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Patrias K, author; Wendling D, editor. Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers [Internet]. 2nd edition. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2007-.

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Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers [Internet]. 2nd edition.

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Chapter 17Prints and Photographs

Created: ; Last Update: August 11, 2015.

A. Individual Prints and Photographs

B. Collections of Prints and Photographs

A. Sample Citation and Introduction to Citing Individual Prints and Photographs

The general format for a reference to a print or photograph, including punctuation:

- author and title provided:

Illustration of the general format for a reference to a print or
photograph author and title provided.

- no author named and title constructed:

Illustration of the general format for a reference to a print or
photograph no author named and title constructed.

Examples of Citations to Individual Prints and Photographs

Prints and photographs usually include portraits, photographs or scenes (of people, institutions, and places), caricatures, posters, and graphic art (illustrations and diagrams). A print is a copy of a picture made by any printing process. The print may be an original drawing, woodcut, etching, engraving, lithograph, or photograph transferred to the print medium from a plate cut by an artist or engraver.

Prints and photographs often contain little information to use in constructing a citation. A formal title may be absent and publishing facts unclear. Therefore, include in a citation, whenever, possible the name of a library or other public archive where the item may be found, along with any order or catalog number available. See Notes below.

Edition has a different meaning for prints than that used for books and all other formats. For prints, edition refers to the total number of impressions or copies made from the original. Thus a print with 50 copies is said to have an edition of 50. Edition is often found at the bottom left or bottom right side of a print, expressed as a fraction. For example, 10/200 means that this print is the tenth impression of a total of 200 impressions made. See Edition below.

This chapter covers citing prints and photographs that are published as separate entities, not as illustrations in journal articles or books. See Chapter 1B Parts of Journal Articles and Chapter 2C Parts of Books for information on citing the latter. Paintings, sculptures, and other works of art are included only when a print or photograph of them has been made. See NISO standard Z39.29 for information on citing the actual works of art.

Prints and photographs may be cited as individual items and as collections. See Chapter 17B Collections of Prints and Photographs for information on citing collections.

Continue to Citation Rules with Examples for Prints and Photographs.

Continue to Examples of Citations to Individual Prints and Photographs.

Citation Rules with Examples for Individual Prints and Photographs

Components/elements are listed in the order they should appear in a reference. An R after the component name means that it is required in the citation; an O after the name means it is optional.

Author (artist or photographer) (R) | Author Affiliation (O) | Title (R) | Type of Medium (R) | Edition (O) | Place of Publication (R) | Publisher (R) | Date of Publication (R) | Physical Description (O) | Series (O) | Language (R) | Notes (O)

Author (artist or photographer) for Individual Prints and Photographs (required)

General Rules for Author (artist or photographer)

  • Enter the author's surname (family or last name) first
  • Capitalize surnames and enter spaces within surnames as they appear on the document cited on the assumption that the author approved the form used. For example: Van Der Horn or van der Horn; De Wolf or de Wolf or DeWolf.
  • Convert given (first) names and middle names to initials for a maximum of two initials following each surname
  • Separate multiple author names from each other by a comma and a space
  • End author information with a period unless the author role is included (see the Author role included below)
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Author role included.

Specific Rules for Author (artist or photographer)

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Surnames with hyphens and other punctuation in them.

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Other surname rules.

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Given names containing punctuation, a prefix, a preposition, or particle.

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Degrees, titles, and honors before or after a personal name.

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Designations of rank in a family, such as Jr and III.

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Names in non-roman alphabets (Cyrillic, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Korean) or character-based languages (Chinese, Japanese).

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Organization as author.

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No author can be found.

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Options for author names.

Author Affiliation for Individual Prints and Photographs (optional)

General Rules for Author Affiliation

  • Enter the affiliation of all authors or only the first author
  • Begin with the department and name of the institution, followed by city and state/Canadian province/country
  • Use commas to separate parts of the address
  • Place the address in parentheses, such as (Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA)
  • Separate the affiliation from its author by a space
  • Follow the affiliation with a comma placed outside the parentheses, unless the affiliation is for the last author, then use a period

Specific Rules for Author Affiliation

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Abbreviations in affiliations.

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E-mail address included.

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Organizational names for affiliations not in English.

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Names for cities and countries not in English.

Examples for Author Affiliation

Title for Individual Prints and Photographs (required)

General Rules for Title

  • Enter the title of the print or photograph as it appears on the original document, in the original language
  • Capitalize only the first word of a title, proper nouns, proper adjectives, acronyms, and initialisms
  • Use a colon followed by a space to separate a title from a subtitle, unless some other form of punctuation such as a question mark, period, or an exclamation point is already present
  • Follow non-English titles with a translation whenever possible; place the translation in square brackets
  • End a title with a space unless a question mark or exclamation point already ends it

Specific Rules for Title

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Titles not in English.

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Titles in more than one language.

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Titles containing a Greek letter, chemical formula, or another special character.

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Titles ending in punctuation other than a period.

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No title can be found.

Type of Medium for Individual Prints and Photographs (required)

General Rules for Type of Medium

  • Indicate the specific type of medium (print, photograph, poster, etc.) following the title
  • Place the name of the medium in square brackets and end with a period, such as "[photograph]."
  • Add information about the medium according to the instructions under Physical Description

Specific Rules for Type of Medium

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Titles ending in punctuation other than a period.

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Titles not in English.

Examples for Type of Medium

Edition for Individual Prints and Photographs (optional)

General Rules for Edition

Prints are made in a varying number of impressions or copies, called an edition, such as an edition of 20 or an edition of 100.

  • Begin with the word Edition followed by a colon, a space, and the total number of impressions. For example: Edition: 50.
  • Express numbers representing editions in arabic numbers. For example: XXX; becomes 30.
  • End the edition statement with a period

Specific Rules for Edition

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Non-English words for editions.

Examples for Edition

Place of Publication for Individual Prints and Photographs (required)

General Rules for Place of Publication

  • Place is defined as the city where the print or photograph was published
  • Follow US and Canadian cities with the two-letter abbreviation for the state or province (see Appendix E) to avoid confusion when citing lesser known cities or when cities in different locations have the same name, such as Palm Springs (CA) and Palm Springs (FL)
  • Follow cities in other countries with the name of the country, either written out or as the two-letter ISO country code (see Appendix D), when citing lesser known cities or when cities in different locations have the same name, such as London (ON) and London (England)
  • Use the anglicized form for a non-US city, such as Vienna for Wein
  • End place information with a colon

Specific Rules for Place of Publication

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Non-US cities.

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No place of publication can be found.

Publisher for Individual Prints and Photographs (required)

General Rules for Publisher

  • Record the name of the publisher as it appears in the publication, using whatever capitalization and punctuation is found there
  • Abbreviate well-known publisher names with caution to avoid confusion. For example, "John Wiley & Sons, Ltd." may become simply "Wiley".
  • When a division or other subsidiary part of a publisher appears in the publication, enter the publisher name first. For example: McGraw-Hill, Health Professions Division.
  • End publisher information with a semicolon

Specific Rules for Publisher

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Abbreviated words in publisher names.

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Non-English names for publishers.

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Government agencies and other national and international bodies as publisher.

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No publisher can be found.

Date of Publication for Individual Prints and Photographs (required)

General Rules for Date of Publication

  • Always give the year of publication
  • Convert roman numerals to arabic numbers. For example: MM to 2000.
  • Include the month of publication, if desired, after the year, such as 2004 May
  • Use English names for months and abbreviate them to the first three letters, such as Jan
  • End date information with a period

Specific Rules for Date of Publication

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Non-English names for months.

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Seasons instead of months.

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Date of publication and date of copyright.

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No date of publication, but a date of copyright.

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No date of publication or copyright can be found.

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Options for date of publication.

Physical Description for Individual Prints and Photographs (optional)

General Rules for Physical Description

  • Give the physical characteristics of the print, photograph, etc., such as 1 photograph: black & white, 8 x 10 in.

Specific Rules for Physical Description

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Language for describing physical characteristics.

Examples for Physical Description

Series for Individual Prints and Photographs (optional)

General Rules for Series

  • Begin with the name of the series
  • Capitalize only the first word and proper nouns
  • Follow the name with any numbers provided. For example, vol. 3 for a volume or no. 12 for an issue number.
  • Separate the title and the number by a semicolon and a space
  • Place series information in parentheses
  • End series information with a period, placed outside the closing parenthesis

Examples for Series

Language for Individual Prints and Photographs (required)

General Rules for Language

  • Give the language of the print, photograph, etc., if not English
  • Capitalize the language name
  • Follow the language name with a period

Specific Rules for Language

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Titles appearing in more than one language.

Notes for Individual Prints and Photographs (optional)

General Rules for Notes

  • Notes is a collective term for any useful information given after the citation itself
  • Complete sentences are not required
  • Be brief

Specific Rules for Notes

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Information on the location of the print or photograph.

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Other types of material to include in notes.

Examples of Citations to Individual Prints and Photographs

1. Standard citation for a print or photograph

Day J. Dying before their time: early death & AIDS [poster]. Farmington (CT): University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Section of Medical Arts & Letters; 1988. 1 poster: color, 14 x 21 in.

2. Print or photograph author with optional full first name

Netter, Frank H. [Interior view of the ear] [poster]. Summit (NJ): Ciba; [date unknown]. 1 poster: color, 39 x 27 in.

3. Print or photograph author with optional role provided

Nunney, artist. Learning to be doctors in Fiji [poster]. New York: British Information Services; [date unknown]. 1 poster: color, 51 x 76 cm.

Vedin A, Maliutina O, artists. Prichina-alkogol' [poster]. Moscow: Izdatel'stvo Plakat; c1990. 1 poster: color, 66 x 48 cm. Russian.

Ridley W, engraver. Harvey [print]. London: [publisher unknown]; 1796 May 7. 1 print: black & white, 3 x 5 in.

Baron DA, photographer. Would you be more careful if it was you that got pregnant? [poster]. California: Pharmacists Planning Service, Inc.; c1986. 1 poster: halftone, 11 x 17 in.

4. Print or photograph author with only last name provided

Walter, engraver. John F. Frazer, A.M. [print]. Philadelphia: Harrison; [date unknown]. 1 print: black & white, 7 x 10 in.

Nunney, artist. Learning to be doctors in Fiji [poster]. New York: British Information Services; [date unknown]. 1 poster: color, 51 x 76 cm.

5. Print or photograph with multiple authors

Vedin A, Maliutina O. Prichina-alkogol' [poster]. Moscow: Izdatel'stvo Plakat; c1990. 1 poster: color, 66 x 48 cm. Russian.

Padey G, Auberson G. Parlons sante! = Let's talk health! = !Hablemos de la salud! = Falemos da saude! [poster]. Geneva: World Health Organization; [date unknown]. 1 poster: color, 42 x 60 cm. French, English, Spanish, Portuguese.

6. Print or photograph authors with different roles

Sokolov IS, author; Ivanov KK, artist. Stydno, diadia! [For shame, uncle!] [poster]. Moscow: Ministerstvo Zdravookhraneniia SSSR, Institut Sanitarnogo Prosveshcheniia; 1964. 1 poster: color, 56 x 43 cm. Russian.

7. Print or photograph with organization as author

College des Ondes. Le sida se transmet aussi de cette facon [AIDS is transmitted by this behavior] [poster]. [Mauritius]: Mauritius Ministere de la Sante, Health Education Unit; [date unknown]. 1 poster: color, 12 x 19 in. French.

8. Print or photograph with no author found

Observation of bacterial growths in medium to study their effects on teeth [photograph]. [Bethesda (MD)]: National Institute of Dental Research (US); [date unknown]. 1 photograph: black & white, 8 x 10 in.

[Floor plans for laboratory] [print]. [Washington]: Army (US), Office of the Surgeon-General; [date unknown]. 1 print: black & white, 7 x 9 in.

9. Print or photograph with author affiliation

Joseph N (Smart + Strong, New York, NY). Let's talk [poster]. [Washington]: Pan American Health Organization; 1999. 1 poster: color, 18 x 24 in.

10. Print or photograph title with subtitle

Help wanted: set your own hours [poster]. Bethesda (MD): National Cancer Institute (US); [date unknown]. 1 poster: color, 17 x 22 in.

11. Print or photograph title ending in punctuation other than a period

AIDS is over, right? [poster]. New York: Visual AIDS; 1998. 1 poster: color, 24 x 35 in.

Gillray J. The cow pock-or-the wonderful effects of the new inoculation! [print]. London: H. Humphrey; 1802 Jun 12. 1 print: color, 9 x 14 in.

Sokolov IS, author; Ivanov KK, artist. Stydno, diadia! [For shame, uncle!] [poster]. Moscow: Ministerstvo Zdravookhraneniia SSSR, Institut Sanitarnogo Prosveshcheniia; 1964. 1 poster: color, 56 x 43 cm. Russian.

12. Print or photograph with constructed title

Kennedy RA. [Christian B. Anfinsen] [photograph]. [Bethesda (MD)]: National Institutes of Health (US), Photographic Research Section; [1952?]. 1 print: black & white, 10 x 8 in.

[Portrait of five African American female nurses in uniform, circa 1920] [photograph]. [New York]: National League for Nursing Press; c1991. 1 photograph: black & white, 8 x 10 in.

13. Print or photograph title in a language other than English

Le soleil peut etre dangereux: travail ou loisirs, protegez-vous [poster]. Paris: Ligue Nationale Contre le Cancer; 1992. 1 poster: color, 12 x 16 in. French.

Diesen H. Rus fri [poster]. Norway: Statens Edruskapsdirektorat; [date unknown]. 1 poster: color, 60 x 42 cm. Norwegian.

Drug vodki--vrag profsoiuza [print]. Moscow: Narkomzdrava R.S.F.S.R.; 1926. 1 poster: color, 71 x 105 cm. Russian.

with translation

Le soleil peut etre dangereux: travail ou loisirs, protegez-vous [The sun can be dangerous: at work or play, protect yourself] [poster]. Paris: Ligue Nationale Contre le Cancer; 1992. 1 poster: color, 12 x 16 in. French.

Diesen H. Rus fri [Intoxication free] [poster]. Norway: Statens Edruskapsdirektorat; [date unknown]. 1 poster: color, 60 x 42 cm. Norwegian.

Drug vodki--vrag profsoiuza [Friend of vodka--enemy of the trade union] [print]. Moscow: Narkomzdrava R.S.F.S.R.; 1926. 1 poster: color, 71 x 105 cm. Russian.

14. Print or photograph title with parallel text in two or more languages

Boillard J, artist. Assemblee des vieux garcons = The assembly of old batchelors [print]. London: Bowles & Carver; [date unknown]. 1 print: color, 16 x 22 cm. French, English.

Girardet E. La consultation = Die consultation [print]. Paris: Lemercier; [date unknown]. 1 print: color, 28 x 24 cm. French, German.

Padey G, Auberson G. Parlons sante! = Let's talk health! = !Hablemos de la salud! = Falemos da saude! [poster]. Geneva: World Health Organization; [date unknown]. 1 poster: color, 42 x 60 cm. French, English, Spanish, Portuguese.

Morris, artist. Tobacco or health: choose health = Le tabac ou la sante: choisissez la sante = Tabaco o salud: elija la salud [poster]. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1988. 1 poster: color, 42 x 30 cm. English, French, Spanish.

15. Print or photograph title for a conference

Geriatric assessment methods for clinical decisionmaking [poster]. Consensus Development Conference on Geriatric Assessment Methods; 1987 Oct 19-21; Bethesda, MD. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US), Medical Arts and Photography Branch; 1987. 1 poster: color, 27 x 32 in.

Congreso Nacional y Primera Conferencia Internacional de Salud Oral [National Congress and 1st International Conference on Oral Health] [poster]. Lima (Peru): Colegio Odontologico del Peru; 1971. 1 poster: color, 21 x 27 in. Spanish.

16. Print or photograph with edition

The world's debt to Pasteur [poster]. Edition: 1000. Philadelphia: Wistar Institute; c1984. 1 poster: color, 9 x 13 in.

17. Print or photograph with well known place of publication

The heifer from which the vaccine matter is taken [print]. New York: Harper & Brothers; 1870. 1 print: black & white, 10 x 8 in.

Le soleil peut etre dangereux: travail ou loisirs, protegez-vous [The sun can be dangerous: at work or play, protect yourself] [poster]. Paris: Ligue Nationale Contre le Cancer; 1992. 1 poster: color, 12 x 16 in. French.

18. Print or photograph with lesser known place of publication

Stoepman F. From witchdoctor to MD: a review of more than 20 centuries of medical skill--of the scholars, the diseases and the sick--of the world around them [poster]. Haarlem (Netherlands): The Halls; 1972. 1 poster: color, 21 x 31 in.

Day J. Dying before their time: early death & AIDS [poster]. Farmington (CT): University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Section of Medical Arts & Letters; 1988. 1 poster: color, 14 x 21 in.

19. Print or photograph with place of publication inferred

[Portrait of five African American female nurses in uniform, circa 1920] [photograph]. [New York]: National League for Nursing Press; c1991. 1 photograph: black & white, 8 x 10 in.

Observation of bacterial growths in medium to study their effects on teeth [photograph]. [Bethesda (MD)]: National Institute of Dental Research (US); [date unknown]. 1 photograph: black & white, 8 x 10 in.

20. Print or photograph with no place of publication found

Blossom D. Tufts University School of Medicine [photograph]. [place unknown]: E.R. Squibb & Sons; c1966. 1 photograph: color, 11 x 14 in.

Thom RA. Pharmacy in Ancient China (about 2000 B.C.) [print]. [place unknown]: Parke Davis & Company; 1951. 1 print: color, 8 1/2 x 11 in.

21. Print or photograph publisher with subsidiary department/division named

Day J. Dying before their time: early death & AIDS [poster]. Farmington (CT): University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Section of Medical Arts & Letters; 1988. 1 poster: color, 14 x 21 in.

Marasmus baby [poster]. Lilongwe (Malawi): Malawi Ministry of Health, Health Education Section; 1988. 1 poster: black & white, 11 x 23 in.

22. Print or photograph with government agency as publisher

[Floor plans for laboratory] [print]. [Washington]: Army (US), Office of the Surgeon-General; [date unknown]. 1 print: black & white, 7 x 9 in.

Observation of bacterial growths in medium to study their effects on teeth [photograph]. [Bethesda (MD)]: National Institute of Dental Research (US); [date unknown]. 1 photograph: black & white, 8 x 10 in.

23. Print or photograph with no publisher found

Spellman DD. [Hugo A. Freund] [photograph]. Detroit: [publisher unknown]; 1948 Feb. 1 photograph: black & white, 8 x 11 in.

24. Print or photograph with no place of publication or publisher found

Kyllingstad H. Indian hospital [photograph]. [place unknown: publisher unknown]; 1951. 1 photograph: black & white, 7 x 9 in.

Eareckson CN. [Dr. Harry Friedenwald] [photograph]. [place unknown: publisher unknown]; 1928. 1 photograph: black & white, 5 x 8 in.

25. Print or photograph date with month and day included

Ridley W, engraver. Harvey [print]. London: [publisher unknown]; 1796 May 7. 1 print: black & white, 3 x 5 in.

26. Print or photograph with date of copyright instead of date of publication

[Portrait of five African American female nurses in uniform, circa 1920] [photograph]. [New York]: National League for Nursing Press; c1991. 1 photograph: black & white, 8 x 10 in.

Vedin A, Maliutina O. Prichina-alkogol [poster]. Moscow: Izdatel'stvo Plakat; c1990. 1 poster: color, 66 x 48 cm. Russian.

27. Print or photograph with date estimated

Kennedy RA. [Christian B. Anfinsen] [photograph]. [Bethesda (MD)]: National Institutes of Health (US), Photographic Research Section; [1952?]. 1 print: black & white, 10 x 8 in.

First aid packet: first aid help for wounds [photograph]. [place unknown: publisher unknown; circa 1900]. 1 photograph: black & white, 5 x 6 in. Located at: Prints and Photographs Collection, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD; Order No.: A022483.

28. Print or photograph with no date of publication found

Darbois D. [A young boy in Japan with polio] [photograph]. [Geneva]: World Health Organization; [date unknown]. 1 photograph: black & white, 7 x 10 in.

M Freligh [print]. Philadelphia: Galaxy Pub. Co.; [date unknown]. 1 print: black & white, 6 x 9 in. Portrait of Martin Freligh.

29. Print or photograph with no place, publisher, or date of publication found

Johan Freyer [print]. [place, publisher, date unknown]. 1 print: black & white, 6 x 7 in. Located at: Prints and Photographs Collection, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD; Order No. B012357.

Berry T, engraver. John Gerarde: master in chirurgerie [print]. [place, publisher, date unknown]. 1 print: black & white, 6 x 8 in. Located at: Prints and Photographs Collection, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD; Order No. B012807.

30. Print or photograph with physical description

Kyllingstad H. Indian hospital [photograph]. [place unknown: publisher unknown]; 1951. 1 photograph: black & white, 7 x 9 in.

[Men in uniform] [print]. New York: G.W. Averell; 1875. 1 print: sepia, 10 x 12 in.

Vedin A, Maliutina O. Prichina-alkogol' [poster]. Moscow: Izdatel'stvo Plakat; c1990. 1 poster: color, 66 x 48 cm. Russian.

31. Print or photograph with a series

Thom RA. Pharmacy in Ancient China (about 2000 B.C.) [print]. [place unknown]: Parke Davis & Company; 1951. 1 print: color, 8 1/2 x 11 in. (A history of pharmacy in pictures; 3).

32. Print or photograph with the name of library or other archive included

Johan Freyer [print]. [place, publisher, date unknown]. 1 print: black & white. Located at: Prints and Photographs Collection, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD; Order No. B012357.

33. Print or photograph with supplemental note included

Riley J, artist. [John Freke] [print]. [place unknown: publisher unknown]; 1718. 1 print: black & white, 6 x 9 in. From a sculpture by Vertue.

Thom RA. Pharmacy in Ancient China (about 2000 B.C.) [print]. [place unknown]: Parke Davis & Company; 1951. 1 print: color, 8 1/2 x 11 in. (A history of pharmacy in pictures; 3). Shows Shen Nung, a Chinese emperor, examining herbs.

Kyllingstad H. Indian hospital [photograph]. [place unknown: publisher unknown]; 1951. 1 photograph: black & white, 7 x 9 in. Taken at the Santa Fe Indian Hospital, New Mexico.

Baron DA, photographer. Would you be more careful if it was you that got pregnant? [poster]. California: Pharmacists Planning Service, Inc.; c1986. 1 poster: halftone, 11 x 17 in. Sponsored by Clinica de la Raza, Oakland, California.

Spellman DD. [Hugo A. Freund] [photograph]. Detroit: [publisher unknown]; 1948 Feb. 1 photograph: black & white, 8 x 11 in. Autographed; letter attached.

[The hand Jenner used as a source for his vaccine] [print]. Milan (Italy): Lier; 1923. 1 print: black & white. Facsimile of 1798 drawing by Jenner.

B. Sample Citation and Introduction to Citing Collections of Prints and Photographs

The general format for a reference to a collection of prints and photographs, including punctuation:

Illustration of the general format for a reference to a collection of
prints and photographs.

Examples of Citations to Collections of Prints and Photographs

Prints and photographs may be cited as individual items or as collections. In the rules section below, information on citing collections is placed after the rules for citing an individual print or photograph.

Titles for collections are unusual in that they are assigned by the library or other archive housing the collection. Although collection titles are constructed, they are not placed within square brackets as are constructed titles for an individual print or photograph. Other areas of difference include:

  • Range of dates for the collection is provided instead of a single date of publication.
  • Place of publication and publisher information is absent.
  • Name of the library or archive housing the collection is required in the citation.

Note that most example citations in this chapter are from the Prints and Photographs Collection of the National Library of Medicine. Since the Collection is housed organizationally within the Library's History of Medicine Division, many items are historical in nature. However, the rules provided are applicable to contemporary material.

Continue to Citation Rules with Examples for Collections of Prints and Photographs

Continue to Examples of Citations to Collections of Prints and Photographs

Citation Rules with Examples for Collections of Prints and Photographs

Components/elements are listed in the order they should appear in a reference. An R after the component name means that it is required in the citation; an O after the name means it is optional.

Author (artist or photographer) (R) | Author Affiliation (O) | Title (R) | Type of Medium (R) | Secondary Author (O) | Date of Publication (R) | Physical Description (O) | Library or Other Archive Where Located (R) | Language (R) | Notes (O)

Author (artist or photographer) for Collections (required)

General Rules for Author (artist or photographer)

  • Enter the author's surname (family or last name) first
  • Capitalize surnames and enter spaces within surnames as they appear on the document cited on the assumption that the author approved the form used. For example: Van Der Horn or van der Horn; De Wolf or de Wolf or DeWolf.
  • Convert given (first) names and middle names to initials for a maximum of two initials following each surname
  • End author information with a period unless the author role is included (see Author role included below)
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Author role included.

Specific Rules for Author (artist or photographer)

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Surnames with hyphens and other punctuation in them.

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Other surname rules.

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Given names containing punctuation, a prefix, a preposition, or particle.

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Degrees, titles, and honors before or after a personal name.

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Designations of rank in a family, such as Jr and III.

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Names in non-roman alphabets (Cyrillic, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Korean) or character-based languages (Chinese, Japanese).

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Organization as author.

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Compiler instead of an author.

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No author can be found.

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Options for author names.

Examples for Author (artist or photographer)

Author Affiliation for Collections (optional)

General Rules for Author Affiliation

  • Enter the affiliation of all authors or only the first author
  • Begin with the department and name of the institution, followed by city and state/Canadian province/country
  • Use commas to separate parts of the address
  • Place the address in parentheses, such as (Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA)
  • Separate the affiliation from its author by a space
  • Follow the affiliation with a comma placed outside the parentheses, unless the affiliation is for the last author, then use a period

Specific Rules for Author Affiliation

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Abbreviations in affiliations.

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E-mail address included.

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Organizational names for affiliations not in English.

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Names for cities and countries not in English.

Examples for Author Affiliation

Title for Collections (required)

General Rules for Title

  • Enter the title of the collection as assigned by the holder of the collection
  • Capitalize only the first word of a title, proper nouns, proper adjectives, acronyms, and initialisms
  • Use a colon followed by a space to separate a title from a subtitle, unless another form of punctuation such as a question mark, period, or an exclamation point is already present
  • End a title with a space

Specific Rules for Title

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Titles not in English.

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Titles containing a Greek letter, chemical formula, or another special character.

Examples for Title

Type of Medium for Collections (required)

General Rules for Type of Medium

  • Indicate the specific type of medium (prints, photographs, posters, etc.) of the items in the collection following the title
  • Place the name of the medium in square brackets and end with a period, such as "[photographs]."
  • Add information about the medium according to the instructions under Physical Description for Collections

Specific Rules for Type of Medium

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More than one type of medium.

Examples for Type of Medium

Secondary Author for Collections (optional)

General Rules for Secondary Author

  • A secondary author modifies the work of the author, such as the compiler of a collection
  • Place the names of secondary authors after the title, following the type of medium
  • Use the same rules for the format of names presented in Author (artist or photographer) for Collections above
  • Follow the last named compiler with a comma and the word compiler or compilers
  • End secondary author information with a period

Specific Rules for Secondary Author

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Non-English names for secondary authors.

Date of Publication for Collections (required)

General Rules for Date

  • Give the date range of the items in the collection
  • Enter the earliest date of publication, a hyphen, and the latest date of publication. For example: 2000-2005.
  • Follow the last year with a period

Specific Rules for Date

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Date estimated.

Examples for Date

Physical Description for Collections (optional)

General Rules for Physical Description

  • Give information on the total number and physical characteristics of the prints, photographs, etc., in the collection, such as 16 photographs: black & white, 8 x 10 in. or smaller.

Specific Rules for Physical Description

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Language for describing physical characteristics.

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More than one type of medium.

Examples for Physical Description

Library or Other Archive Where Located for Collections (required)

General Rules for Library or Other Archive

  • Enter the phrase "Located at" followed by a colon and a space
  • Give the name of the library or archive, preceded by any subsidiary division, and followed by a comma and a space. For example: Prints and Photographs Collection, National Library of Medicine.
  • Follow with the name of the city, a comma, and the two-letter abbreviation for the US state or Canadian province; add the country if not the US or Canada, either written out or as the two-letter ISO country code (see Appendix D)
  • Enter a semicolon and any identifying number for the collection
  • End library information with a period

Specific Rules for Library or Other Archive

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Non-English names for libraries and archives.

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Locations outside of the US.

Examples for Library or Other Archive

Language for Collections (required)

General Rules for Language

  • Give the language of the collection, if not English
  • Capitalize the language name
  • Follow the language name with a period

Specific Rules for Language

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Collections with items appearing in more than one language.

Examples for Language

Notes for Collections (optional)

General Rules for Notes

  • Notes is a collective term for any useful information given after the citation itself
  • Complete sentences are not required
  • Be brief

Specific Rules for Notes

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Types of material to include in notes.

Examples for Notes

Examples of Citations to Collections of Prints and Photographs

1. Print and photograph collections

Tabor M. Martha Tabor collection [photographs]. 1985-2006. 155 photographs: black & white. Located at: Prints and Photographs Collection, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD. Photographs depict contemporary health care professionals at work.

Spanish Civil War poster collection [posters]. 1936-1939. 123 posters: color, 213 x 161 cm. or smaller. Located at: Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress, Washington, DC; Card No. 2001697400. Spanish, English, Esperanto, French. Many artists are represented. Among the more notable or frequently represented artists are: Jose Bardasano, Carles Fontsere, Aleix Hinsberger, and Ramon Puyol.

Patent medicine labels and advertisements [prints]. 1830-1985. 420 prints: black & white and color, 13 x 17 in. or smaller. Located at: Prints & Photographs Division, Library of Congress, Washington, DC; LOT 10632. Collection contains engravings, etchings, lithographs.

Visual materials from the Blackwell family papers [slides + prints]. 1840-circa 1935. 171 items: 28 x 23 cm. or smaller. Located at: Prints & Photographs Division, Library of Congress, Washington, DC; LOT 13267. Collection contains chiefly lantern slides and photographic prints.

Kase G, compiler (Board of Park Commissioners, Cincinnati, OH). Mt. Airy Forest collection [prints + slides]. 1928-1954. 549 prints: black & white, 9 x 15 cm.; 64 slides: color, 2 x 2 in. Located at: Cincinnati Historical Society Library, Cincinnati, OH.

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