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Patrias K, author; Wendling D, editor. Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers [Internet]. 2nd edition. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2007-.

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Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers [Internet]. 2nd edition.

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Chapter 20Databases on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk

Created: ; Last Update: August 11, 2015.

See also:

Chapter 24 Databases/Retrieval Systems on the Internet

Sample Citation and Introduction to Citing Databases on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk

The general format for a reference to a database on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk, including punctuation:

- for a serial database that is open:

Illustration of the general format for a reference to a database on
CD-ROM, DVD, or disk for a serial database that is open.

- for a serial database that is closed:

Illustration of the general format for a reference to a database on
CD-ROM, DVD, or disk for a serial database that is closed.

- for a single database:

Illustration of the general format for a reference to a database on
CD-ROM, DVD, or disk for a single database.

Examples of Citations to Databases on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk

A database is a collection of individual records that are most often standardized in both format and content. Database records are usually related by a common denominator such as subject matter or the source of the material in them. Text-oriented databases are generally bibliographic or full-text, where each record has a bibliographic citation to a publication or the complete text of a document. Number-oriented databases cover many types, including statistical, time series, and transactional.

There are two broad categories of databases found on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk: serial and single. Their publication pattern differentiates them.

Serial databases contain records or other entries that have been collected over a period of time, with new or updated versions issued at stated intervals. Serial databases are either open or closed. Open databases continue to have new records added to them or to have existing records updated; in closed databases no records are being added or updated.

  • To cite an open serial database, give the beginning date of the database followed by a hyphen, 3 spaces, and a period.
  • To cite a closed serial database, give the beginning and ending dates, separated by a hyphen. End date information with a period.

The second broad category is single databases. These are collections of records published only once, usually with no intention of updating or adding records at a future date, although minor corrections/changes may be made.

  • To cite a single database, give the one date of publication as you would for a standard book.
  • If you are unsure whether a database is a serial or single one, cite it as a single.

Databases frequently change titles and publishers over time. When citing a database, always provide information on the latest title and publisher unless you are citing an earlier version. If you wish to cite all years for a database that has changed title, provide a separate citation for each title. For example:

  • Veterinary librarian [disk]. Littleton (CO): First Move. 1990 - 2002. Computer disks: 5 1/4 in. Continued by: Veterinary Journal Index.
  • Veterinary journal index [CD-ROM]. Littleton (CO): First Move. 2003 -   . CD-ROMs: 4 3/4 in. Continues: Veterinary Librarian.

Do not cite this database as:

  • Veterinary journal index [CD-ROM]. Littleton (CO): First Move. 1990 -   . CD-ROMs: 4 3/4 in.

Use the opening screen(s), the label of the CD-ROM, DVD, or disk, the jewel case (carrying case), and accompanying documentation, in that order, for authoritative information to use in citing a database.

Parts of Databases and Contributions to Databases

This chapter includes citation rules for entire databases on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk. For citing a part of these databases, such as an individual record, combine the guidelines presented in this chapter with those in Chapter 24B Parts of Databases on the Internet and Chapter 2C Parts of Books. See also example 34 below.

For citing a contribution to a database, which occurs when an author(s) submits text or data to a database, combine the guidelines presented in this chapter with those in Chapter 24C Contributions to Databases on the Internet and Chapter 2D Contributions to Books. See also example 35 below. Note, however, that entries for the books and journal articles in a bibliographic database should not be cited as a contribution; the original item should be sought when possible.

When citing a part of a database, begin with the citation to the database, then add information on the part. Do the opposite when citing a contribution. Because a reference should start with the individual or organization responsible for the intellectual content of the publication, begin a reference to a contribution with the author and title of the contribution, followed by the word "In:" and the citation for the entire database.

As when citing parts and contributions to books, provide the length of the part or contribution to a database whenever possible. If traditional page numbers are not present, calculate the extent of the part or contribution using the best means possible, i.e., number of paragraphs, screens, or pages if printed out. Since screen size and print fonts vary, precede the estimated number of screens and pages with the word, "about", and place extent information in square brackets, such as [about 3 screens]. For parts and contributions that contain hyperlinks, however, such as the second sample citation in example 35, it will not be possible to provide the length.

Continue to Citation Rules with Examples for Databases on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk.

Continue to Examples of Citations to Databases on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk.

Citation Rules with Examples for Databases on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk

Components/elements are listed in the order they should appear in a reference. An R after the component name means that it is required in the citation; an O after the name means it is optional.

Author/Editor (R) | Author Affiliation (O) | Title (R) | Content Type (O) | Type of Medium (R) | Edition (R) | Editor and other Secondary Authors (O) | Place of Publication (R) | Publisher (R) | Date of Publication (R) | Date of Update/Revision (R) | Extent (Pagination) (O) | Physical Description (O) | Series (O) | Language (R) | Notes (O)

Author/Editor for Databases on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk (required)

General Rules for Author/Editor

  • List names in the order they appear on the opening screens
  • Enter surname (family or last name) first for each author/editor
  • Capitalize surnames and enter spaces within surnames as they appear on the assumption that the author approved the form used. For example: Van Der Horn or van der Horn; De Wolf or de Wolf or DeWolf.
  • Convert given (first) names and middle names to initials for a maximum of two initials following each surname
  • Give all authors/editors, regardless of the number
  • Separate author/editor names from each other by a comma and a space
  • If there are no authors, only editors, follow the last named editor with a comma and the word editor or editors; see Editor and Other Secondary Authors below if there are authors and editors
  • End author/editor information with a period

Specific Rules for Author/Editor

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Surnames with hyphens and other punctuation in them.

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Other surname rules.

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Given names containing punctuation, a prefix, a preposition, or particle.

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Degrees, titles, and honors before or after a personal name.

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Designations of rank in a family, such as Jr and III.

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Names in non-roman alphabets (Cyrillic, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Korean) or character-based languages (Chinese, Japanese).

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Non-English words for editor.

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Organizations as author.

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No author can be found.

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Options for author names.

Author Affiliation for Databases on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk (optional)

General Rules for Author Affiliation

  • Enter the affiliation of all authors or only the first author
  • Begin with the department and name of the institution, followed by city and state/Canadian province/country
  • Use commas to separate parts of the address
  • Place the address in parentheses, such as (Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA)
  • Separate the affiliation from its author by a space
  • Follow the affiliation with a comma placed outside the closing parenthesis, unless the affiliation is for the last author, then use a period

Specific Rules for Author Affiliation

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Abbreviations in affiliations.

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E-mail address included.

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Organizational names for affiliations not in English.

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Names for cities and countries not in English.

Title for Databases on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk (required)

General Rules for Title

  • Enter the title of a database as it appears on the opening screens, in the original language
  • Capitalize only the first word of a title, proper nouns, proper adjectives, acronyms, and initialisms
  • Use a colon followed by a space to separate a title from a subtitle, unless another form of punctuation (such as a question mark, period, or an exclamation point) is already present
  • Follow non-English titles with a translation whenever possible; place the translation in square brackets
  • End a title with a space

Specific Rules for Title

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Titles not in English.

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Titles in more than one language.

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Titles ending in punctuation other than a period.

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Titles containing a Greek letter, chemical formula, or another special character.

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No title can be found.

Content Type for Databases on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk (optional)

General Rules for Content Type

  • A content type alerts the user that the reference is not to a standard book but to a database
  • Begin type information with a left square bracket
  • Enter the words "database on"
  • End the content type with space

Specific Rules for Content Type

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Titles ending in punctuation other than a period.

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Titles not in English.

Type of Medium for Databases on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk (required)

General Rules for Type of Medium

  • Indicate the type of medium (CD-ROM, DVD, disk) following the title (and Content Type, if present)
  • Place the name of the medium in square brackets and end with a period, such as "[DVD]."
  • Add information about the medium according to the instructions under Physical Description below
  • See Chapter 24 for databases on the Internet

Specific Rules for Type of Medium

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Both a content type and a type of medium.

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Database in more than one type of medium.

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Titles ending in punctuation other than a period.

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Titles not in English.

Edition for Databases on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk (required)

General Rules for Edition

  • Indicate the edition/version being cited after the Type of Medium when a database is published in more than one edition or version
  • Abbreviate common words (see Abbreviation rules for editions below)
  • Capitalize only the first word of the edition statement, proper nouns, and proper adjectives
  • Express numbers representing editions in arabic ordinals. For example: second becomes 2nd and III becomes 3rd.
  • End the edition statement with a period
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Abbreviation rules for editions.

Specific Rules for Edition

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Non-English words for editions.

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Both an edition and a version.

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First editions.

Editor and other Secondary Authors for Databases on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk (optional)

General Rules for Editor and other Secondary Authors

  • A secondary author modifies the work of the author. Examples include editors, translators, and illustrators.
  • Place the names of secondary authors after the Type of Medium and any Edition statement
  • Use the same rules for the format of names given in Author/Editor above
  • Follow the last named editor with a comma and a space and the word editor or editors; the last named illustrator with a comma and a space and the word illustrator or illustrators, etc.
  • End secondary author information with a period
  • If there is no author, move secondary authors such as editors and translators to the author position in the reference

Specific Rules for Editor and other Secondary Authors

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More than one type of secondary author.

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Secondary author performing more than one role.

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Non-English names for secondary authors.

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Organization as editor or other secondary author.

Place of Publication for Databases on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk (required)

General Rules for Place of Publication

  • Place is defined as the city where the database is published
  • Follow US and Canadian cities with the two-letter abbreviation for the state or province (see Appendix E) to avoid confusion when citing lesser known cities or when cities in different locations have the same name, such as Palm Springs (CA) and Palm Springs (FL)
  • Follow cities in other countries with the name of the country, either written out or as the two-letter ISO country code (see Appendix D), when citing lesser known cities or when cities in different locations have the same name, such as Cambridge (MA) and Cambridge (England)
  • Use the anglicized form for a non-US city, such as Vienna for Wein
  • End place information with a colon

Specific Rules for Place of Publication

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Non-US cities.

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Joint publication.

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Multiple places of publication.

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No place of publication can be found.

Publisher for Databases on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk (required)

General Rules for Publisher

  • A publisher is defined as the individual or organization issuing the database
  • Record the name of the publisher as it appears on the title page or opening screens, using whatever capitalization and punctuation is found there
  • Abbreviate well-known publisher names with caution to avoid confusion. For example, "John Wiley & Sons, Ltd." may become simply "Wiley".
  • When a division or other subsidiary part of a publisher appears in the publication, enter the publisher name first. For example: McGraw-Hill, Health Professions Division.
  • End publisher information with a period for serial databases and a semicolon for single databases

Specific Rules for Publisher

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Abbreviated words in publisher names.

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Non-English names for publishers.

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Government agencies and other national and international bodies as publisher.

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Joint publication.

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Multiple publishers.

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No publisher can be found.

Date of Publication for Databases on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk (required)

General Rules for Date of Publication

  • Always give the year
  • Convert roman numerals to arabic numbers. For example: MM to 2000.
  • Include the month, if desired, after the year, such as 2004 May
  • Use English names for months and abbreviate them using the first three letters, such as Jan
  • For an open serial database, give the beginning date of the database followed by a hyphen and 3 spaces
  • For a closed serial database, give the beginning and ending dates, separated by a hyphen with a space before and after
  • For a single database, provide the one date of publication as you would for a standard book
  • End date information for all types with a period unless a Date of Update/Revision is found, then use a space

Specific Rules for Date of Publication

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Multiple years of publication.

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Non-English names for months.

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Seasons instead of months.

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Date of publication and date of copyright.

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No date of publication, but a date of copyright.

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No date of publication or copyright can be found.

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Options for date of publication.

Date of Update/Revision for Databases on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk (required)

General Rules for Date of Update/Revision

  • Databases may be updated or revised between editions or versions
  • Use whatever word for update or revision is provided, such as updated and modified
  • Always give the year of update/revision
  • Convert roman numerals to arabic numbers. For example: MM to 2000.
  • Include the month and day of update/revision, if provided, after the year, such as 2006 May 5
  • Use English names for months and abbreviate them using the first three letters, such as Jan
  • Place update/revision information in square brackets
  • End update/revision information with a period placed outside the closing bracket

Specific Rules for Date of Update/Revision

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Non-English names for months.

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Seasons instead of months.

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Both a date of update and a date of revision.

Examples for Date of Update/Revision

Extent (Pagination) for Databases on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk (optional)

General Rules for Extent (Pagination)

For serial databases-

  • Give the name of the medium on which the database is issued, such as CD-ROMs or Computer disks
  • End extent information with a period unless Physical Description is included, then use a colon

For single databases-

  • Give the total number of physical pieces on which the database appears
  • Follow the number with the name of the medium, such as 2 CD-ROMs or 4 computer disks
  • End extent information with a period unless Physical Description is included, then use a colon

Specific Rules for Extent (Pagination)

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More than one type of medium.

Physical Description for Databases on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk (optional)

General Rules for Physical Description

  • Give information on the physical characteristics, such as color and size

Specific Rules for Physical Description

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Language for describing physical characteristics.

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More than one type of medium.

Series for Databases on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk (optional)

General Rules for Series

  • Begin with the name of the series
  • Capitalize only the first word and proper nouns
  • Follow the name with any numbers provided. For example, vol. 3 for a volume or no. 12 for an issue number.
  • Separate the title and the number by a semicolon and a space
  • Place series information in parentheses
  • End series information with a period, placed outside the closing parenthesis

Specific Rules for Series

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Series editor's name provided.

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Multiple series.

Language for Databases on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk (required)

General Rules for Language

  • Give the language of publication if not English
  • Capitalize the language name
  • Follow the language name with a period

Specific Rules for Language

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Databases appearing in more than one language.

Notes for Databases on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk (optional)

General Rules for Notes

  • Notes is a collective term for any type of useful information given after the citation itself
  • Complete sentences are not required
  • Be brief

Specific Rules for Notes

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System requirements.

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Other types of material to include in notes.

Examples of Citations to Databases on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk

1. Standard citation to an open serial database on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk

The Cochrane library [CD-ROM]. Chichester (UK): John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 1996 -   . CD-ROMs: 4 3/4 in.

Physical education index [CD-ROM]. Cape Girardeau (MO): Softworks USA. 1990 -   . CD-ROMs: 4 3/4 in.

Science watch. Hot papers database [CD-ROM]. Philadelphia: Thompson Scientific. 1996 -   . CD-ROMs: 4 3/4 in.

Chicano database [CD-ROM]. Berkeley (CA): University of California, Chicano Studies Library Publications. 1990 -   . CD-ROMs: 4 3/4 in.

with optional content type

The Cochrane library [database on CD-ROM]. Chichester (UK): John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 1996 -   . CD-ROMs: 4 3/4 in.

Physical education index [database on CD-ROM]. Cape Girardeau (MO): Softworks USA. 1990 -   . CD-ROMs: 4 3/4 in.

2. Standard citation to a closed serial database on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk

Health and psychosocial instruments [CD-ROM]. Pittsburgh (PA): Behavioral Measurement Database Services. 1992 - 2003. CD-ROMs: color, 4 3/4 in.

Veterinary librarian [disk]. Littleton (CO): First Move. 1990 - 2002. Computer disks: 5 1/4 in.

with optional content type

Health and psychosocial instruments [database on CD-ROM]. Pittsburgh (PA): Behavioral Measurement Database Services. 1992 - 2003. CD-ROMs: color, 4 3/4 in.

Veterinary librarian [database on disk]. Littleton (CO): First Move. 1990 - 2002. Computer disks: 5 1/4 in.

3. Standard citation to a single database on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk

The animal motion show: a visual reference for artists [DVD]. Burbank (CA): Rhino House; 2003. 2 DVDs: sound, color, 4 3/4 in.

Properties of organic solvents [CD-ROM]. Version 2.0. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press; c1996. 1 CD-ROM: 4 3/4 in.

Houston R, Conrad P, Boyce W, Hayes R. ParasitoLog: an interactive database of veterinary parasites [CD-ROM]. Davis (CA): University of California, School of Veterinary Medicine; 1997. 1 CD-ROM: color, 4 3/4 in.

Comprehensive occupational health nursing preparation database [disk]. Version 1.0. [Westboro (MA)]: Datachem Software; c1991. 2 computer disks: 3 1/2 in.

Anesthesia & critical care drug database [disk]. Version 3.1. Redondo Beach (CA): Med-Pharm Information Systems; c1996. 2 computer disks: 3 1/2 in.

with optional content type

The animal motion show: a visual reference for artists [database on DVD]. Burbank (CA): Rhino House; 2003. 2 DVDs: sound, color, 4 3/4 in.

Properties of organic solvents [database on CD-ROM]. Version 2.0. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press; c1996. 1 CD-ROM: 4 3/4 in.

4. Database on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with an individual(s) as author

Walker MM, Keith LH. EPA's Clean Air Act air toxics database [disk]. Boca Raton (FL): Lewis Publishers; c1992-1993. 4 computer disks: 3 1/2 in.

Winter RM, Baraitser M. London dysmorphology database [CD-ROM]. IBM PC version 2.0. Oxford (England): Oxford University Press; c1996. 2 CD-ROMs: 4 3/4 in.

5. Database on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with optional full names for author

Daims, Mark. Companion to canine & feline practice [CD-ROM]. Version 6.0. Guelph (ON): Lifelearn; 2001. 1 CD-ROM: sound, color, 4 3/4 in.

Walker, Mary M.; Keith, Lawrence H. EPA's Clean Air Act air toxics database [disk]. Boca Raton (FL): Lewis Publishers; c1992-1993. 4 computer disks: 3 1/2 in.

6. Database on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with an organization as author

Federation of State Boards of Physical Therapy. Physical Therapy Practice Act/Rules database [disk]. Orem (UT): Infobusiness, Inc. 1994 -   . Computer disks: 3 1/2 in.

7. Database on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with editors where there is no author

Jorgensen LA, Jorgensen SE, Nielsen SN, editors. ECOTOX: ecological modelling and ecotoxicology [CD-ROM]. New York: Elsevier Science; c2000. 1 CD-ROM: 4 3/4 in.

Dollery C, editor. Therapeutic drugs [CD-ROM]. Release 1.0. Edinburgh (Scotland): Churchill Livingstone; c1999. 1 CD-ROM: color, 4 3/4 in.

8. Database on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with no authors or editors

Dictionary of commonly cited compounds [CD-ROM]. CD-ROM ed. Boca Raton (FL): Chapman & Hall/CRC. 2001 -   . CD-ROMs: 4 3/4 in.

9. Database on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with author affiliation

Ronco C (Department of Nephrology, St. Bortolo Hospital, Venice, Italy), Ghezzi PM (Department of Nephrology, St. Croce & Carle Hospital, Cuneo, Italy), Hoenich NA (Department of Nephrology, School of Clinical Medical Sciences, University of Newcastle, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, UK), Delfino P (Department of Informatics, St. Croce & Carle Hospital, Cuneo, Italy). Membranes and filters for hemodialysis database 2001 [CD-ROM]. Basel (Switzerland): S. Karger Publishers; c2001. 1 CD-ROM: color, 4 3/4 in.

Pickup JC (Guy's, King's, and St. Thomas' School of Medicine, Guy's Hospital, London, UK), Williams G, editors. Slide atlas of diabetes [CD-ROM]. [Oxford (UK)]: Blackwell Publishing; c2004. 1 CD-ROM: color, 4 3/4 in.

10. Database title on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with subtitle

CBAISS: chemical and biological agents information support system [CD-ROM]. Version 1.0 for Windows. Columbus (OH): Battelle Memorial Institute; c2001. 1 CD-ROM: 4 3/4 in.

11. Database on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with title ending in other than a period

Genusys: database of herbal remedies, aromatherapy, essential oils, vitamins, amino acids, and more! [CD-ROM]. Version 1.4. Solebury (PA): Genusys Laboratories; 1996. 1 CD-ROM: sound, color, 4 3/4 in.

12. Database on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk in a language other than English

Zeitschriftendatenbank [CD-ROM + disk]. Berlin: Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin, Preussischer Kulturbesitz. 1994 -   . CD-ROMs: 4 3/4 in.; Computer disks: 3 1/2 in. German.

Slovenska bibliografija [CD-ROM]. Ljubljana (Slovenia): Narodna in Univerzitetna Knjiznica. 1989 -   . CD-ROMs: 4 3/4 in. Slovenian.

Cserey L. Magyar allatorvosi bibliografia, 1990-1996 [CD-ROM]. [Budapest]: University of Veterinary Science Central Library; 1997. 1 CD-ROM: 4 3/4 in. Hungarian.

Zhong yi yao jie du wen xian zi liao ku [CD-ROM]. [Hong Kong]: Hong Kong Baptist University; 2000. 1 CD-ROM: color, 4 3/4 in. Chinese, English.

with translation included

Zeitschriftendatenbank [Journals databank] [CD-ROM + disk]. Berlin: Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin, Preussischer Kulturbesitz. 1994 -   . CD-ROMs: 4 3/4 in.; Computer disks: 3 1/2 in. German.

Zhong yi yao jie du wen xian zi liao ku [Database on Chinese medicine for drug addiction] [CD-ROM]. [Hong Kong]: Hong Kong Baptist University; 2000. 1 CD-ROM: color, 4 3/4 in. Chinese, English.

13. Database on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk published with two equal languages

Demirjian A, Cheng R, Tanguay R. Electronic encyclopedia on maxillo-facial, dental & skeletal development = Encyclopedie electronique du developpement maxillo-faciale, dentaire et sqelettique [CD-ROM + disk]. [Montreal]: Demirjian; c1996. 1 CD-ROM: color, 4 3/4 in.; 1 computer disk: 3 1/2 in. English, French.

14. Database on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with more than one type of medium

Zeitschriftendatenbank [CD-ROM + disk]. Berlin: Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin, Preussischer Kulturbesitz. 1994 -   . CD-ROMs: 4 3/4 in.; Computer disks: 3 1/2 in. German.

Demirjian A, Cheng R, Tanguay R. Electronic encyclopedia on maxillo-facial, dental & skeletal development = Encyclopedie electronique du developpement maxillo-faciale, dentaire et sqelettique [CD-ROM + disk]. [Montreal]: Demirjian; c1996. 1 CD-ROM: color, 4 3/4 in.; 1 computer disk: 3 1/2 in. English, French.

15. Database on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with an edition or version

Early American manual therapy [CD-ROM]. Version 3.0. Virginia Beach (VA): Lifeline Press; c2003. 1 CD-ROM: 4 3/4 in.

Therapeutic drugs [CD-ROM]. Release 1.0. London: Harcourt Brace & Co.; c1999. 1 CD-ROM: 4 3/4 in.

TSCA chemical inventory [CD-ROM]. Version T-PRO. Sanford (FL): Solutions Software Corp.; c1995. 1 CD-ROM: color, 4 3/4 in.

Rao Z, Chen F. Zhu jian bo shu zi liao ku [CD-ROM]. Di 2 ban. Xianggang (China): Xianggang Zhong wen da xue Zhongguo. 1999 -   . CD-ROMs: color, 4 3/4 in. Chinese.

UMLS knowledge sources [dataset on DVD]. Release 2011AA. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2011 May. 1 DVD: 4 3/4 in.

16. Database on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with authors and editors or other secondary authors

Vieillefond A, Bastien H, Billerey C, Berger N, Bouvier R, Cochand-Priollet B, Dauge-Geffroy MC, Fontaniere B. Urological pathology: a reference image database coded with SNOMED, ICD 10, and ADICAP [CD-ROM]. Got C, editor. Heidelberg (Germany): Springer Electronic Media; 1998. 1 CD-ROM: color, 4 3/4 in. English, French.

17. Database on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with well known place of publication

Wistat: women's indicators and statistics database [CD-ROM]. Version 4. New York: United Nations Publications; c1999. 1 CD-ROM: color, 4 3/4 in.

Science watch. Hot papers database [CD-ROM]. Philadelphia: Thompson Scientific. 1996 -   . CD-ROMs: 4 3/4 in.

Therapeutic drugs [CD-ROM]. Release 1.0. London: Harcourt Brace & Co.; c1999. 1 CD-ROM: 4 3/4 in.

18. Database on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with geographic qualifier added to place of publication for clarity

Genusys: database of herbal remedies, aromatherapy, essential oils, vitamins, amino acids, and more! [CD-ROM]. Version 1.4. Solebury (PA): Genusys Laboratories; 1996. 1 CD-ROM: sound, color, 4 3/4 in.

Contemporary women's issues [CD-ROM]. Beachwood (OH): Responsive Database Services. 1992 -   . CD-ROMs: 4 3/4 in.

OSSREA on CD: research publications and official documents. Version 1. Addis Ababa (Ethiopia): OSSREA. 1980 - 2000. CD-ROMs: color, 4 3/4 in.

19. Database on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with place of publication inferred

The pathology atlas [CD-ROM]. Version 1.0. [Princeton (NJ)]: Films for the Humanities and Sciences. c1998 -   . CD-ROMs: color, 4 3/4 in.

20. Database on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with unknown place of publication

Certified clinical microbiology database [disk]. [place unknown]: Datachem Software/Lewis Publishers; [1992?]. 4 computer disks: 3 1/2 in.

21. Database on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with publisher having subsidiary division

ASH slide bank database for Heme CD [disk]. MS-Windows version 2.1. Seattle: University of Washington, Health Sciences Center for Educational Resources; c1996. 3 computer disks: 3 1/2 in.

CRISP: biomedical research information [CD-ROM]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US), Office of Extramural Research. 1993 - 1998. CD-ROMs: 4 3/4 in.

22. Database on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with government agency or other national body as publisher

CDP file [CD-ROM]. Atlanta: National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (US). 1991 Oct -   . CD-ROMs: 4 3/4 in.

Marriage and divorce data [CD-ROM]. Hyattsville (MD): National Center for Health Statistics (US). 1989 -   . CD-ROMs: 4 3/4 in.

CRISP: biomedical research information [CD-ROM]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US), Office of Extramural Research. 1993 - 1998. CD-ROMs: 4 3/4 in.

23. Database on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with month(s) included in date of publication

Current opinion in obstetrics & gynecology, with evaluated MEDLINE [CD-ROM]. Cambridge (MA): Electronic Press, Inc. 1995 Nov -   . CD-ROMs: 4 3/4 in.

Computer library [CD-ROM]. New York: Ziff Communications. 1988 Sep -   . CD-ROMs: 4 3/4 in.

EMBASE CD. Drugs & pharmacology [CD-ROM]. [Norwood (MA)]: SilverPlatter Information. 1994 Jan-Jun -   . CD-ROMs: 4 3/4 in.

European veterinary dissertations [CD-ROM]. Bilthoven (Netherlands): Euroscience. 2003 Jun - 2003. CD-ROMs: 4 3/4 in.

24. Database on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with season included in date of publication

Scientific American surgery CD-ROM [CD-ROM]. New York: Scientific American. 1995 Fall - 2001 Summer. CD-ROMs: sound, color, 4 3/4 in.

25. Database on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with multiple years

Plunkett's health care industry almanac [CD-ROM]. Houston (TX): Plunkett Research, Ltd. 1999-2000 -   . CD-ROMs: 4 3/4 in.

World resources [CD-ROM]. Washington: World Resources Institute. 1998-1999 -   . CD-ROMs: 4 3/4 in.

Walker MM, Keith LH. EPA's Clean Air Act air toxics database [disk]. Boca Raton (FL): Lewis Publishers; c1992-1993. 4 computer disks: 3 1/2 in.

26. Database on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with date of copyright instead of date of publication

Clydesdale FM, editor. Food additives: toxicology, regulation, and properties [CD-ROM]. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press; c1997. 1 CD-ROM: sound, color, 4 3/4 in.

Walker MM, Keith LH. EPA's Clean Air Act air toxics database [disk]. Boca Raton (FL): Lewis Publishers; c1992-1993. 4 computer disks: 3 1/2 in.

27. Database on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with date obtained from earliest material in it

IBEDOCS: IBE Bibliographic Catalogue [CD-ROM]. Geneva: UNESCO, International Bureau of Education. [1971] -   . CD-ROMs: 4 3/4 in.

28. Database on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with date estimated

Certified clinical microbiology database [disk]. [place unknown]: Datachem Software/Lewis Publishers; [1992?]. 4 computer disks: 3 1/2 in.

29. Database on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with update date

Compact library: AIDS [CD-ROM + disk]. Version 1.55a. Boston: Massachusetts Medical Society, Medical Publishing Group. 1980 - 1990 [updated 1990 Oct]. CD-ROMs: color, 4 3/4 in.; Computer disks: color, 5 1/2 in.

30. Database on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with extent and physical description

Daims M. Companion to canine & feline practice [CD-ROM]. Version 6.0. Guelph (ON): Lifelearn; 2001. 1 CD-ROM: sound, color, 4 3/4 in.

Zeitschriftendatenbank [CD-ROM + disk]. Berlin: Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin, Preussischer Kulturbesitz. 1994 -   . CD-ROMs: 4 3/4 in.; Computer disks: 3 1/2 in. German.

31. Database on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with a series

CI5VII: electronic database of cancer incidence in five continents [disk]. Lyon (France): International Agency for Research on Cancer; c1997. 2 computer disks: 3 1/2 in. (IARC cancerbase; no. 2).

Vieillefond A, Bastien H, Billerey C, Berger N, Bouvier R, Cochand-Priollet B, Dauge-Geffroy MC, Fontaniere B. Urological pathology: a reference image database coded with SNOMED, ICD 10, and ADICAP [CD-ROM]. Got C, editor. Heidelberg (Germany): Springer Electronic Media; 1998. 1 CD-ROM: color, 4 3/4 in. (Atlas of pathology; 5). English, French.

32. Database on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with optional system requirements

Pickup JC, Williams G, editors. Slide atlas of diabetes [CD-ROM]. [Oxford (UK)]: Blackwell Publishing; c2004. 1 CD-ROM: color, 4 3/4 in. System Requirements: Pentium II or higher; Windows 98, ME, NT4, 2000, XP; Screen resolution of 800 x 600 or higher; 12x CD-ROM drive or higher.

VETCD [CD-ROM + disk]. [Wallingford (UK)]: CAB International. 1990 -   . CD-ROMs: 4 3/4 in.; Computer disks: 3 1/2 in. System Requirements: IBM-compatible PC; 640 K of RAM; 10 megabyte hard disk drive; MS-DOS or PC-DOS 3.1 or higher; MS-DOS CD-ROM Extensions 2.0 or higher; ISO 9660-compatible CD-ROM drive; standard monitor; floppy drive; parallel port for printer.

Daims M. Companion to canine & feline practice [CD-ROM]. Version 6.0. Guelph (ON): Lifelearn; 2001. 1 CD-ROM: sound, color, 4 3/4 in. System Requirements: Pentium 90 MHz or better; 16 MB RAM; Windows 3.1 or 95/98; 640x480 monitor or higher; CD-ROM drive (8x or higher recommended).

Early American manual therapy [CD-ROM]. Version 3.0. Virginia Beach (VA): Lifeline Press; 2003. 1 CD-ROM: 4 3/4 in. System Requirements: PCs or Macs; Internet browser (such as Microsoft Explorer); CD drive; Windows (for setup program to install this database to a hard drive).

33. Database on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with supplemental note included

The Cochrane library [CD-ROM]. Chichester (UK): John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 1996 -   . CD-ROMs: 4 3/4 in. Quarterly.

Scientific American surgery CD-ROM [CD-ROM]. New York: Scientific American. 1995 Fall - 2001 Summer. CD-ROMs: sound, color, 4 3/4 in. Continued by: ACS Surgery CD.

Properties of organic solvents [CD-ROM]. Version 2.0. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press; c1996. 1 CD-ROM: 4 3/4 in. Database of information on almost 600 organic solvents used in industry, academic research, and general commerce.

Veterinary librarian [disk]. Littleton (CO): First Move. 1990 - 2002. Computer disks: 5 1/4 in. Continued by: Veterinary Journal Index. Covered 28 journals.

Veterinary journal index [CD-ROM]. Littleton (CO): First Move. 2003 -   . CD-ROMs: 4 3/4 in. Continues: Veterinary Librarian.

ASH slide bank database for Heme CD [disk]. MS-Windows version 2.1. Seattle: University of Washington, Health Sciences Center for Educational Resources; c1996. 3 computer disks: 3 1/2 in. System Requirements: IBM PC or compatible; Windows. ASH is the American Society of hematology.

RNdex professional [CD-ROM]. Pasadena (CA): Information Resources Group. 1996 -   . CD-ROMs: 4 3/4 in. System Requirements: 80386sx IBM-compatible PC or better; 4+MB memory; MS Windows 3.1 or higher; 7MB hard disk space; CD-ROM drive. Three per year. Published in cooperation with American Journal of Nursing Company.

CDP file [CD-ROM]. Atlanta: National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (US). 1991 Oct -   . CD-ROMs: 4 3/4 in. Quarterly. Also called Chronic Disease Prevention File.

PDF-4/organics: relational database [CD-ROM]. Newtown Square (PA): International Centre for Diffraction Data. 2002 -   . CD-ROMs: 4 3/4 in. Located at: Library of Congress, Washington, DC; QE369.X2.

VETCD [CD-ROM + disk]. [Wallingford (UK)]: CAB International. 1990 -   . CD-ROMs: 4 3/4 in.; Computer disks: 3 1/2 in. Accompanied by: 1 manual and 1 quick reference card.

34. Part of a database on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk

with item numbers

Wistat: women's indicators and statistics database [CD-ROM]. Version 4. New York: United Nations Publications; c1999. Topic 1.1, Estimated and projected population by age and sex, 1970-2010; [about 6 screens]. 1 CD-ROM: color, 4 3/4 in.

without item numbers

Pickup JC, Williams G, editors. Slide atlas of diabetes [CD-ROM]. [Oxford (UK)]: Blackwell Publishing; c2004. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy: clinical patterns; [about 1 screen]. 1 CD-ROM: color, 4 3/4 in.

Genusys: database of herbal remedies, aromatherapy, essential oils, vitamins, amino acids, and more! [CD-ROM]. Version 1.4. Solebury (PA): Genusys Laboratories; 1996. Ginkgo biloba preparations; [about 1 screen]. 1 CD-ROM: sound, color, 4 3/4 in.

35. Contribution to a database on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk

with acquisition numbers

Jacobs I, Finn J. Adrenaline and vasopressin for cardiac arrest. 2001 Jul 23. In: The Cochrane Library [CD-ROM]. Chichester (UK): John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 1996 -   . [about 8 screens]. 4 CD-ROMs: 4 3/4 in. Article No.: CD0003179.

without acquisition numbers

Denis M (Universite de Paris-Sud, Orsay, France). The place and role of psychology in cognitive science: an international survey. In: Stevens MJ, Wedding D, editors. Psychology: IUPsyS global resource [CD-ROM]. Edition 2006. East Sussex (UK): Psychology Press Ltd; c2006. 1 CD-ROM: color, 4 3/4 in.

with separate date for the contribution

Jacobs I, Finn J. Adrenaline and vasopressin for cardiac arrest. 2001 Jul 23. In: The Cochrane Library [CD-ROM]. Chichester (UK): John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 1996 -   . [about 8 screens]. 4 CD-ROMs: 4 3/4 in. Article No.: CD0003179.

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