contribution to a
book.

Examples of Citations to Contributions to Books

Contributions are found when a book has an overall editor or editors and the individual chapters or other components of the book are written by various authors, usually called contributors. One or all of the editors may also be contributing authors. Because a reference should start with the individual or organization responsible for the intellectual content of the publication, begin a reference to a contribution with the author and title of the contribution, followed by the word "In:" and information about the entire book.

Medical texts frequently contain charts, figures, and other illustrative material that have been reproduced with permission from other sources. Do not cite these as contributions using the instructions presented here. Consult the original publication and cite the chart or other item from there.

Continue to Citation Rules with Examples for Contributions to Books.

Continue to Examples of Citations to Contributions to Books.

Citation Rules with Examples for Contributions to Books

Components/elements are listed in the order they should appear in a reference. An R after the component name means that it is required in the citation; an O after the name means it is optional.

Author/Editor (R) | Author Affiliation (O) | Title (R) | Connective Phrase (R) | Book Information (R) | Location (Pagination) (R) | Part (R)

Author/Editor of a Contribution to a Book (required)

General Rules for Author/Editor

  • List names in the order they appear in the text
  • Enter surname (family or last name) first for each author
  • Capitalize names and enter spaces within surnames as they appear in the document cited on the assumption that the author approved the form used. For example: Van Der Horn or van der Horn; De Wolf or de Wolf or DeWolf.
  • Convert given (first) names and middle names to initials, for a maximum of two initials following each surname
  • Give all authors/editors, regardless of the number
  • Separate author/editor names from each other by a comma and a space
  • If there are no authors, only editors, follow the last named editor with a comma and the word editor or editors
  • End author/editor information with a period

Specific Rules for Author/Editor

Box Icon

Box 131

Surnames with hyphens and other punctuation in them.

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Box 132

Other surname rules.

Box Icon

Box 133

Given names containing punctuation, a prefix, a preposition, or particle.

Box Icon

Box 134

Degrees, titles, and honors before or after a personal name.

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Box 135

Designations of rank in a family, such as Jr and III.

Box Icon

Box 136

Names in non-roman alphabets (Cyrillic, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Korean) or character-based languages (Chinese, Japanese).

Box Icon

Box 137

Non-English words for editor.

Box Icon

Box 138

Organizations as author.

Box Icon

Box 139

Options for author names.

Author Affiliation for a Contribution to a Book (optional)

General Rules for Author Affiliation

  • Enter the affiliation of all authors or only the first author
  • Begin with the department and name of the institution, followed by city and state/Canadian province/country
  • Use commas to separate parts of the affiliation
  • Place the affiliation in parentheses, such as (Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA)
  • Separate the affiliation from its author by a space
  • Follow the affiliation with a comma placed outside the closing parenthesis, unless it is the affiliation of the last author, then use a period

Specific Rules for Author Affiliation

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Box 140

Abbreviations in affiliations.

Box Icon

Box 141

E-mail address included.

Box Icon

Box 142

Organizational names for affiliations not in English.

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Box 143

Names for cities and countries not in English.

Examples for Author Affiliation

Title of a Contribution to a Book (required)

General Rules for Title

  • Enter the title of the chapter or other contribution as it appears in the original document, in the original language
  • Capitalize only the first word of a title, proper nouns, proper adjectives, acronyms, and initialisms
  • Use a colon followed by a space to separate a title from a subtitle unless some other form of punctuation (such as a question mark, period, or an exclamation point) is already present
  • Follow non-English titles with a translation whenever possible; place the translation in square brackets
  • End a title with a period unless a question mark or exclamation point already ends it

Specific Rules for Title

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Box 144

Titles not in English.

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Box 145

Titles in more than one language.

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Box 146

Titles containing a Greek letter, chemical formula, or another special character.

Connective Phrase for a Contribution to a Book (required)

General Rules for Connective Phrase

  • Place a space and the word "In" after the title of the contribution
  • Follow "In" with a colon and a space

Examples for Connective Phrase

Location (Pagination) for a Contribution to a Book (required)

General Rules for Location (Pagination)

  • Begin location with "p." followed by a space
  • Enter the page number or numbers on which the contribution appears. Examples: p. 438 and p. 663-4
  • Do not repeat page numbers unless they are followed by a letter. For example: 126-127 becomes p. 126-7, but p. 126A-127A is correct.
  • Include a letter (often S for Supplement or A for Appendix) when it precedes the page number. For example: p. S10-8.
  • End page information with a period

Specific Rules for Location (Pagination)

Box Icon

Box 147

Roman numerals for page numbers.

Box Icon

Box 148

No page numbers appear on the pages of the contribution.

Box Icon

Box 149

Optional chapter number.

Part of a Contribution to a Book (required)

General Rules for a Part of a Contribution

Examples of Citations to Contributions to Books

1. Standard reference to a contributed chapter

Whiteside TL, Heberman RB. Effectors of immunity and rationale for immunotherapy. In: Kufe DW, Pollock RE, Weichselbaum RR, Bast RC Jr, Gansler TS, Holland JF, Frei E 3rd, editors. Cancer medicine 6. Hamilton (ON): BC Decker Inc; 2003. p. 221-8.

Rojko JL, Hardy WD Jr. Feline leukemia virus and other retroviruses. In: Sherding RG, editor. The cat: diseases and clinical management. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 1989. p. 229-332.

Kone BC. Metabolic basis of solute transport. In: Brenner BM, Rector FC, editors. Brenner and Rector’s the kidney. 8th ed. Vol. 1. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier; c2008. p. 130-55.

2. Contributed chapter with optional full first names for authors and editors

Erin, Jane N.; Fazzi, Diane L.; Gordon, Robert L.; Isenberg, Sherwin J.; Paysse, Evelyn A. Vision focus: understanding the medical and functional implications of vision loss. In: Pogrund, Rona L.; Fazzi, Diane L., editors. Early focus: working with young children who are blind or visually impaired and their families. 2nd ed. New York: AFB Press; c2002. p. 52-106.

3. Contributed chapter authors with a family designation following their names

Buckenmaier CC 3rd. Austere environment anesthesia. In: Steele SM, Nielsen KC, Klein SM, editors. Ambulatory anesthesia and perioperative analgesia. New York: McGraw-Hill, Medical Publications Division; c2005. p. 357-70.

Otado JA, Akukwe C, Collins JW Jr. Disparate African American and white infant mortality rates in the United States. In: Livingston IL, editor. Praeger handbook of Black American health: policies and issues behind disparities in health. 2nd ed. Westport (CT): Praeger; 2004. p. 355-68.

4. Contributed chapter author names with a particle, prefix, or preposition

de Mattiello ML, Maneiro M, Buglione S. Sensitivity to movement of configurations of achromatic and chromatic points in amblyopic patients. In: Mellon JD, Pokorny J, Knoblauch K, editors. Normal and defective colour vision. New York: Oxford University Press; 2003. p. 154-9.

O'Connell MA, Jewell DM. Human resources management in group practice. In: Wolper LF, editor. Physician practice management: essential operational and financial knowledge. Sudbury (MA): Jones Bartlett Publishers; c2005. p. 139-70.

von Campenhausen C, Schramme J. Some properties of the physiological colour system. In: Mellon JD, Pokorny J, Knoblauch K, editors. Normal and defective colour vision. New York: Oxford University Press; 2003. p. 288-98.

Von Hoff DD, Hanauske AR. Preclinical and early clinical development of new anticancer agents. In: Kufe DW, Bast RC Jr, Hait WN, Hong WK, Pollock RE, Weichselbaum RR, Holland JF, Frei E 3rd, editors. Holland-Frei cancer medicine 7. 7th ed. Hamilton (ON): BC Decker Inc; 2006. p. 600-16.

Al-Ibrahim MS, Gross JY. Tobacco use. In: Walker HK, Hall WD, Hurst JW, editors. Clinical methods: the history, physical, and laboratory examinations. Stoneham (MA): Butterworth Publishers; c1990. p. 214-6.

Le Rohellec J, Brettel H, Vienot F. Contribution of achromatic and chromatic contrast signals to Fechner-Benham subjective colours. In: Mellon JD, Pokorny J, Knoblauch K, editors. Normal and defective colour vision. New York: Oxford University Press; 2003. p. 145-53.

5. Contributed chapter authors with compound last names

Hill-Tout J. Four nations delivering a National Health Service. In: Rawlins M, Littlejohns P, editors. Delivering quality in the NHS, 2004. Oxford (United Kingdom): Radcliffe Medical Press; c2004. p. 58-60.

Caldas de Castro M, Yamagata Y, Mtasiwa D, Tanner M, Utzinger J, Keiser J, Singer BH. Integrated urban malaria control: a case study in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania. In: Breman JG, Alilio MS, Mills A, editors. The intolerable burden of malaria: II. What's new, what's needed. Cleveland (OH): The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene; c2004. p. 103-17.

6. Contributed section with editor(s)

Johnson D, Ellis H, Collins P, editors. Pectoral girdle and upper limb. In: Standring S, editor. Gray's anatomy: the anatomical basis of clinical practice. 29th ed. Edinburgh (Scotland): Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2005. p. 799-942.

7. Signed encyclopedia article

Robinson A, Fridovich-Keil JL, Fridovich I. The principles of genetics and heredity. In: The new encyclopaedia Brittanica. 15th ed. Vol. 19. Chicago: Encyclopaedia Brittanica, Inc.; c2002. p. 699-740.

Hazeltine WA. AIDS. In: The encyclopedia Americana. International ed. Vol. 1. Danbury (CT): Grolier Incorporated; 1990. p. 365-6.

8. Contributed chapter with author address included

for all authors

Maisto SA (Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY), McKay JR (University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA), Tiffany ST (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN). Diagnosis. In: Allen JP, Wilson VB, editors. Assessing alcohol problems: a guide for clinicians and researchers. 2nd ed. Bethesda (MD): National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (US); 2003. p. 55-73.

for only the first author

Cohen AH (Department of Pathology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA), Nast CC. Renal injury caused by human immunodeficiency virus infection. In: Jennette JC, Olson JL, Schwartz MM, Silva FG, editors. Hepinstall's pathology of the kidney. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven; c1998. p. 785-810.

9. Contributed chapter with a title beginning with a lower-case letter or containing a special symbol or character

Brooks M. von Willebrand disease. In: Feldman BF, Zinkl JG, Jain NC, editors. Schalm's veterinary hematology. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2000. p. 509-15.

Bush K. Other β-lactam antibiotics. In: Finch RG, Greenwood D, Norrby SR, Whitley RJ, editors. Antibiotic and chemotherapy: anti-infective agents and their use in therapy. 8th ed. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 2003. p. 259-78.

or

Bush K. Other beta-lactam antibiotics. In: Finch RG, Greenwood D, Norrby SR, Whitley RJ, editors. Antibiotic and chemotherapy: anti-infective agents and their use in therapy. 8th ed. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 2003. p. 259-78.

10. Contributed chapter with a non-English title

Menu Y. Imagerie des cancers du pancreas exocrine. In: Lledo G, editor. Le cancer du pancreas exocrine. Montrouge (France): Editions John Libbey Eurotext; c2004. p. 27-44. French.

Luis DA, Izaola O. Modificacion de la dieta durante las diferentes etapas de la vida. In: Aller de la Fuente R, Izaola Jauregui O, Gonzalez Martin J, de Luis Roman DA, de Luis Roman J, editors. Dietetica aplicada a la practica clinica. Valladolid (Spain): Universidad de Valladolid, Secretariado de Publicaciones e Intercambio Editorial; c2002. p. 35-51. Spanish.

with translation

Menu Y. Imagerie des cancers du pancreas exocrine [Images of cancer of the exocrine pancreas]. In: Lledo G, editor. Le cancer du pancreas exocrine [Cancer of the exocrine pancreas]. Montrouge (France): Editions John Libbey Eurotext; c2004. p. 27-44. French.

11. Contributed chapter with an optional chapter number instead of pagination

Simon D, Boring JR 3rd. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value. In: Walker HK, Hall WD, Hurst JW, editors. Clinical methods: the history, physical, and laboratory examinations. Stoneham (MA): Butterworth Publishers; c1990. Chapter 6.

Whiteside TL, Heberman RB. Effectors of immunity and rationale for immunotherapy. In: Kufe DW, Pollock RE, Weichselbaum RR, Bast RC Jr, Gansler TS, Holland JF, Frei E 3rd, editors. Cancer medicine 6. 6th ed. Hamilton (ON): BC Decker Inc; 2003. Chapter 14.

12. Contributed chapter in a book with translators or illustrators

Jackman DS, Willoughby JH. Odontogenic infections: anatomy and surgical management. In: Dym H, Ogle OE, editors. Atlas of minor oral surgery. Wettan HL, illustrator. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company; c2001. p. 137-49.

Newton CW, Brown CE Jr. Geriatric endodontics. In: Cohen S, Burns RC, editors. Pathways of the pulp. 7th ed. Burns RC, illustrator. St. Louis: Mosby; 1998. p. 759-90.

Kiesewetter H, Jung F. Rheological therapy in peripheral arterial occlusion. In: Lawin P, Zander J, Weidler B, editors. Hydroxyethyl starch: a current overview. Ladak A, translator. Stuttgart (Germany): Georg Thieme Verlag; 1992. p. 121-8. Translation of: Hydroxyethylstarke: eine aktuelle Ubersicht.

13. Contributed chapter in a book with an edition statement

Pier GB, Ramphal R. Pseudomas aeruginosa. In: Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R, editors. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's principles and practice of infectious diseases. 6th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; c2005. p. 2587-615.

Sobell LC, Sobell MB. Alcohol consumption measures. In: Allen JP, Wilson VB, editors. Assessing alcohol problems: a guide for clinicians and researchers. 2nd ed. Bethesda (MD): National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (US); 2003. p. 75-99.

Rogers ZR, Aquino VM, Buchanan GR. Hematologic supportive care and hematopoietic cytokines. In: Pizzo PA, Poplack DG, editors. Principles and practice of pediatric oncology. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2002. p. 1205-38.

14. Contributed chapter in a book with subordinate division to the publisher

Scott DL. Ambulatory anesthesia for cosmetic surgery. In: Steele SM, Nielsen KC, Klein SM, editors. Ambulatory anesthesia and perioperative analgesia. New York: McGraw-Hill, Medical Publications Division; c2005. p. 311-20.

15. Contributed chapter in a book that is part of a series

Sobell LC, Sobell MB. Alcohol consumption measures. In: Allen JP, Wilson VB, editors. Assessing alcohol problems: a guide for clinicians and researchers. 2nd ed. Bethesda (MD): National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (US); 2003. p. 75-99. (NIH publication; no. 03-3745).

16. Contributed chapter in one volume of a multivolume book

Murphy PM. Chemokine receptors: overview. In: Oppenheim JJ, Feldmann M, Durum SK, Hirano T, Vilcek J, Nicola NA, editors. Cytokine reference: a compendium of cytokines and other mediators of host defense. Vol. 2, Receptors. London: Academic Press; c2001. p. 1971-80.

Robinson A, Fridovich-Keil JL, Fridovich I. The principles of genetics and heredity. In: The new encyclopaedia Brittanica. 15th ed. Vol. 19. Chicago: Encyclopaedia Brittanica, Inc.; c2002. p. 699-740.

Rygaard J, Povlsen CO. Athymic (nude) mice. In: Foster HL, Small JD, Fox JG, editors. The mouse in biomedical research. Vol. 4, Experimental biology and oncology. New York: Academic Press; 1982. p. 51-67.

17. Part of a contributed chapter

Whiteside TL, Heberman RB. Effectors of immunity and rationale for immunotherapy. In: Kufe DW, Pollock RE, Weichselbaum RR, Bast RC Jr, Gansler TS, Holland JF, Frei E 3rd, editors. Cancer medicine 6. Hamilton (ON): BC Decker Inc; 2003. Figure 14-4, Accumulation of Vβ 23-restricted CD3+ T lymphocytes in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) and autologous peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) in a patient with head and neck cancer; p. 223.

18. Part of a contributed chapter in one volume of a multivolume book

Misulis KE. Hemiplegia and monoplegia. In: Bradley WG, Daroff RB, Fenichel GM, Jankovic J, editors. Neurology in clinical practice. 4th ed. Vol. 1, Principles of diagnosis and management. Philadelphia: Butterworth-Heinemann; c2004. Table 26.2, Brainstem lesions; p. 341.

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