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Patrias K, author; Wendling D, editor. Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers [Internet]. 2nd edition. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2007-.

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Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers [Internet]. 2nd edition.

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Chapter 16Journals in Audiovisual Formats

Created: ; Last Update: August 11, 2015.

A. Journal Articles in Audiovisual Formats

B. Journal Titles in Audiovisual Formats

See also:

Chapter 19 Journals on CD-ROM, DVD, Disk

Chapter 23 Journals on the Internet

A. Sample Citation and Introduction to Citing Journal Articles in Audiovisual Formats

The general format for a reference to an article from a journal published as an audiovisual, including punctuation:

- on videocassette:

Illustration of the general format for a reference to an article from a
journal published as an audiovisual on videocassette.

- on audiocassette:

Illustration of the general format for a reference to an article from a
journal published as an audiovisual on audiocassette.

Examples of Citations to Journal Articles in Audiovisual Formats

Journal articles in audiovisual formats are usually found in videocassette or audiocassette form. With the advent of CD-ROM and the Internet, many of these titles either ceased publication or migrated to the newer formats, but a few continue to be published and older articles continue to be cited.

Cite articles in audiovisual format using the standard format for journal articles (see Chapter 1), but add the type of medium, i.e., [videocassette] or [audiocassette], after the title to alert the user that special equipment is needed to view the article.

Videocassettes and audiocassettes do not use page numbers, so citations to journal articles in these formats require the addition of information on their placement within the cassette. Some publishers provide wording such as article 2 or segment 3, but if no wording is found, use "presentation." Citations to articles on audiocassette also require an indication of which side of the cassette contains the article being cited. See Location in the next section for further details.

Provide the extent or length of an article in terms of the run time, since page numbers are not present. Run time (also known as running-time) is the length of the film or program in minutes, such as 140 min. Further details of the physical description may also be provided to give additional information such as size, which can affect the equipment needed to view the item. See Physical Description (O) in the next section for details.

This chapter covers journal articles that are published as audiovisuals. See Chapter 19 for journals published in CD-ROM, DVD, or disk, and Chapter 23 for journals on the Internet. Because examples of journal articles published on videocassette or audiocassette are few in number compared to journal articles in print format, see also Chapter 1A Journals Articles for additional examples of specific parts of a citation.

The chief source for information about an audiovisual is the opening screens. If more information is needed, consult the case housing the audiovisual or any accompanying booklet or documentation.

Note that citations to journal articles published in videocassette or audiocassette format are not in PubMed.

Continue to Citation Rules with Examples for Journal Articles in Audiovisual Formats.

Continue to Examples of Citations to Journal Articles in Audiovisual Formats.

Citation Rules with Examples for Journal Articles in Audiovisual Formats

Components/elements are listed in the order they should appear in a reference. An R after the component name means that it is required in the citation; an O after the name means it is optional.

Author (R) | Author Affiliation (O) | Article Title (R) | Journal Title (R) | Edition (R) | Type of Medium (R) | Date of Publication (R) | Volume Number (R) | Issue Number (R) | Location (Pagination) (R) | Physical Description (O) | Language (R) | Notes (O)

Author for Journal Articles in Audiovisual Formats (required)

General Rules for Author

  • List names in the order they appear on the opening screens or text, the carrying case, or in accompanying documentation
  • Enter surname (family or last name) first for each author
  • Capitalize surnames and enter spaces within surnames as they appear in the document cited on the assumption that the author approved the form used. For example: Van Der Horn or van der Horn; De Wolf or de Wolf or DeWolf.
  • Convert given (first) names and middle names to initials, for a maximum of two initials following each surname
  • Give all authors, regardless of the number
  • Separate author names from each other by a comma and a space
  • End author information with a period

Specific Rules for Author

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Surnames with hyphens and other punctuation in them.

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Other surname rules.

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Given names containing punctuation, a prefix, a preposition, or particle.

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Degrees, titles, and honors before or after a personal name.

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Designations of rank in a family, such as Jr and III.

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Names in non-roman alphabets (Cyrillic, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Korean) or character-based languages (Chinese, Japanese).

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Organizations as author.

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Editor instead of an author.

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No author can be found.

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Options for author names.

Author Affiliation for Journal Articles in Audiovisual Formats (optional)

General Rules for Author Affiliation

  • Enter the affiliation of all authors or only the first author
  • Begin with the department and name of the institution, followed by city and state/Canadian province/country
  • Use commas to separate parts of the affiliation
  • Place the affiliation in parentheses, such as (Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA)
  • Separate the affiliation from its author by a space
  • Follow the affiliation with a comma placed outside the closing parenthesis, unless it is the affiliation of the last author, then use a period

Specific Rules for Author Affiliation

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Abbreviations in affiliations.

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E-mail address included.

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Organizational names not in English.

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Names for cities and countries not in English.

Article Title for Journal Articles in Audiovisual Formats (required)

General Rules for Article Title

  • Enter the title of an article as it appears on the opening screens or text, the carrying case, or in accompanying documentation
  • Capitalize only the first word of a title, proper nouns, proper adjectives, acronyms, and initialisms
  • Use a colon followed by a space to separate a title from a subtitle, unless some other form of punctuation (such as a question mark, period, or exclamation point) is already present
  • Translate titles not in English into English; place the translation in square brackets
  • End a title with a period unless a question mark or exclamation point already ends it (see Translated article titles ending in punctuation other than a period below)
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Translated article titles ending in punctuation other than a period.

Specific Rules for Article Title

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Article titles not in English.

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Article titles in more than one language.

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Article titles containing a Greek letter, chemical formula, or another special character.

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Article titles with headers.

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No article title can be found.

Journal Title for Journal Articles in Audiovisual Formats (required)

General Rules for Journal Title

  • Enter the journal title in the original language
  • Abbreviate significant words in a journal title (see Abbreviation rules for journal titles below) and omit other words, such as articles, conjunctions, and prepositions
  • Capitalize all remaining title words, including abbreviations
  • Cite a journal name as it was published at the time. For example, VideoUrology officially changed title to VideoUrology Times in 1991. Cite articles from 1990 and earlier as Videourology, not as Videourol Times.
  • End the journal title with a space
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Abbreviation rules for journal titles.

Specific Rules for Journal Title

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Single word journal titles.

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Non-English journal titles.

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Multiple language journal titles.

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Journals appearing in different editions.

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Options for journal titles.

Edition for Journal Articles in Audiovisual Formats (required)

General Rules for Edition

  • Indicate the edition/version being cited after the title if a journal is published in more than one edition or version
  • Abbreviate each significant word (see Abbreviation rules for editions) and omit other words, such as articles, conjunctions, and prepositions
  • Capitalize all remaining title words, including abbreviations
  • Place the edition statement in parentheses, such as (Br Ed)
  • End the edition statement with a space

Specific Rules for Edition

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Non-English words for editions.

Type of Medium for Journal Articles in Audiovisual Formats (required)

General Rules for Type of Medium

  • Indicate the type of medium (videocassette, audiocassette, etc.) following the journal title (and edition, if present)
  • Place the name of the medium in square brackets and end with a period, such as "[videocassette]."
  • Add information about the medium according to the instructions under Physical Description below

Specific Rules for Type of Medium

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Both an edition and a type of medium.

Examples for Type of Medium

Date of Publication for Journal Articles in Audiovisual Formats (required)

General Rules for Date of Publication

  • Include the year, month, and day of publication in that order. For example: 2004 May 5.
  • Convert roman numerals to arabic numbers, such as MM to 2000
  • Use English names for months and abbreviate them using the first three letters, such as Jan
  • End date information with a semicolon unless there is no volume or issue (see No volume or issue following the date below), then use a colon
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No volume or issue following the date.

Specific Rules for Date of Publication

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Further divisions to a date other than volume or issue.

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Multiple years, months, or days of publication.

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Non-English names for months.

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Seasons instead of months.

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Options for dates.

Volume Number for Journal Articles in Audiovisual Formats (required)

General Rules for Volume Number

  • Omit "volume", "vol.", and similar wording preceding the number
  • Use arabic numbers only. For example: convert LX or Sixtieth to 60.
  • Separate multiple volumes by a hyphen, such as 5-6 or 42-43
  • No not follow volume number(s) with any punctuation unless there is no issue number or other subdivision to the volume, then follow with a colon

Specific Rules for Volume Number

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Further divisions to a volume other than an issue.

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Non-English names for volume.

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No volume number present.

Issue Number for Journal Articles in Audiovisual Formats (required)

General Rules for Issue Number

  • Omit "number", "no.", and other wording preceding the number
  • Use arabic numbers only. For example: convert IV or Fourth to 4.
  • Separate multiple issues by a hyphen, such 2-3
  • Place issue information in parentheses
  • End issue information with a colon unless further divisions, such as a supplement or part, exist (see Further divisions to an issue below)
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Further divisions to an issue.

Specific Rules for Issue Number

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Non-English names for issue.

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No volume number present.

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No issue number present.

Location (Pagination) for Journal Articles in Audiovisual Formats (required)

General Rules for Location (Pagination)

For articles on videocassette
  • Begin location for articles on videocassette with a word and accompanying number or letter indicating the location of the article on the cassette
  • Use whatever wording is supplied, often "segment", "program" or "article", such as segment 5; if no wording is supplied, use "presentation"
  • Use arabic numbers only. For example: convert IV or Fourth to 4.
  • Follow the word and number or letter indicating the location with a comma and the total length of the article, usually expressed in minutes or hours, abbreviated to min. and hr., such as 45 min.
  • Place location information in square brackets
  • End location information with a period placed outside the closing bracket
For articles on audiocassette
  • Begin location for articles on audiocassette with an indication of which side of the cassette the article appears
  • Use the word "Side" and follow it with the number or letter provided, such as Side 1 or Side A
  • Use arabic numbers only. For example: convert II or Two to 2.
  • Follow information on the side with a space and a beginning square bracket
  • Give the word and accompanying number or letter indicating the location of the article on the cassette
  • Use whatever wording is supplied, often "segment", "program" or "article", such as segment 5; if no wording is supplied, use "presentation"
  • Use arabic numbers only. For example: convert IV or Fourth to 4.
  • Follow the word and number or letter indicating the location with a comma, a space, and the total length of the article, usually expressed in minutes or hours, abbreviated to min. and hr., such as 10 min.
  • End location information with a closing bracket and a period placed outside the closing bracket
  • See Chapter 19 for articles on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk and Chapter 23 for articles on the Internet

Specific Rules for Location (Pagination)

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Article comprises the entire issue/cassette.

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Audiocassette article appears on more than one side.

Physical Description for Journal Articles in Audiovisual Formats (optional)

General Rules for Physical Description

  • Give information on the physical characteristics of the cassette. For example: 1 videocassette: sound, color, 1/2 in.

Specific Rules for Physical Description

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Language for describing physical characteristics.

Examples for Physical Description

Language for Journal Articles in Audiovisual Formats (required)

General Rules for Language

  • Give the language of publication if other than English
  • Capitalize the language name
  • Follow the language name with a period

Specific Rules for Language

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Articles appearing in more than one language.

Notes for Journal Articles in Audiovisual Formats (optional)

General Rules for Notes

  • Notes is a collective term for any type of useful information given after the citation itself
  • Complete sentences are not required
  • Be brief

Specific Rules for Notes

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Article accompanied by a booklet or other type of material.

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Other types of material to include in notes.

Examples of Citations to Journal Articles in Audiovisual Formats

1. Standard article in audiovisual format

Vassar GJ, Harris JM, Teichman JM. Techniques in percutaneous nephrolithotomy using the Holmium:Yag laser. Videourol Times [videocassette]. 1998;11(2):[presentation 6, 10 min.]. 1 videocassette: sound, color, 1/2 in.

Kalloo AN. Nonsurgical management of gallstones. Johns Hopkins Med Grand Rounds [audiocassette]. 1993 Jun;19(5):Side E [presentation 4, 22 min.]. 1 audiocassette: 1 7/8 ips.

2. Article in audiovisual format with optional full first names for authors

Centurion, Virgilio; Caballero, Jean Carlos. Hyperopic shift after phacoemulsification in eyes with previous radial keratotomy. Video J Cataract Refract Surg [videocassette]. 2005;21(3):[presentation 3, 23 min.]. 1 videocassette: sound, color, 1/2 in.

Matsen, Frederick A. 3rd; Lazarus, Mark D. Pegged glenoid components in total shoulder arthroplasty. Video J Orthop [videocassette]. 2002 Sep;17(3):[presentation 1, 21 min.]. 1 videocassette: sound, color, 1/2 in.

3. Article in audiovisual format with author having designation of family rank

Ball WC Jr. Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia. Johns Hopkins Med Grand Rounds [audiocassette]. 1990 May;16(5):Side G [presentation 5, 13 min.]. 1 audiocassette: 1 7/8 ips.

Baim DS, Sketch MH Sr. Four to six year outcome of Palmaz-Schatz stenting. ACCEL [audiocassette]. 1996 Jun;28(6):Side 3 [presentation 2]. 1 audiocassette: 1 7/8 ips.

Parrish RK 2nd. Cataract and argon laser trabeculoplasty in glaucoma. Audio Dig Ophthalmol [audiocassette]. 1994 Mar 17;32(6):Side A-B [60 min.]. 1 audiocassette: 1 7/8 ips.

Slade SG, Chayet AS, Wachler BS, Soloway BD, Chotiner B, Milne HL 3rd, Tooma T, Vukich J. Update in refractive surgery: techniques and technologies. Video J Cataract Refract Surg [videocassette]. 2005;21(3):[presentation 1, 173 min.]. 1 videocassette: sound, color, 1/2 in.

4. Article in audiovisual format with author having prefix or particle

Van der Werf F. Cobalt. Eur Video J Cardiol [videocassette]. 1996;4(6):[presentation 1, 20 min.]. 1 videocassette: sound, color, 1/2 in.

Van Meter QL. Constitutional short stature: the diagnosis of exclusion. Audio Dig Pediatr [audiocassette]. 1995 Oct 24;41(20):Side A [presentation 1, 38 min.] 1 audiocassette: 1 7/8 ips.

Schwarten DE, van Breda A. New intervention devices. RSNA Today [videocassette]. 1993;7(2):[presentation 3, 21 min.]. 1 videocassette: sound, color, 1/2 in.

McAninch JW, Dixon CM, Kaula NF. Free skin graft urethroplasty of complex stricture. Videourology [videocassette]. 1999;12(4):[presentation 5, 11:30 min.]. 1 videocassette: sound, color, 1/2 in.

DeSalvo J, Preston CA, Riopelle J, Heaton JF. Rapid-sequence intubation: case presentations/panel discussion. Audio Dig Emerg Med [audiocassette]. 1995 Oct 16;12(20):Side B [presentation 2, 19 min.]. 1 audiocassette: 1 7/8 ips.

5. Article in audiovisual format with author having compound last name

South-Paul JE. Common gynecologic complaints. Audio Dig Fam Pract [audiocassette]. 1995 Dec 4;43(45):Side A [presentation 1, 28 min.]. 1 audiocassette: 1 7/8 ips.

de Vere White RW. Early detection of prostate cancer. Audio Dig Intern Med [audiocassette]. 1991 Oct 23;38(20):Side A-B [presentation 3, 10 min.]. 1 audiocassette: 1 7/8 ips.

6. Article in audiovisual format with editors instead of authors

Sanger JM, Sanger JW, editors. Cell motility and the cytoskeleton. Cell Motil Cytoskelet Video Suppl [videocassette]. 1998;(5):[60 min.]. 1 videocassette: sound, color with black & white, 1/2 in.

7. Article in audiovisual format with no author found

OPO certification. Transpl Video J [videocassette]. 2000 Fall;(12):[presentation 2, 8 min.]. 1 videocassette: sound, color, 1/2 in.

8. Article in audiovisual format with author affiliation included

Nakada SY (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI), Moon TD (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI), Wolf JS Jr (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI). Hand-assisted laparoscopic renal surgery. Videourol Times [videocassette]. 1998;11(2):[presentation 1, 12 min.]. 1 videocassette: sound, color, 1/2 in.

Ezekowitz MD (Hahnemann Medical College, Philadelphia, PA). Antithrombotic agents in cardiothoracic surgery. VJCTS [videocassette]. 2001 4th Quarter;16(4):[segment 2, 13 min.]. 1 videocassette: sound, color, 1/2 in.

9. Article in audiovisual format with article title in a language other than English

Baraldini M, Ventrucci M, Cipolla A, Conci T, Calliv R, Roda A, Roda E. [A new, safe and simple breath test for the diagnosis of impaired digestion]. Video Riv Ital Med Chir [videocassette]. 1993 Sep-Dec;6(3):[article 2, 16 min.]. 1 videocassette: sound, color, 1/2 in. Italian.

with original language added

Baraldini M, Ventrucci M, Cipolla A, Conci T, Calliv R, Roda A, Roda E. Un nuovo, sicuro e semplice breath test per la diagnosi di maldigestione [A new, safe and simple breath test for the diagnosis of impaired digestion]. Video Riv Ital Med Chir [videocassette]. 1993 Sep-Dec;6(3):[article 2, 16 min.]. 1 videocassette: sound, color, 1/2 in. Italian.

10. Article in audiovisual format with article title constructed

Ruddle CJ, McKinley B, Taylor P, Schilder H, Morrison RS, Pederson DL. [Endodontics]. Dent Technol [videocassette]. 1993;1(2):[30 min.]. 1 videocassette: sound, color, 1/2 in.

[US transplant games]. Transpl Video J [videocassette]. 2000;Suppl:[11 min.]. 1 videocassette: sound, color, 1/2 in.

11. Article in audiovisual format with journal title having an edition

Connell E, Tatum H, Grimes D. Contraceptive science: a status report. First Image (OB GYN Ed) [videocassette]. 1986 May-Jun;1(6):[presentation 2, 17 min.]. 1 videocassette: sound, color, 3/4 in.

12. Article in audiovisual format with date showing month or other subdivision

Kalloo AN. Nonsurgical management of gallstones. Johns Hopkins Med Grand Rounds [audiocassette]. 1993 Jun;19(5):Side E [presentation 4, 22 min.]. 1 audiocassette: 1 7/8 ips.

OPO certification. Transpl Video J [videocassette]. 2000 Fall;(12):[presentation 2, 8 min.]. 1 videocassette: sound, color, 1/2 in.

Ezekowitz MD (Hahnemann Medical College, Philadelphia, PA). Antithrombotic agents in cardiothoracic surgery. VJCTS [videocassette]. 2001 4th Quarter;16(4):[segment 2, 13 min.]. 1 videocassette: sound, color, 1/2 in.

13. Article in audiovisual format with date showing multiple months of publication

Connell E, Tatum H, Grimes D. Contraceptive science: a status report. First Image (OB GYN Ed) [videocassette]. 1986 May-Jun;1(6):[presentation 2, 17 min.]. 1 videocassette: sound, color, 3/4 in.

14. Article in audiovisual format with supplement to a date

[US transplant games]. Transpl Video J [videocassette]. 2000;Suppl:[11 min.]. 1 videocassette: sound, color, 1/2 in.

15. Article in audiovisual format with standard volume and issue

Bradley WG Jr. MR of degenerative disc disease. MRI Updates Musculoskelet MRI [videocassette]. 2003;16(5):[presentation 1, 41 min.]. 1 videocassette: sound, color, 1/2 in.

Wolf JE Jr. Effect of low-fat diet on skin cancer. Dialogues Dermatol [audiocassette]. 1995 Dec ;37(3) :Side 2 [16 min.]. 1 audiocassette: 1 7/8 ips.

16. Article in audiovisual format with volume only, no issue

Hawkins RJ, Fowler PJ, Steadman JR. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: bone-tendon-bone or hamstring. Issue Orthop [videocassette]. 1999;9:[2 hrs.]. 2 videocassettes: sound, color, 1/2 in.

17. Article in audiovisual format with no volume, only issue

OPO certification. Transpl Video J [videocassette]. 2000 Fall;(12):[presentation 2, 8 min.]. 1 videocassette: sound, color, 1/2 in.

18. Article in audiovisual format with standard location

Pohost GM. NMR spectroscopy and imaging of the heart. Video J Cardiol [videocassette]. 1990;5(3):[article 1, 17 min.]. 1 videocassette: sound, color, 1/2 in.

Wilson JH, Singhoffer JH. Paradoxical embolus in evolution: report of a case. Dyn Cardiovasc Imaging [videocassette]. 1990;3(1):[presentation 2, 4 min.]. 1 videocassette: sound, color, 1/2 in.

Demeure MJ. Strategies for parathyroid reoperation. VJGS [videocassette]. 1996 4th Quarter;5(4):[segment 3, 25 min.]. 1 videocassette: sound, color, 1/2 in.

Wolf JE Jr. Effect of low-fat diet on skin cancer. Dialogues Dermatol [audiocassette]. 1995 Dec ;37(3) :Side 2 [16 min.]. 1 audiocassette: 1 7/8 ips.

Sachs MI. Allergy testing: a dying dinosaur? Audio Dig Pediatr [audiocassette]. 1995 Dec 5;41(23):Side B [presentation 2, 22 min.]. 1 audiocassette: 1 7/8 ips.

19. Article in audiovisual format comprising the entire issue/cassette

Hawkins RJ, Fowler PJ, Steadman JR. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: bone-tendon-bone or hamstring. Issue Orthop [videocassette]. 1999;9:[2 hrs.]. 2 videocassettes: sound, color, 1/2 in.

Belvedere PC. Cosmetic placement, indirect inlays, and resin reinforced bridges. Video J Dent [videocassette]. 1997;6(4):[90 min.]. 1 videocassette: sound, color, 1/2 in.

[US transplant games]. Transpl Video J [videocassette]. 2000;Suppl:[11 min.]. 1 videocassette: sound, color, 1/2 in.

Oleska JM. Lessons learned from the AIDs epidemic. Audio Dig Pediatr [audiocassette]. 1995 Sep 5;41(17):Side A-B [60 min.]. 1 audiocassette: 1 7/8 ips. Accompanied by: booklet with pre- and post-test questions.

Dunlevy C, Fix KN, Siegel AM, Hardin JC Jr, Kreisberg RE. Nicotine intervention in the hospital setting: reviews. Clin Adv Cardiorespir Care [audiocassette]:1994 Nov;6(2):Side 1-2 [42 min.].

20. Article in audiocassette format appearing on more than one side

Olsen RC. Irritable bowel syndrome. Audio Dig Fam Pract [audiocassette]. 1995 Oct 2;43(37):Side A-B [presentation 2, 34 min.]. 1 audiocassette: 1 7/8 ips. Accompanied by: booklet with post-test.

21. Article in audiovisual format with run time omitted

Baim DS, Sketch MH Sr. Four to six year outcome of Palmaz-Schatz stenting. ACCEL [audiocassette]. 1996 Jun;28(6):Side 3 [presentation 2]. 1 audiocassette: 1 7/8 ips.

22. Article in audiovisual format accompanied by a booklet or other material

Reeder JD. MRI of osseous neoplasm. MRI Updates Musculoskelet MRI [videocassette]. 2003;16(5):[presentation 3, 35 min.]. 1 videocassette: sound, color, 1/2 in. Accompanied by: 1 syllabus.

Olsen RC. Irritable bowel syndrome. Audio Dig Fam Pract [audiocassette]. 1995 Oct 2;43(37):Side A-B [presentation 2, 34 min.]. 1 audiocassette: 1 7/8 ips. Accompanied by: booklet with post-test.

23. Article in audiovisual format with supplemental note

Wolf JE Jr. Effect of low-fat diet on skin cancer. Dialogues Dermatol [audiocassette]. 1995 Dec ;37(3) :Side 2 [16 min.]. 1 audiocassette: 1 7/8 ips. Accompanied by: booklet with learning objectives, quiz, and bibliography. Interviewed by Stewart M. Brown.

CAPOTEN: captopril. Drugs Devices [videocassette]. 1984 May;2(3):[presentation 4, 16 min.]. 1 videocassette: sound, color, 3/4 in. Located at: National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD; W1 DR892EG.

Baim DS, Sketch MH Sr. Four to six year outcome of Palmaz-Schatz stenting. ACCEL [audiocassette]. 1996 Jun;28(6):Side 3 [presentation 2]. 1 audiocassette: 1 7/8 ips. ACCEL is published by the American College of Cardiology.

B. Sample Citation and Introduction to Citing Journal Titles in Audiovisual Formats

Reference to an entire journal may be made in a reference list. The general format for a reference to a journal title in audiovisual format, including punctuation:

- for a title continuing to be published:

Illustration of the general format for a reference to a journal title in
audiovisual format for a title continuing to be published.

- for a title that ceased publication:

Illustration of the general format for a reference to a journal title in
audiovisual format for a title that ceased publication.

Examples of Citations to Journal Titles in Audiovisual Formats

If a journal is still being published, as shown in the first example, follow volume and date information with a hyphen and three spaces. If a journal has ceased publication, as in example two, separate the beginning and ending volume and date information with a hyphen with a space on either side. Because examples of journal titles published on videocassette or audiocassette are few in number compared to journal titles in print format, see also Chapter 1C Entire Journal Titles for additional examples of the specific parts of a citation.

Journal titles in audiovisual format are usually found in videocassette or audiocassette form. With the advent of CD-ROM and the Internet, many of these titles either ceased to exist or migrated to the newer formats, but a few continue to be published and older titles continue to be cited. Cite titles in audiovisual format using the standard format for print journal titles (see Chapter 1C), but because special equipment is needed to view these materials, add the appropriate type of medium, i.e., [videocassette] or [audiocassette], after the title.

The physical description of an audiovisual is optional in a reference but may be included to provide useful information. For example, a journal on videocassette may be provided in either 1/2 in. or 3/4 in. formats, and different equipment is needed to view them. Other information that also may be provided in the physical description is whether or not the journal is displayed in color or black and white, or has sound. See Physical Description in the next section for details.

Journals frequently change titles and publishers over time. When citing a journal, always provide information on the latest title and publisher unless you are citing an earlier version. If you wish to cite all volumes for a journal that has changed title, provide a separate citation for each title. For example:

  • General Surgery [audiocassette]. Glendale (CA): Audio-Digest Foundation. Vol. 37, No. 1, Jan 10, 1990 -   . Audiocassettes: 1 7/8 ips. Continues: Audio-digest. Surgery.
  • Audio-digest. Surgery [audiocassette]. Glendale (CA): Audio-Digest Foundation. Vol. 1, Jan 29, 1954 - Vol. 36, Dec 20, 1989. Audiocassettes: 1 7/8 ips. Continued by: General Surgery.
  • It is not correct to cite this title as:
  • General Surgery [audiocassette]. Glendale (CA): Audio-Digest Foundation. Vol. 1, Jan 29, 1954 -   . Audiocassette: 1 7/8 ips.

Authoritative information on a journal in an audiovisual format, in order of preference, may be found on: (1) the opening screens or wording, (2) the case containing the audiovisual, and (3) any accompanying printed material.

Note that the rules for creating references to journal titles are not the same as the rules for cataloging them. Therefore records found in the NLM LocatorPlus and the NLM Catalog databases will not always agree with the instructions presented here.

Continue to Citation Rules with Examples for Journal Titles in Audiovisual Formats.

Continue to Examples of Citations to Journal Titles in Audiovisual Formats.

Citation Rules with Examples for Journal Titles in Audiovisual Formats

Components/elements are listed in the order they should appear in a reference. An R after the component name means that it is required in the citation; an O after the name means it is optional.

Title (R) | Edition (R) | Type of Medium (R) | Editor (O) | Place of Publication (R) | Publisher (R) | Volume Number (R) | Issue Number (R) | Date of Publication (R) | Physical Description (O) | Language (R) | Notes (O)

Title for Journal Titles in Audiovisual Formats (required)

General Rules for Title

  • Enter a journal title in the original language
  • Do not abbreviate any words or omit any words
  • Use whatever capitalization and punctuation are found within the title
  • Follow the title with a colon and any subtitle that appears
  • Follow a non-English title with a translation whenever possible; place the translation in square brackets
  • End the journal title with a space

Specific Rules for Title

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Journal titles not in English.

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Journals appearing in more than one language.

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Journals appearing in different editions.

Edition for Journal Titles in Audiovisual Formats (required)

General Rules for Edition

  • Indicate the edition/version being cited after the title, if a journal is published in more than one edition or version
  • Do not abbreviate any words or omit any words
  • Use whatever capitalization and punctuation are found in the edition statement
  • Place the edition statement in parentheses, such as (British Edition)
  • End the edition statement with a space

Specific Rules for Edition

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Non-English words for editions.

Type of Medium for Journal Titles in Audiovisual Formats (required)

General Rules for Type of Medium

  • Indicate the type of medium (audiocassette, videocassette, etc.) following the title (and edition, if present)
  • Place the name of the medium in square brackets, such as "[videocassette]"
  • End medium information with a period, placed outside the closing bracket
  • See Chapter 19B for journal titles on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk; see Chapter 23B for journals on the Internet

Editor for Journal Titles in Audiovisual Formats (optional)

General Rules for Editor

  • Give the name of the current (or last) editor
  • Enter the name of the editor in natural order. For example: John A. Jones.
  • Follow the name with a comma and the word "editor"
  • End editor information with a period

Specific Rules for Editor

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Names not in English.

Place of Publication for Journal Titles in Audiovisual Formats (required)

General Rules for Place of Publication

  • Place is defined as the city where the journal was published
  • Follow US and Canadian cities with the two-letter abbreviation for the state or province (see Appendix E) to avoid confusion when citing lesser known cities or when cities in different locations have the same name, such as Palm Springs (CA) and Palm Springs (FL)
  • Follow cities in other countries with the name of the country, either written out or as the two-letter ISO country code (see Appendix D), when citing lesser known cities or when cities in different locations have the same name, such as London (ON) and London (England)
  • End place information with a colon

Specific Rules for Place of Publication

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Non-US cities.

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Multiple places of publication.

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No place of publication can be found.

Publisher for Journal Titles in Audiovisual Formats (required)

General Rules for Publisher

  • Record the name of the publisher as it appears in the journal, using whatever capitalization and punctuation are found there
  • Abbreviate well-known publisher names with caution to avoid confusion. For example, "John Wiley & Sons, Ltd." may become simply "Wiley".
  • End publisher information with a period

Specific Rules for Publisher

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Abbreviated words in publisher names.

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Non-English publishers.

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Government agencies and other national and international bodies as publisher.

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Multiple publishers.

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Joint publication.

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No publisher can be found.

Volume Number for Journal Titles in Audiovisual Formats (required)

General Rules for Volume Number

  • Precede the number with "Vol.", regardless of the particular word for volume used by the journal
  • Use arabic numbers only. For example: convert LX or Sixtieth to 60.
  • Separate multiple volumes by a hyphen. For example: 5-6 or 42-43.
  • Follow volume number(s) with a comma

Specific Rules for Volume Number

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Non-English names for volume.

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No volume number present.

Issue Number for Journal Titles in Audiovisual Formats (required)

General Rules for Issue Number

  • Precede the issue number with "No.", regardless of the particular word for issue used by the journal
  • Use arabic numbers only. For example: convert IV or Fourth to 4.
  • Separate multiple issues by a hyphen, such as 2-3
  • Follow issue information with a comma

Specific Rules for Issue Number

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Non-English names for issue.

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No volume number present.

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No issue number present.

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Options for issues.

Date of Publication for Journal Titles in Audiovisual Formats (required)

General Rules for Date of Publication

  • Include the month and year the journal began to be published, in that order, such as May 2004
  • Convert roman numerals to arabic numbers. For example: MM to 2000.
  • Use English names for months and abbreviate them to the first three letters, such as Jan
  • End beginning date information with a hyphen, three spaces, and a period if the journal is still being published
  • End beginning date information with a hyphen with a space on either side, if the journal ceased publication. Enter closing volume and issue information followed by a comma and the closing month and year. End closing date information with a period.

Specific Rules for Date of Publication

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Multiple years, months, or days of publication.

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Non-English names for months.

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Seasons instead of months.

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Options for dates.

Physical Description for Journal Titles in Audiovisual Formats (optional)

General Rules for Physical Description

  • Enter the medium on which the audiovisual title is issued, in plural form, followed by a colon and a space. Example: Videocassettes:
  • Give information on the physical characteristics of an audiovisual, such as color and size

Specific Rules for Physical Description

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Language for describing physical characteristics.

Language for Journal Titles in Audiovisual Formats (required)

General Rules for Language

  • Give the language of publication if other than English
  • Capitalize the language name
  • Follow the language name with a period

Specific Rules for Language

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Journals appearing in more than one language.

Notes for Journal Titles in Audiovisual Formats (optional)

General Rules for Notes

  • Notes is a collective term for any useful information about the journal itself
  • If the journal was published under another title, provide the name preceded by "Continues: ". For example, Continues: Audio-digest. Surgery.
  • If the journal continues under another title, provide the name preceded by "Continued by: ". For example, Continued by: General Surgery.

Specific Rules for Notes

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Other types of material to include in notes.

Examples of Citations to Journal Titles in Audiovisual Formats

1. Standard audiovisual journal title that is still being published

Pulse: Emergency Medical Update [videocassette]. Easton (PA): Radiological Society of North America. Vol. 1, 1996 -   . Videocassettes: sound, color, 1/2 in.

General Surgery [audiocassette]. Glendale (CA): Audio-Digest Foundation. Vol. 37, No. 1, Jan 10, 1990 -   . Audiocassettes: 1 7/8 ips.

2. Standard audiovisual journal title that has ceased publication

Leadership in Hospital Governance [videocassette]. Chicago: American Hospital Association. Vol. 1, No. 1, 1992 - Vol. 1, No. 6, 1992. Videocassettes: sound, color, 1/2 in.

Reflections on Cardiac Surgery [audiocassette]. Rancho Mirage (CA): Desert Heart Institute Foundation. Vol. 1, No. 1, 1989 - Vol. 6, No. 5, 1989. Audiocassettes: 1 7/8 ips.

Illustrated Case Reports in Gastroenterology [slide]. London: Chapman & Hall. Vol. 1, No. 1, Nov 1994 - Vol. 4, No. 3-4, Sep-Dec 1997. Slides: color, 2 x 2 in.

3. Audiovisual journal title with subtitle

RSNA Today: the Video Digest of Imaging Science, Technology and News [videocassette]. Easton (PA): Radiological Society of North America. Vol. 1, 1987 - Vol. 7, 1993. Videocassettes: sound, color, 1/2 in.

4. Audiovisual journal title with edition

Video Rivista Italiana di Gastroenterologia (Edizione Endoscopia Digestiva) [videocassette]. Rome: Video Intermedical Book. Vol. 1, 1988 - Vol. 7, 1994. Videocassettes: sound, color, 1/2 in. Italian.

First Image: the Video Journal of Medicine (OB/GYN Edition) [videocassette]. Englewood (CO): First Image Corp. Vol. 1, No. 1, Jun 1984 - Vol. 1, No. 7, May 1987. Videocassettes: sound, color, 3/4 in.

5. Audiovisual journal title not in English

Video Rivista Italiana di Gastroenterologia (Edizione Endoscopia Digestiva) [videocassette]. Rome: Video Intermedical Book. Vol. 1, 1988 - Vol. 7, 1994. Videocassettes: sound, color, 1/2 in. Italian.

6. Audiovisual journal title not in English, with optional translation

Video Rivista Italiana di Gastroenterologia (Edizione Endoscopia Digestiva) [Italian Video Review of Gastroenterology (Digestive Endoscopy Edition)] [videocassette]. Rome: Video Intermedical Book. Vol. 1, 1988 - Vol. 7, 1994. Videocassettes: sound, color, 1/2 in. Italian.

7. Audiovisual journal title published in multiple languages

Video-Revista de Cirugia [videocassette]. Barcelona: Asociacion Europea de Video-Cirugia. Vol. 1, 1984 -   . Videocassettes: sound, color, 1/2 in. Spanish, English, French, Italian.

8. Audiovisual journal title with well-known place of publication

Audio Journal of Oncology [audiocassette]. London: Audio Medica. Vol. 1, No. 1, 1993 - Vol. 3, No. 4, 1995. Audiocassettes: 1 7/8 ips.

Leadership in Hospital Governance [videocassette]. Chicago: American Hospital Association. Vol. 1, No. 1, 1992 - Vol. 1, No. 6, 1992. Videocassettes: sound, color, 1/2 in.

9. Audiovisual journal title with lesser-known place of publication

Medical Outlook for Infertility Specialists [audiocassette]. Ossining (NY): Cortlandt Group Inc. Vol. 1, No. 1, 1989 -   . Audiocassettes: 1 7/8 ips.

Waltham Forum Video for Small Animal Practitioners [videocassette]. Lawrenceville (NJ): Veterinary Learning Systems Co. Vol. 1, 1991 -   . Videocassettes: sound, color, 1/2 in.

10. Audiovisual journal title with unknown place of publication

European Video Journal of Cardiology [videocassette]. [place unknown]: ESC. Vol. 1, No. 1, 1992 - Vol. 4, No. 6, 1996. Videocassettes: sound, color, 1/2 in.

Drugs & Devices [videocassette]. [place unknown]: International Therapeutics Update Ltd. Vol. 1, No. 1, 1983 - Vol. 2, No. 4, 1984. Videocassettes: sound, color, 3/4 in.

11. Audiovisual journal title with well-known publisher

Equine Video Journal [videocassette]. Rahway (NJ): Merck. Vol. 1, No. 1, Summer 1988 -   . Videocassettes: sound, color, 1/2 in.

12. Audiovisual journal title with publisher having subsidiary part

Resource: a Monthly Audio Digest of Current Issues in Health Care Risk Management [audiocassette]. Cambridge (MA): Harvard Medical Institutions Inc., Risk Management Foundation. Aug 1985-Feb 1994. Audiocassettes: 1 7/8 ips.

13. Audiovisual journal title with volume and issue number

Video Journal of General Surgery [videocassette]. St. Louis (MO): Medical Video Productions. Vol. 1, No. 1, 1992 - Vol. 5, No. 4, 1996. Videocassettes: sound, color, 1/2 in.

Clinical Advances in Cardio-respiratory Care [audiocassette]. Birmingham (AL): Educational Reviews. Vol. 5, No. 5, 1994 - Vol. 6, No. 3, 1994. Audiocassettes: 1 7/8 ips.

14. Audiovisual journal title with issue number, but no volume

Perspectives: the Joint Commission Television Journal [videocassette]. Chicago: New Year Productions. No. 1, 1987 - No. 4, 1988. Videocassettes: sound, color, 1/2 in.

15. Audiovisual journal title without volume or issue numbers

Health Plans, HIPAA, and COBRA Update: Current ERISA, Tax, and Other Issues for Attorneys, Administrators, Insurers, and Consultants [videocassette]. Philadelphia: American Law Institute-American Bar Association Committee on Continuing Professional Education. 1998 -   . Videocassettes: sound, color, 1/2 in.

AMT Video Digest [videocassette]. Chicago: American Medical Association. Aug 1991-Sep 1992. Videocassettes: sound, color, 1/2 in.

16. Audiovisual journal title with multiple month(s) in date

Practical Reviews in Dermatology [audiocassette]. Birmingham (AL): Educational Reviews, Inc. Vol. 1, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1989 - Vol. 7, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1995. Audiocassettes: 1 7/8 ips.

17. Audiovisual journal title with days of the month included in date

Gastroenterology [audiocassette]. Glendale (CA): Audio-Digest Foundation. Vol. 1, No. 1, Apr 30, 1987 -   . Audiocassettes: 1 7/8 ips.

18. Audiovisual journal title with season in date

Equine Video Journal [videocassette]. Rahway (NJ): Merck. Vol. 1, No. 1, Summer 1988 -   . Videocassettes: sound, color, 1/2 in.

19. Audiovisual journal title previously published under another name

Clinical Advances in Cardio-respiratory Care [audiocassette]. Birmingham (AL): Educational Reviews. Vol. 5, No. 5, 1994 - Vol. 6, No. 3, 1994. Audiocassettes: 1 7/8 ips. Continues: In Service Reviews in Respiratory Therapy.

VideoUrology Times [videocassette]. New York: VideoUrology Times. Vol. 4, No. 1, 1991 - Vol. 12, No. 4, 1999. Videocassettes: sound, color with black & white, 1/2 in. Continues: VideoUrology.

20. Audiovisual journal title continuing to be published under another name

Dynamic Cardiovascular Imaging [videocassette]. Silver Spring (MD): Dynamedia, Inc. Vol. 1, No. 1, Spring 1987 - Vol. 3, No. 4, Oct 1990. Videocassettes: sound, color, 1/2 in. Continued by: Video Journal of Echocardiography.

VideoUrology [videocassette]. New York: P.C. Communications, Inc. Vol. 1, No. 1, 1988 - Vol. 3, No. 4, 1990. Videocassettes: sound, color, 1/2 in. Continued by: VideoUrology Times.

21. Audiovisual journal title with sponsorship note

Audio Journal of Oncology [audiocassette]. London: Audio Medica. Vol. 1, No. 1, 1993 - Vol. 3, No. 4, 1995. Audiocassettes: 1 7/8 ips. Sponsored by the British Oncological Association.

Practical Reviews in Dermatology [audiocassette]. Birmingham (AL): Educational Reviews, Inc. Vol. 1, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1989 - Vol. 7, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1995. Audiocassettes: 1 7/8 ips. Sponsored by the Albert Einstein College of Medicine and Montefiore Medical Center.

22. Audiovisual journal title with frequency of publication note

Waltham Forum Video for Small Animal Practitioners [videocassette]. Lawrenceville (NJ): Veterinary Learning Systems Co. Vol. 1, 1991 -   . Videocassettes: sound, color, 1/2 in. Quarterly.

Video Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery [videocassette]. St. Louis (MO): Medical Video Productions. Vol. 10, No. 1, 1996 - Vol. 15, No. 4, 2001. Videocassettes: sound, color, 1/2 in. Bimonthly.

General Surgery [audiocassette]. Glendale (CA): Audio-Digest Foundation. Vol. 37, No. 1, Jan 10, 1990 -   . Audiocassettes: 1 7/8 ips. 24 issues per year. Continues: Audio-digest. Surgery.

Medical Outlook for Infertility Specialists [audiocassette]. Ossining (NY): Cortlandt Group Inc. Vol. 1, No. 1, 1989 -   . Audiocassettes: 1 7/8 ips. Irregular.

23. Audiovisual journal title with ISSN note

Video Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery [videocassette]. St. Louis (MO): Medical Video Productions. Vol. 10, No. 1, 1996 - Vol. 15, No. 4, 2001. Videocassettes: sound, color, 1/2 in. ISSN: 1086-6841.

24. Audiovisual journal title with note on a library where it may be located

Leadership in Hospital Governance [videocassette]. Chicago: American Hospital Association. Vol. 1, No. 1, 1992 - Vol. 1, No. 6, 1992. Videocassettes: sound, color, 1/2 in. Located at: National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD; W1 LE11M.

25. Audiovisual journal title with distributor note

European Video Journal of Cardiology [videocassette]. [place unknown]: ESC. Vol. 1, No. 1, 1992 - Vol. 4, No. 6, 1996. Videocassettes: sound, color, 1/2 in. Distributed by Kluwer Academic Publishers, Hingham, MA.

26. Audiovisual journal title accompanied by other types of material

Pulse: Emergency Medical Update [videocassette]. Easton (PA): Radiological Society of North America. Vol. 1, 1996 -   . Videocassettes: sound, color, 1/2 in. Accompanied by: Training objective/instructors guide.

Gastroenterology [audiocassette]. Glendale (CA): Audio-Digest Foundation. Vol. 1, No. 1, Apr 30, 1987 -   . Audiocassettes: 1 7/8 ips. Accompanied by: Study guide and post test.

27. Audiovisual journal title with examples of other notes

European Video Journal of Cardiology [videocassette]. [place unknown]: ESC. Vol. 1, No. 1, 1992 - Vol. 4, No. 6, 1996. Videocassettes: sound, color, 1/2 in. ESC is the European Society of Cardiology.

General Surgery [audiocassette]. Glendale (CA): Audio-Digest Foundation. Vol. 37, 1990 -   . Audiocassettes: 1 7/8 ips. Continues: Audio-digest. Surgery. Also available on CD-ROM.

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