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Patrias K, author; Wendling D, editor. Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers [Internet]. 2nd edition. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2007-.

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Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers [Internet]. 2nd edition.

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Chapter 7Patents

Created: ; Last Update: August 11, 2015.

Sample Citation and Introduction to Citing Patents

The general format for a reference to a patent, including punctuation:

Illustration of the general format for a reference to a patent.

Examples of Citations to Patents

A patent is "A title of legal protection of an invention, issued, upon application and subject to meeting legal criteria, by a government office" (NISO Z39.29). Patents are a special type of legal document requiring specific information. Thus citations to patents are very different from the standard book.

  • Patents have two types of "authors", the inventor(s) of the device, process, or other entity being patented, and the "assignee", the organization or individual(s) holding legal title to the patent. Note that assignee is used to refer to both a single patent holder or multiple holders.
  • The name of the country granting the patent and the patent number are used instead of place of publication and publisher. Use the adjectival form of the English name for the country, e.g., "French" for France and "German" for Germany. Note, however, that US patents use United States and UK patents United Kingdom, not American and British.

In addition to patents being granted by individual countries, they may be issued by a regional office working for a number of countries, such as the European Patent Office, the Eurasian Patent Organization, and the African Regional Intellectual Property Organization. Under such regional systems, an applicant requests protection for the invention in one or more countries, and each country decides whether to offer patent protection within its borders. Patent numbers beginning with EP, for example, were issued by the European Patent Office. Finally, international patents may be issued through the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO). "World patent" is used for the country, and patent numbers begin with WO.

Either a final patent or a patent application may be cited. For the latter, include the word application as part of the patent document type. See the rules for Patent Applications below and example #26.

Continue to Citation Rules with Examples for Patents.

Continue to Examples of Citations to Patents.

Citation Rules with Examples for Patents

Components/elements are listed in the order they should appear in a reference. An R after the component name means that it is required in the citation; an O after the name means it is optional.

Author (Inventor) (R) | Author (Assignee) (R) | Author Affiliation (O) | Title (R) | Type of Medium (R) | Patent Country (R) | Patent Document Type (R) | Country Code (R) | Patent Number (R) | Date Issued (R) | Pagination (O) | Physical Description (O) | International Classification Code (O) | Country Classification Code (O) | Application Number and Filing Date (O) | Language (R) | Notes (O) | Patent Applications

Author (Inventor) for Patents (required)

General Rules for Author (inventor)

  • Begin with names of the inventors
  • List names in the order they appear in the text
  • Enter surname (family or last name) first for each inventor
  • Capitalize surnames and enter spaces within surnames as they appear in the document cited on the assumption that the author approved the form used. For example: Van Der Horn or van der Horn; De Wolf or de Wolf or DeWolf.
  • Convert given (first) names and middle names to initials for a maximum of two initials following each surname
  • Give all inventors, regardless of the number
  • Separate inventor names from each other by a comma and a space
  • Follow the last named inventor with a comma and the word inventor or inventors
  • End inventor information with a semicolon and a space

Specific Rules for Author (inventor)

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Box 1

Surnames provided in all capital letters.

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Box 2

Surnames with hyphens and other punctuation in them.

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Box 3

Other surname rules.

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Box 4

Given names containing punctuation, a prefix, a preposition, or particle.

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Box 5

Designations of rank in a family, such as Jr and III.

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Box 6

Degrees, titles, and honors before or after a personal name.

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Box 7

Non-English names for inventor.

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Box 8

Names in non-roman alphabets (Cyrillic, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Korean) or character-based languages (Chinese, Japanese).

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Box 9

Organizations as inventor.

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Box 10

Options for inventor names.

Author (Assignee) for Patents (required)

General Rules for Author (assignee)

  • List names of the assignee (also called proprietors or applicants in some countries) in the order they appear in the text
  • Give the name of an organization as it appears on the title page of the patent, using whatever abbreviations and punctuation are found
  • Enter surname (family or last name) first for each person as assignee
  • Capitalize surnames and enter spaces within surnames as they appear in the document cited on the assumption that the author approved the form used. For example: Van Der Horn or van der Horn; De Wolf or de Wolf or DeWolf.
  • Convert given (first) names and middle names to initials for a maximum of two initials following each surname
  • Give all assignee, regardless of the number
  • Separate assignee names from each other by a comma and a space
  • Follow the last named assignee with a comma and the word assignee (assignee is used for both singular and plural)
  • End assignee information with a period

Specific Rules for Author (assignee)

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Box 11

Names provided in all capital letters.

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Box 12

Surnames with hyphens and other punctuation in them.

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Box 13

Other surname rules.

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Box 14

Given names containing punctuation, a prefix, a preposition, or particle.

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Box 15

Designations of rank in a family, such as Jr and III.

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Box 16

Degrees, titles, and honors before or after a personal name.

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Box 17

Non-English names for assignee.

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Box 18

Names in non-roman alphabets (Cyrillic, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Korean) or character-based languages (Chinese, Japanese).

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Box 19

Organizations as assignee.

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Box 20

Both individuals and organizations as assignee.

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Box 21

Options for assignee names.

Author Affiliation for Patents (optional)

General Rules for Author Affiliation

  • Enter the affiliation of all inventors and assignee or only the first one
  • Begin with the name of the city, if given
  • Follow US and Canadian cities with the two-letter abbreviation for the state or province (see Appendix E)
  • Follow cities in other countries with the name of the country, either as the two-letter ISO country code (see Appendix D) or written out in full
  • Use commas to separate parts of the address
  • Place the address in parentheses, such as (Pittsburgh, PA), (Berlin, DE), and (France)
  • End affiliation information with a comma placed outside the closing parenthesis

Specific Rules for Author Affiliation

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Box 22

Names for cities and countries not in English.

Title for Patents (required)

General Rules for Title

  • Enter the title of a patent as it appears in the original document, in the original language
  • Capitalize only the first word of a title, proper nouns, proper adjectives, acronyms, and initialisms
  • Follow non-English titles with a translation whenever possible; place the translation in square brackets
  • End a title with a period

Specific Rules for Title

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Box 23

Titles not in English.

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Box 24

Titles containing a Greek letter, chemical formula, or another special character.

Type of Medium for Patents (required)

General Rules for Type of Medium

  • Indicate the type of medium (microfiche, ultrafiche, microfilm, microcard, etc.) following the title when a patent is published in a microform
  • Place the name of the medium in square brackets and end with a period, such as "[microfiche]."
  • Add information about the medium according to the instructions under Physical Description below

Specific Rules for Type of Medium

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Box 25

Titles not in English.

Examples for Type of Medium

Patent Country (required)

General Rules for Patent Country

  • Name the country issuing the patent
  • Use the adjectival form of the name, such as French and Russian, but use United States and United Kingdom
  • End place information with a space

Specific Rules for Patent Country

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Box 26

Regional office rather than an individual country.

Patent Document Type (required)

General Rules for Patent Document Type

  • Use whatever specific document type is found on the publication
  • For US patents, simply use the word patent
  • End type information with a space

Specific Rules for Patent Document Type

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Box 27

Document types for non-US patents.

Examples for Patent Document Type

Country Code for Patents (required)

General Rules for Country Code

  • Use the two-letter ISO code for the country (see Appendix D)
  • Follow the code with a space

Specific Rules for Country Code

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Box 28

Regional office rather than an individual country.

Patent Number (required)

General Rules for Patent Number

  • Record the patent number as it appears on the publication, using whatever spacing and punctuation are found
  • End the patent number with a period

Specific Rules for Patent Number

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Box 29

Letters following patent numbers.

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Box 30

Optional brief patent citation format.

Date Issued for Patents (required)

General Rules for Date Issued

  • Begin with the year of publication
  • Follow the year with the month and day of publication, such as 2004 May 10
  • Use English names for months and abbreviate them to the first three letters, such as Jan
  • End date information with a period

Specific Rules for Date Issued

Box Icon

Box 31

Non-US forms for dates.

Pagination for Patents (optional)

General Rules for Pagination

  • Provide the total number of pages on which the text of the patent appears
  • Follow the page total with a space and the letter p
  • End pagination information with a period

Specific Rules for Pagination

Box Icon

Box 32

No numbers appear on the pages of the patent.

Physical Description for Patents (optional)

General Rules for Physical Description

  • Give information on the physical characteristics if a patent is published in a microform (microfilm, microfiche, etc.), such as 3 microfiche: black & white, 2 x 4 in. Such information will help the reader select the appropriate equipment with which to view the microform.

Specific Rules for Physical Description

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Box 33

Language for describing physical characteristics.

Examples for Physical Description

International Classification Code for Patents (optional)

General Rules for International Classification Code

  • Abbreviate International Classification Code to "Int. Cl." and follow it with a space
  • Enter the International Classification Code number or numbers in the order found on the patent
  • Separate multiple classification numbers by a semicolon and a space
  • End the list with a period

Examples for International Classification Code

Country Classification Code for Patents (optional)

General Rules for Country Classification Code

  • Begin with the two-letter ISO code (see Appendix D) for the country issuing the patent, followed by a space
  • Follow the country code with the abbreviation "Cl." and a space, such as "US Cl."
  • Enter the classification number or numbers assigned to the patent by the country in the order found on the patent
  • Separate multiple classification numbers by a semicolon and a space
  • End the list with a period

Examples for Country Classification Code

Application Number and Filing Date for Published Patents (optional)

General Rules for Application Number and Filing Date

  • Abbreviate application number to Appl. No. and end it with a colon and a space
  • Enter the application number followed by a semicolon and a space
  • Give the filing date in the format year month day, as 2006 May 3
  • End the date with a period
  • To cite a patent application for unpublished patents, see Patent Applications below

Examples for Application Number and Filing Date

Language for Patents (required)

General Rules for Language

  • Give the language of publication if other than English
  • Capitalize the language name
  • Follow the language name with a period

Notes for Patents (optional)

General Rules for Notes

  • Notes is a collective term for any type of useful information given after the citation itself
  • Complete sentences are not required
  • Be brief

Specific Rules for Notes

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Box 34

Related and cited patents.

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Box 35

Countries that recognize a regional or world patent.

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Box 36

Other types of material to include in notes.

Patent Applications

General Rules for Patent Applications

  • Cite the patent application using the rules above
  • Insert the word application between the word patent and the country code, such as UK patent application GB 2 146 419 A
  • Be sure to include any letters that follow or precede the number
  • Follow the patent application number with a period and a space
  • Give the application date in the format year month day, as 2006 May 3
  • End the date with a period

Specific Rules for Patent Applications

Box Icon

Box 37

Non-US names for applications.

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Box 38

Non-US forms for dates.

Examples for Patent Applications

Examples of Citations to Patents

1. Standard US patent

Cho ST, inventor; Hospira, Inc., assignee. Microneedles for minimally invasive drug delivery. United States patent US 6,980,855. 2005 Dec 27.

Myers K, Nguyen C, inventors; 3F Therapeutics, Inc., assignee. Prosthetic heart valve. United States patent US 6,911,043. 2005 Jun 28.

2. US patent with optional full names for inventor(s)

Howlett, Charles W.; Bullis, Grant.; Bernardo, Angel, inventors; Nobel Biocare Services AG, assignee. Dental implant delivery system. United States patent US 6,913,465. 2005 Jul 5.

3. Patent in which an inventor is also an assignee

Smith MK, Duggan JM, Stalzer CM, Smith SC, Mowry GJ, inventors; Smith MK, assignee. Universal flexible arm. United States patent US 5,823,486. 1998 Oct 20.

Bilenski E, Cobb NC, inventors; Bilenski E, Cobb NC, assignee. Single use, self-contained twist resistant surgical knife. United States patent US 6,979,340. 2005 Dec 27.

4. Patent in which an organization is the inventor

Seiko Ohkubo, inventor; Seiko Ohkubo, assignee. Acupressure appliance for medical treatment. United Kingdom patent GB 2 350 301. 2000 Nov 29. 47 p.

The Dow Chemical Company, inventor; The Dow Chemical Company, assignee. Method of producing amines from alcohols, aldehydes, ketones and mixtures thereof. Canadian patent CA 1126248. 1982 Jun 22.

5. Patent with more than one assignee

Co MS, Scheinberg DA, Queen CL, inventors; Protein Design Labs, Inc.; Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, assignee. Increasing antibody affinity by altering glycosylation of immunoglobulin variable region. United States patent US 6,933,368. 2005 Aug 23.

6. Patent with the US government as the assignee

Wang RF, Rosenberg S, inventors; The United States of America as represented by the Department of Health and Human Services, assignee. Cancer peptides of NY-ESO-1/CAG-3. United States patent US 7,084,239. 2006 Aug 1.

7. Patent with affiliation of inventor(s) and assignee included

Escandon MA (Lugo, Spain), Neisz JJ (Minnetonka, MN), inventors; American Medical Systems, Inc. (Minnetonka, MN), assignee. Regimen for treating prostate tissue and surgical kit for use in the regimen. United States patent US 7,015,253. 2006 Mar 21.

Co MS (Cupertino, CA), Scheinberg DA (New York, NY), Queen CL (Los Altos, CA), inventors; Protein Design Labs, Inc. (Fremont, CA); Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (New York, NY), assignee. Increasing antibody affinity by altering glycosylation of immunoglobulin variable region. United States patent US 6,933,368. 2005 Aug 23.

8. Non-US patent written in the roman alphabet

Poole I, Bissell AJ, inventors; Voxar Limited, assignee. Classifying voxels in a medical image. United Kingdom patent GB 2 416 944. 2006 Feb 8. 39 p.

McMullen JN, inventor; Universite de Montreal, assignee. Controlled release tablet. Canadian patent CA 1314216.1993 Mar 9.

Cameron B, Crouzet J, inventors; Rhone-Poulenc Biochemie, assignee. Cellules modifiees au niveau du catabolisme de la betaine, preparation et utilisations, notamment pour la production de metabolites ou d'enzymes. European patent EP 0 673 422 B1. 2006 Jan 4. 14 p. French.

Navarro GS, inventor; Educom Multiactivo S L, assignee. Terminal interactivo para el asesoramiento medico, farmaceutico y cosmetico. Spanish patent ES 2165321. 2002 Mar 1. Spanish.

9. Non-US patent written in Cyrillic, Greek, Arabic, or Hebrew

Bazhenov AN, Ilyushina LV, Plesovskaya IV, inventors; Bazhenov AN, Ilyushina LV, Plesovskaya IV, assignee. Metodika lecheniia pri revmatoidnom artrite. Russian Federation patent RU 2268734. 2006 Jan 27. Russian.

10. Non-US patent written in a character-based language (Chinese, Japanese)

Katsuko S, Shunsuke M, Takashi U, Tetsuya T, Miki E, inventors; Advance Company Ltd, assignee. [Carrier for living body, and cell cultivation]. Japanese patent JP 2004267562. 2004 Sep 30. Japanese.

11. Non-US patent, with translation

Cameron B, Crouzet J, inventors; Rhone-Poulenc Biochemie, assignee. Cellules modifiees au niveau du catabolisme de la betaine, preparation et utilisations, notamment pour la production de metabolites ou d'enzymes [Cells with altered betaine catabolism, their preparation and their use, in particular for producing metabolites or enzymes]. European patent EP 0 673 422 B1. 2006 Jan 4. 14 p. French.

Bazhenov AN, Ilyushina LV, Plesovskaya IV, inventors; Bazhenov AN, Ilyushina LV, Plesovskaya IV, assignee. Metodika lecheniia pri revmatoidnom artrite [Method for treating rheumatoid arthritis]. Russian Federation patent RU 2268734. 2006 Jan 27. Russian.

12. Patent title containing a Greek letter, chemical formula, or another special character

Hong JH, Lee K, Choi Y, Shi J, McAfee JJ, Chu CK, Liotta DC, Schinazi RF, inventors; Emory University, assignee. 2'-fluoronucleosides. United States patent US 6,911,424. 2005 Jun 11. 75 p.

Schwinn DA, inventor; Duke University, assignee. Use of α-1AR subtype-selective drugs in patients with acute myocardial infarction. United States patent US 6,921,773. 2005 Jul 26. 5 p.

or

Schwinn DA, inventor; Duke University, assignee. Use of alpha-1AR subtype-selective drugs in patients with acute myocardial infarction. United States patent US 6,921,773. 2005 Jul 26. 5 p.

Inoue K, Arai H, Arita M, Jishage K, Suzuki H, inventors; Inoue K, Arai H, assignee. α-tocopherol transport protein knockout animal. United States patent US 6,982,362. 2006 Jan 3. 19 p.

or

Inoue K, Arai H, Arita M, Jishage K, Suzuki H, inventors; Inoue K, Arai H, assignee. Alpha-tocopherol transport protein knockout animal. United States patent US 6,982,362. 2006 Jan 3. 19 p.

13. Patent title containing a superscript or subscript

Sanger GJ, Wardle KA, inventors; SmithKline Beecham Corporation, assignee. Use of 5-HT4 modulators for the manufacture of a medicament for the treatment of the bladder diseases. United States patent US 6,750,195. 2004 Jun 15. 7 p.

or

Sanger GJ, Wardle KA, inventors; SmithKline Beecham Corporation, assignee. Use of 5-HT(4) modulators for the manufacture of a medicament for the treatment of the bladder diseases. United States patent US 6,750,195. 2004 Jun 15. 7 p.

14. Patent in a microform

Stoudt TH, Nollstadt KH, inventors; Merck & Co., Inc., assignee. Oral hygiene enzymes and method for preparation [microfiche]. United States patent US 4,335,101. 1982 Jun 15. 1 microfiche: black & white, negative, 4 x 6 in.

15. Patent issued by a regional office

Cameron B, Crouzet J, inventors; Rhone-Poulenc Biochimie, assignee. Cellules modifiees au niveau catabolisme de la betaine, preparation et utilisations, notamment pour la production de metabolites ou d'enzymes [Cells with altered betaine catabolism, their preparation and their use, in particular for producing metabolites or enzymes]. European patent EP 0 673 422 B1. 2006 Jan 4. French.

16. Patent issued by WIPO

Ottersbach P, Lohmer G, inventors; Creavis Gesellschaft fur Technologit und Innovation MBH, assignee. Verfahren zur Modifizierung von Polymersubstraten durch Oberflachenfixierung eigenschaftsbestimmender Makromolekule [Method for modifying polymer substrates by surface fixing of functional macromolecules]. World patent WO 00/44818. 2000 Aug 3. German.

17. Non-US patent with specific type of document given

Zinsmeyer J, Gross J, Brux B, inventors; Charite der Humboldt-Universitaet Direktorat Forschung, assignee. Enzymimmunoassay und Testbesteck zum Nachweis humaner Neuronen-spezifischer Enolase. German Patentschrift DD 295717 A5. 1991 Nov 7. German.

18. Patent with optional number of pages included

Cully EH, Cutright WJ, Nordhausen CT, Vonesh MJ, Walter JT, inventors; Gore Enterprise Holdings, Inc., assignee. Medical device amenable to fenestration. European patent EP 1 539 037 B1. 2005 Jul 12. 27 p.

19. Patent with International Classification Code included

Caffey JC, Moe R, Freund MA, Hutton J, inventors; Carbomedics Inc., assignee. Heart valve stent with alignment posts. United States patent US 6,635,085. 2003 Oct 21. 10 p. Int. Cl. A61F-002/24.

Cameron B, Crouzet J, inventors; Rhone-Poulenc Biochemie, assignee. Cellules modifiees au niveau du catabolisme de la betaine, preparation et utilisations, notamment pour la production de metabolites ou d'enzymes [Cells with altered betaine catabolism, their preparation and their use, in particular for producing metabolites or enzymes]. European patent EP 0 673 422 B1. 2006 Jan 4. 14 p. Int. Cl. C12N 15/52; C12N 15/68; C12N 15/74; C12P 19/42; C12N 1/21. French.

Bazhenov AN, Ilyushina LV, Plesovskaya IV, inventors; Bazhenov AN, Ilyushina LV, Plesovskaya IV, assignee. Metodika lecheniia pri revmatoidnom artrite [Method for treating rheumatoid arthritis]. Russian Federation patent RU 2268734. 2006 Jan 27. Int. Cl. A61K-033/06. Russian.

20. Patent with classification codes of the country granting it

Suh A, inventor; E-Z Baby Products LLC, assignee. Adjustable baby bottle holder. United States patent US 6,598,828. 2003 Jul 29. US Cl. 248/104; 248/102; 248/103; 248/105; 248/106; 248/107.

Wang RF (Bethesda, MD), Rosenberg S (Potomac, MD), inventors; The United States of America as represented by the Department of Health and Human Services (Washington, DC), assignee. Cancer peptides of NY-ESO-1/CAG-3. United States patent US 7,084,239. 2006 Aug 1. Int. Cl. A61K 38/00; C07K 7/04; C07K 7/06; C07K 7/08; A61K 38/04; C07H 21/04; C07K 16/00; C12P 21/06. US Cl. 530/300; 424/184.1; 424/185.1; 530/326; 530/327; 530/328.

21. Patent application number and date for published patents

Bemis G, Xie X, inventors; Vertex Pharmaceuticals Incorporated, assignee. Compositions useful as inhibitors of ERK. United States patent US 6,994,868. 2006 Feb 7. Appl. No.: 437419; 2003 May 13.

Grainger DJ (Cambridge, GB), Metcalfe JC (Cambridge, GB), Kasina S (Mercer Island, WA), inventors; NeoRx Corporation (Seattle, WA), assignee. Compounds and therapies for the prevention of vascular and non-vascular pathologies. United States patent US 7,084,171. 2006 Aug 1. Int. Cl. A61K 31/38; A61K 31/01; A61K 31/135. US Cl. 514/445; 514/646; 514/762. Appl. No.: 10/827,602; 2004 Apr 19.

22. Patent with lists of related and/or cited patents

Co MS (Cupertino, CA), Scheinberg DA (New York, NY), Queen CL (Los Altos, CA), inventors; Protein Design Labs, Inc. (Fremont, CA); Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (New York, NY), assignee. Increasing antibody affinity by altering glycosylation of immunoglobulin variable region. United States patent US 6,933,368. 2005 Aug 23. Related US patents: 6,350,861; 5,714,350. Cited US patents: 5,147,637; 5,714,350; 5,730,982; 5,821,337; 6,054,297; 6,218,149; 6,350,861. Cited EP patents: 0 239 400; 0 438 312. Cited WO patents: 90/07861; 92/22653; 03/016466.

Wang RF (Bethesda, MD), Rosenberg S (Potomac, MD), inventors; The United States of America as represented by the Department of Health and Human Services (Washington, DC), assignee. Cancer peptides of NY-ESO-1/CAG-3. United States patent US 7,084,239. 2006 Aug 1. Int. Cl. A61K 38/00; C07K 7/04; C07K 7/06; C07K 7/08; A61K 38/04; C07H 21/04; C07K 16/00; C12P 21/06. US Cl. 530/300; 424/184.1; 424/185.1; 530/326; 530/327; 530/328. Appl. No.: 09/529,206; 1998 Sep 1. Cited US patents: 5,539,084; 5,785,973; 5,840,839. Cited WO patents: 94/03205; 97/29195; 98/14464; 98/32855.

23. Regional or world patent listing countries that recognize it using ISO country codes

Cameron B, Crouzet J, inventors; Rhone-Poulenc Biochimie, assignee. Cellules modifiees au niveau catabolisme de la betaine, preparation et utilisations, notamment pour la production de metabolites ou d'enzymes [Cells with altered betaine catabolism, their preparation and their use, in particular for producing metabolites or enzymes]. European patent EP 0 673 422 B1. 2006 Jan 4. French. Recognized by: AT, BE, CH, DE, DK, ES, FR, GB, GR, IE, IT, LI, LU, NL, PT, SE.

Ottersbach P, Lohmer G, inventors; Creavis Gesellschaft fur Technologit und Innovation MBH, assignee. Verfahren zur Modifizierung von Polymersubstraten durch Oberflachenfixierung eigenschaftsbestimmender Makromolekule [Method for modifying polymer substrates by surface fixing of functional macromolecules]. World patent WO 00/44818. 2000 Aug 3. German. Recognized by: BR, CA, CN, IL, JP, KR, PL, RU, US.

24. Other notes for patents

Haskell-Luevano C, inventor; University of Florida Research Foundation, Inc., assignee. Melanocortin receptor templates, peptides, and use thereof. United States patent US 7,084,111. 2006 Aug 1. Supported by grants DK57080 and DK64250 awarded from the National Institutes of Health.

Ohlrogge JB, Benning C, Gao H, Girke TA, White JA, inventors; Board of Trustees Operating Michigan State University, assignee. Plant seed specific promoters. United States patent US 7,081,565. 2006 Jul 25. Partially supported by the United States National Science Foundation grant no. DCB94-06466.

25. Optional brief patent citation format

US patent 6,857,874. 2005 Feb 7.

RU patent 2 219 546. 2003 Dec 20.

26. Patent applications before issuance of the patent

Sitte E, Kleber H, inventors; C Reichart Optische Werke AG, assignee. Apparatus for cooling a biological or medical specimen. UK patent application GB 2 146 419 A. 1984 Sep 4.

Munx D, Schimmer J, Schmidt R, inventors; Siemens Aktiengesellschaft, assignee. Verfahren zur Uberwachung einer Datenubertragungsstrecke [Procedure for the monitoring of data rate]. European patent application EP 1 605 612 A3. 2006 Jan 11. 3 p. Int. Cl. HO4B 10/08. German.

Hensel W, Lehner R, Schwenk H, inventors; Siltronic AG, assignee. Nichtpolierte Halbleiterscheibe und Verfahren zur Herstellung einer nichtpolierten Halbleiterscheibe. German Offenlegungsschrift DE 10 2005 046 726 A1. 2006 Mar 16. German.

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