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Patrias K, author; Wendling D, editor. Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers [Internet]. 2nd edition. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2007-.

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Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers [Internet]. 2nd edition.

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Chapter 19Journals on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk

Created: ; Last Update: August 11, 2015.

A. Journal Articles on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk

B. Journal Titles on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk

See also:

Chapter 1 Journals

Chapter 11A Forthcoming Journal Articles

Chapter 16 Journals in Audiovisual Formats

Chapter 23 Journals on the Internet

A. Sample Citation and Introduction to Citing Journal Articles on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk

The general format for a reference to a journal article on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk, including punctuation:

Illustration of the general format for a reference to a journal article on
CD-ROM, DVD, or disk.

Examples of Citations to Journal Articles on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk

A journal article on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk is cited similar to articles in print, but with these exceptions:

  • Place the type of medium (CD-ROM, DVD, disk) in square brackets after the journal title.
  • While traditional page numbers are present on some journals, they are often absent. Calculate the extent of the article using the best means possible, i.e., number of paragraphs, screens, pages if printed out, or minutes if an oral presentation. Since screen size and print fonts vary, precede the estimated extent with the word about and place extent information in square brackets, such as [about 3 screens].
  • Add physical description such as size of the CD-ROM, DVD, or disk on which the article is found after the location (pagination) if desired.
  • Include system requirements such as the names and versions of any required software as a note if desired.
  • Cite the version you saw. If you viewed an article on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk, do not cite it as if it were a print article.

The source for authoritative information for articles on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk is, in the following order: the opening screens; the face of the CD-ROM, DVD, or disk; the jewel case (carrying case); and any accompanying text.

Many journal titles published on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk either ceased publication with the increasing popularity of the Internet or converted to Internet format, although some Internet titles produce an annual accumulation on CD-ROM or DVD. The examples below focus on the parts of a citation specific to the media represented. See Chapter 1A Journal Articles for further details of parts of a citation.

This chapter includes citation rules for entire journal articles on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk. For citing parts of these articles, combine the guidelines presented in this chapter with those in Chapter 1B Parts of Journal Articles. See also example 18 below.

Continue to Citation Rules with Examples for Journal Articles on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk.

Continue to Examples of Citations to Journal Articles on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk.

Citation Rules with Examples for Journal Articles on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk

Components/elements are listed in the order they should appear in a reference. An R after the component name means that it is required in the citation; an O after the name means it is optional.

Author (R) | Author Affiliation (O) | Article Title (R) | Article Type (O) | Journal Title (R) | Edition (R) | Type of Medium (R) | Date of Publication (R) | Volume Number (R) | Issue Number (R) | Location (Pagination) (R) | Physical Description (O) | Language (R) | Notes (O)

Author for Journal Articles on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk (required)

General Rules for Author

  • List names in the order they appear on the opening screens, the jewel case (carrying case), or in accompanying text
  • Enter surname (family or last name) first for each author
  • Capitalize surnames and enter spaces within surnames as they appear in the document cited on the assumption that the author approved the form used. For example: Van Der Horn or van der Horn; De Wolf or de Wolf or DeWolf.
  • Convert given (first) names and middle names to initials, for a maximum of two initials following each surname
  • Give all authors, regardless of the number
  • Separate author names from each other by a comma and a space
  • End author information with a period

Specific Rules for Author

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Surnames with hyphens and other punctuation in them.

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Other surname rules.

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Given names containing punctuation, a prefix, a preposition, or particle.

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Degrees, titles, and honors before or after a personal name.

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Designations of rank in a family, such as Jr and III.

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Names in non-roman alphabets (Cyrillic, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Korean) or character-based languages (Chinese, Japanese).

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Organizations as author.

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No author can be found.

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Options for author names.

Author Affiliation for Journal Articles on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk (optional)

General Rules for Author Affiliation

  • Enter the affiliation of all authors or only the first author
  • Begin with the department and name of the institution, followed by city and state/Canadian province/country
  • Use commas to separate parts of the affiliation
  • Place parentheses around the affiliation, such as (Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA)
  • Separate the affiliation from its author by a space
  • Follow the affiliation with a comma placed outside the parentheses, unless it is the affiliation of the last author, then use a period

Specific Rules for Author Affiliation

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Abbreviations in affiliations.

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E-mail address included.

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Organizational names for affiliations not in English.

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Names for cities and countries not in English.

Article Title for Journal Articles on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk (required)

General Rules for Article Title

  • Enter the title of an article as it appears on the opening screens, the jewel case (carrying case), or in accompanying text
  • Capitalize only the first word of a title, proper nouns, proper adjectives, acronyms, and initialisms
  • Use a colon followed by a space to separate a title from a subtitle, unless another form of punctuation (such as a question mark, period, or an exclamation point) is already present
  • Translate non-English titles into English; place the translation in square brackets
  • End a title with a period unless a question mark or exclamation point already ends it or an Article Type follows it

Specific Rules for Article Title

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Article titles not in English.

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Translated article titles ending in punctuation other than a period.

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Article titles in more than one language.

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Article titles containing a Greek letter, chemical formula, or another special character.

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Article titles with headers.

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No article title can be found.

Article Type for Journal Articles on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk (optional)

General Rules for Article Type

  • An article type alerts the user that the reference is to an abstract of an article or a letter to the editor, not a full article. Content designator is another phrase for this.
  • Place [abstract] or [letter] after the article title
  • Other article types are also available though used less often, such as book review, editorial, or interview
  • Follow the bracketed article type with a period, placed outside the closing bracket

See exceptions for Article Type in Appendix F: Notes for Citing MEDLINE®/PubMed®

Specific Rules for Article Type

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Articles titles ending in punctuation other than a period.

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Article titles not in English.

Journal Title for Journal Articles on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk (required)

General Rules for Journal Title

  • Enter a journal title in the original language
  • Abbreviate significant words in a journal title (see Abbreviation rules for journal titles below) and omit other words, such as articles, conjunctions, and prepositions
  • Capitalize all remaining title words, including abbreviations
  • End the journal title with a space
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Abbreviation rules for journal titles.

Specific Rules for Journal Title

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Journal titles not in English.

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Single word journal titles.

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Journals appearing in different editions.

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Options for journal titles.

Edition for Journal Articles on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk (required)

General Rules for Edition

  • Indicate the edition/version being cited after the title if a journal is published in more than one edition or version
  • Abbreviate each significant word (see Abbreviation rules for editions below) and omit other words, such as articles, conjunctions, and prepositions
  • Capitalize all remaining title words, including abbreviations
  • Place the edition statement in parentheses, such as (Br Ed)
  • End the edition statement with a space

Specific Rules for Edition

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Non-English words for editions.

Type of Medium for Journal Articles on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk (required)

General Rules for Type of Medium

  • Indicate the type of medium (CD-ROM, DVD, or disk) following the journal title (and edition, if present)
  • Place the name of the medium in square brackets and end with a period. For example: [DVD].
  • Add information about the medium according to the instructions under Physical Description below
  • See Chapter 16A for journal articles in audiovisual formats and Chapter 23A for articles on the Internet

Specific Rules for Type of Medium

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Both an edition and a type of medium.

Examples for Type of Medium

Date of Publication for Journal Articles on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk (required)

General Rules for Date of Publication

  • Include the year, month, and day of publication in that order. For example: 2004 May 5.
  • Convert roman numerals to arabic numbers, such as MM to 2000
  • Use English names for months and abbreviate them using the first three letters, such as Jan
  • End date information with a semicolon unless there is no volume or issue (see No volume or issue following the date below), then use a colon
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No volume or issue following the date.

Specific Rules for Date of Publication

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Further divisions to a date other than volume or issue.

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Multiple years, months, or days of publication.

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Non-English names for months.

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Seasons instead of months.

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Options for dates.

Volume Number for Journal Articles on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk (required)

General Rules for Volume Number

  • Omit "volume", "vol.", and similar wording preceding the number
  • Use arabic numbers only. For example: convert LX or Sixtieth to 60.
  • Separate multiple volumes by a hyphen, such as 5-6 or 42-43
  • Do not follow a volume number with any punctuation unless there is no issue number or other subdivision to the volume, then follow with a colon

Specific Rules for Volume Number

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Further divisions to a volume other than issue.

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Non-English names for volume.

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No volume number present.

Issue Number for Journal Articles on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk (required)

General Rules for Issue Number

  • Omit "number", "no.", and other wording preceding the number
  • Use arabic numbers only. For example: convert IV or Fourth to 4.
  • Separate multiple issues by a hyphen, such 2-3
  • Place issue information in parentheses
  • End issue information with a colon unless further divisions, such as a supplement or part, exist (see Further divisions to an issue below)
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Further divisions to an issue.

Specific Rules for Issue Number

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Non-English names for issues.

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No volume number present.

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No issue number present.

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Options for issues.

Location (Pagination) for Journal Articles on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk (required)

General Rules for Location (Pagination)

  • Give the inclusive page numbers on which the article appears
  • Do not repeat page numbers unless they are followed by a letter. For example: 123-125 becomes 123-5, but 124A-126A is correct.
  • Include a letter (often S for Supplement or A for Appendix) when it precedes the page number. For example: S10-8.
  • If there are no page numbers, calculate the extent of the article in the best means possible, i.e., number of paragraphs, screens, pages (see No numbers appear on the pages of the article below)
  • End pagination information with a period
  • See Chapter 23 for articles on the Internet
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No numbers appear on the pages of the article.

Specific Rules for Location (Pagination)

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Discontinuous page numbers.

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Text such as a discussion, quiz, or author reply to a letter follows the article.

Physical Description for Journal Articles on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk (optional)

General Rules for Physical Description

  • Give information on the physical characteristics of the CD-ROM, DVD, or disc on which the article is found. For example: 1 DVD: color, 4 3/4 in.

Specific Rules for Physical Description

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Language for describing physical characteristics.

Language for Journal Articles on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk (required)

General Rules for Language

  • Give the language of publication if other than English
  • Capitalize the language name
  • Follow the language name with a period

Specific Rules for Language

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Articles appearing in more than one language.

Notes for Journal Articles on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk (optional)

General Rules for Notes

  • Notes is a term for any type of information given after the citation itself
  • Complete sentences are not required
  • Be brief

Specific Rules for Notes

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System requirements.

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Other types of material to include in notes.

Examples of Citations to Journal Articles on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk

1. Standard journal article on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk

Kauffman CA, Bonilla HF. Trends in antibiotic resistance with emphasis on VRE. FPR [CD-ROM]. 1998 Oct;20(10):[about 5 screens].

Buchler MW, Knaebel HP. Partial pancreaticoduodenectomy with superior mesenteric vein reconstruction. Real Surg [DVD]. 2004 May;1(5):[35 min.].

Preusse S, Schmitt O. Quantification and comparison of signal amplification and non-amplificated immunohistochemical reactions of the rat brain by means of image analysis. EJPathol [disk]. 1999 Jul-Sep;5(3):[about 15 p.].

2. Journal article on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with optional full names for authors

Kauffman, Carol A.; Bonilla, Hector F. Trends in antibiotic resistance with emphasis on VRE. FPR [CD-ROM]. 1998 Oct;20(10):[about 5 screens].

3. Journal article on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with author affiliation

Kauffman CA (Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI), Bonilla HF (Louisiana State University, Boga Lusa, LA). Trends in antibiotic resistance with emphasis on VRE. FPR [CD-ROM]. 1998 Oct;20(10):[about 5 screens].

Enders D (Institut fur Organische Chemie, Technische Hochschule Aachen, Aachen, Germany. Enders@RWTH-Aachen.de), Gielen H, Breuer K. Immobilized triazolium salts as precursors to chiral carbenes: rhodium-catalyzed asymmetric hydrosilylation as a first test reaction. Mol Online (CD-ROM Ed) [CD-ROM]. 1998;2(7):105-8.

4. Journal article on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk not in English

Conti MB, Marchesi MC, Rueca F, Fabi T. [Gastric tumors in dogs: personal reports]. Atti Soc Ital Sci Vet [CD-ROM]. 2004;58:[about 4 screens]. Italian.

with optional original language included

Conti MB, Marchesi MC, Rueca F, Fabi T. Tumori gastrici nel cane: osservazioni personali [Gastric tumors in dogs: personal reports]. Atti Soc Ital Sci Vet [CD-ROM]. 2004;58:[about 4 screens]. Italian.

5. Journal article on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with Greek letters or other special characters in the title

Vincenzetti S, Polidori P, Salimei E, Mariani PL, Allegri S, Cammertoni N, Vita A. [Purification and identification of αs1- and β- caseins from ass's milk]. Atti Soc Ital Sci Vet [CD-ROM]. 2004;58:[about 4 screens]. Italian.

may become

Vincenzetti S, Polidori P, Salimei E, Mariani PL, Allegri S, Cammertoni N, Vita A. [Purification and identification of alpha(s1)- and beta- caseins from ass's milk]. Atti Soc Ital Sci Vet [CD-ROM]. 2004;58:[about 4 screens]. Italian.

6. Journal title on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with edition

Werner M, Uhlenbeck OC. The effect of base mismatches in the substrate recognition helices of hammerhead ribozymes on binding and catalysis. Nucl Acids Res (Electron Ed) [CD-ROM]. 1995;23(12):2092-6.

7. Journal article on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with month(s) included in date of publication

Buchler MW, Knaebel HP. Partial pancreaticoduodenectomy with superior mesenteric vein reconstruction. Real Surg [DVD]. 2004 May;1(5):[35 min.].

Preusse S, Schmitt O. Quantification and comparison of signal amplification and non-amplificated immunohistochemical reactions of the rat brain by means of image analysis. EJPathol [disk]. 1999 Jul-Sep;5(3):[about 15 p.].

8. Journal article on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with volume but no issue

Conti MB, Marchesi MC, Rueca F, Fabi T. [Gastric tumors in dogs: personal reports]. Atti Soc Ital Sci Vet [CD-ROM]. 2004;58:[about 4 screens]. Italian.

9. Journal article on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with issue but no volume

Teyssandier MJ. Cervical rotatory manipulation: 2nd technique. Adv Common Jt Probl [disk]. 1996 Aug;(2):[about 5 p.].

10. Journal article on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with location expressed as standard page numbers

Sforcin JM, Novelli EL, Funari SR. Seasonal effect of Brazilian protocols on seric biochemical variations. J Venom Anim Toxins [CD-ROM]. 2002;8(2):244-54.

11. Journal article on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with location/extent expressed as screens

Fourman S. The office eye exam in family medicine. FPR [CD-ROM]. 1996 Feb;18(2):[about 9 screens].

12. Journal article on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with location/extent expressed as estimated number of pages

Preusse S, Schmitt O. Quantification and comparison of signal amplification and non-amplificated immunohistochemical reactions of the rat brain by means of image analysis. EJPathol [disk]. 1999 Jul-Sep;5(3):[about 15 p.].

13. Journal article on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with location/extent expressed as paragraphs

Frytak S, Mokri B. Back pain in the cancer patient: a potential impending disaster. Prime Pract [CD-ROM]. 1996;2(3):[12 paragraphs].

14. Journal article on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with location/extent expressed as a file name

Pick A, Chiuso L, Cavallo GP, Margarita E. Prognostic value of AgNORs in tumor pathology. EJPathol [disk]. 1997 Mar;3(1):[971-06.txt]. 1 computer disk: 3 1/2 in.

15. Journal article on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with article occupying the entire issue

Heald B, Moran B. Total mesorectal excision for low rectal cancer. Real Surg [DVD]. 2004;1(6):[1 DVD].

16. Journal article on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with physical description

Sforcin JM, Novelli EL, Funari SR. Seasonal effect of Brazilian protocols on seric biochemical variations. J Venom Anim Toxins [CD-ROM]. 2002;8(2):244-54. 1 CD-ROM: color, 4 3/4 in.

Preusse S, Schmitt O. Quantification and comparison of signal amplification and non-amplificated immunohistochemical reactions of the rat brain by means of image analysis. EJPathol [disk]. 1999 Jul-Sep;5(3):[about 15 p.]. 1 computer disk: 3 1/2 in.

17. Journal article on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with note

Bianco A, Brufani M, Ciabatti R, Melchioni C, Pasquali V. Neuraminic acid derivatives as anti-influenza drugs. Mol Online (CD-ROM Ed) [CD-ROM]. 1998;2(10-11):129-36. System Requirements: IBM PC or 100% compatible 486SX; 8 MB RAM; VGA (640 x 480 pixels) video card set to 256 colors; double speed CD-ROM drive or faster; Windows 3.1 or higher.

Frytak S, Mokri B. Back pain in the cancer patient: a potential impending disaster. Prime Pract [CD-ROM]. 1996;2(3):[12 paragraphs]. Located at: National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD; W1 PR523C.

18. Part of a journal article on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk

Kauffman CA, Bonilla HF. Trends in antibiotic resistance with emphasis on VRE. FPR [CD-ROM]. 1998 Oct;20(10):[about 5 screens]. Table 1, Risk factors for VRE colonization and infection; [1 screen].

Werner M, Uhlenbeck OC. The effect of base mismatches in the substrate recognition helices of hammerhead ribozymes on binding and catalysis. Nucl Acids Res (Electron Ed) [CD-ROM]. 1995;23(12):2092-6. Table 2, Rates of substrate dissociation (k-1) for different substrates of HH; p. 2095.

Buchler MW, Knaebel HP. Partial pancreaticoduodenectomy with superior mesenteric vein reconstruction. Real Surg [DVD]. 2004 May;1(5):[35 min.]. [Scene 3], Posterior mobilization of the pancreatic head; [7 min.].

Fourman S. The office eye exam in family medicine. FPR [CD-ROM]. 1996 Feb;18(2):[about 9 screens]. Figure 9, Important ophthalmoscopic findings in the patient with diabetic retinopathy are retinal hemorrhage and pallor of the optic nerve and retina; [about 1 screen].

Preusse S, Schmitt O. Quantification and comparison of signal amplification and non-amplificated immunohistochemical reactions of the rat brain by means of image analysis. EJPathol [disk]. 1999 Jul-Sep;5(3):[about 15 p.]. [Figure], Summary of contrast measurments of all immunohistochemical methods; [993-031.pcx].

B. Sample Citation and Introduction to Citing Entire Journal Titles on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk

The general format for a reference to an entire journal title on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk, including punctuation:

- for a journal continuing to be published:

Illustration of the general format for a reference to an entire journal
title on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk for a journal continuing to be
published.

- for a journal that has ceased publication:

Illustration of the general format for a reference to an entire journal
title on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk for a journal that has ceased
publication.

Examples of Citations to Entire Journal Titles on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk

Although electronic journals differ radically in physical form from print journals, the basic rules for citing them are the same. The major difference is the required addition of the type of medium (CD-ROM, DVD, or disk) in square brackets following the journal title. Use the opening screen(s), the face of the CD-ROM, DVD, or disk, the jewel case (carrying case), and accompanying documentation, in that order, for authoritative information to use in citation.

If a journal is still being published, as shown in the first example, follow volume and date information with a hyphen and three spaces. If a journal ceased publication, as in example two, separate beginning and ending volume and date information with a hyphen with a space.

The authoritative source for information to use in a citation for a journal title is, in order of preference: the opening screen(s); the face of the CD-ROM, DVD, or disk; the jewel case (carrying case); and accompanying print documentation.

It is important to cite the journal name that was used at the time of publication. For example, EJPathol changed title to Electronic Journal of Pathology and Histology in 2000.

  • EJPathol [disk]. Munich: VaW Verlag fur Angewandte Wissenschaften. Vol. 1, No. 1, Mar 1995 - Vol. 5, No. 4, Oct-Dec 1999. Continued by: Electronic Journal of Pathology and Histology.
  • Electronic Journal of Pathology and Histology [CD-ROM]. Amsterdam: IOS Press. Vol. 6, Mar 2000 --   .. Continues: EJPathol.

It is not correct to cite this journal as:

  • Electronic Journal of Pathology and Histology [CD-ROM]. Amsterdam: IOS Press. Vol. 1, No., Mar 1995 -   .

Continue to Citation Rules with Examples for Entire Journal Titles on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk.

Continue to Examples of Citations to Entire Journal Titles on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk.

Citation Rules with Examples for Journal Titles on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk

Components/elements are listed in the order they should appear in a reference. An R after the component name means that it is required in the citation; an O after the name means it is optional.

Journal Title (R) | Edition (R) | Type of Medium (R) | Editor (O) | Place of Publication (R) | Publisher (R) | Volume Number (R) | Issue Number (R) | Date of Publication (R) | Physical Description (O) | Language (R) | Notes (O)

Journal Title on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk (required)

General Rules for Journal Title

  • Enter a journal title in the original language
  • Do not abbreviate any words or omit any words
  • Use the capitalization and punctuation found in the title
  • Follow the title with a colon and any subtitle that appears
  • Follow a non-English title with a translation whenever possible; place the translation in square brackets
  • End the journal title with a space

Specific Rules for Journal Title

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Journal titles not in English.

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Journals appearing in more than one language.

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Journals appearing in different editions.

Edition for Journal Title on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk (required)

General Rules for Edition

  • Indicate the edition/version being cited after the title if a journal is published in more than one edition or version
  • Do not abbreviate any words or omit any words
  • Use whatever capitalization and punctuation are found in the edition statement
  • Place the edition statement in parentheses, such as (British Edition)
  • End the edition statement with a space

Specific Rules for Edition

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Non-English words for editions.

Type of Medium for Journal Title on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk (required)

General Rules for Type of Medium

  • Indicate the type of medium (CD-ROM, DVD, or disk) following the title (and edition, if present)
  • Place the name of the medium in square brackets, such as [DVD]
  • End medium information with a period, placed outside the closing bracket
  • See Chapter 16B for journal titles in audiovisual formats and Chapter 23B for titles on the Internet

Editor for Journal Title on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk (optional)

General Rules for Editor

  • Give the name of the current (or last) editor
  • Enter the name of the editor in natural order. For example: John A. Jones.
  • Follow the name with a comma and the word "editor"
  • End editor information with a period

Specific Rules for Editor

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Names not in English.

Place of Publication for Journal Title on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk (required)

General Rules for Place of Publication

  • Place is defined as the city where the journal was published
  • Follow US and Canadian cities with the two-letter abbreviation for the state or province to avoid confusion when citing lesser known cities or when cities in different locations have same name, such as Palm Springs (CA) and Palm Springs (FL)
  • Follow cities in other countries with the name of the country, either written out or as the two-letter ISO country code (see Appendix D), when citing lesser known cities or when cities in different locations have the same name, such London (ON) and London (England)
  • End place information with a colon

Specific Rules for Place of Publication

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Non-US cities.

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Multiple places of publication.

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No place of publication can be found.

Publisher for Journal Title on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk (required)

General Rules for Publisher

  • Give the name of the publisher as it appears in the journal, using the capitalization and punctuation found there
  • Abbreviate well-known publisher names with caution to avoid confusion. For example, "John Wiley & Sons, Ltd." may become simply "Wiley".
  • End publisher information with a period

Specific Rules for Publisher

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Non-English publishers.

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Government agencies and other national and international bodies as publisher.

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Multiple publishers.

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Joint publication.

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No publisher can be found.

Volume Number for Journal Title on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk (required)

General Rules for Volume Number

  • Precede the number with "Vol.", regardless of the particular word for volume used by the journal
  • Use arabic numbers only. For example: convert LX or Sixtieth to 60.
  • Separate multiple volumes by a hyphen. For example: 5-6 or 42-43.
  • Follow a volume number with a comma

Specific Rules for Volume Number

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Non-English names for volume.

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No volume number present.

Issue Number for Journal Title on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk (required)

General Rules for Issue Number

  • Precede the issue number with "No.", regardless of the particular word for issue used by the journal
  • Use arabic numbers only. For example: convert IV or Fourth to 4.
  • Separate multiple issues by a hyphen, such as 2-3
  • Follow issue information with a comma

Specific Rules for Issue Number

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Non-English names for issue.

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No volume number present.

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No issue number present.

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Options for issues.

Date of Publication for Journal Title on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk (required)

General Rules for Date of Publication

  • Include the month and year the journal began publishing, such as May 2004
  • Convert roman numerals to arabic numbers. For example: MM to 2000.
  • Use English names for months and abbreviate them to the first three letters, such as Jan

If the journal is still being published-

  • End beginning date information with a hyphen, three spaces, and a period

If the journal ceased publication -

  • End beginning date information with a space, a hyphen and a space
  • Enter closing volume and issue information followed by a comma and the closing month and year
  • End closing date information with a period

Specific Rules for Date of Publication

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Multiple years, months, or days of publication.

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Non-English names for months.

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Seasons instead of months.

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Options for dates.

Physical Description for Journal Title on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk (optional)

General Rules for Physical Description

  • Enter the medium on which the journal title is issued, in plural form, followed by a colon and a space. Example: DVDs:
  • Give the physical characteristics of the CD-ROM, DVD, or disc, such as color and size. For example: DVDs: color, 4 3/4 in.

Specific Rules for Physical Description

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Box 74

Language for describing physical characteristics.

Language for Journal Title on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk (required)

General Rules for Language

  • Give the language of publication if not English
  • Capitalize the language name
  • Follow the language name with a period

Specific Rules for Language

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Box 75

Journals appearing in more than one language.

Notes for Journal Title on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk (optional)

General Rules for Notes

  • Notes is a term for any type of information about the journal
  • If the journal was previously published under another title, provide the name preceded by "Continues: ", such as Continues: EJPathol.
  • If the journal continues under another title, provide the name preceded by "Continued by: ", such as Continued by: Electronic Journal of Pathology and Histology.

Specific Rules for Notes

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Box 76

Types of material to include in notes.

Examples of Citations to Entire Journal Titles on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk

1. Standard citation to a journal title on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk that is still being published

Reality Surgery [DVD]. Dublin (Ireland): Reality Surgery Ltd. Vol. 1, No. 1, Jan 2004 -   .

AMIA Annual Symposium Proceedings [CD-ROM]. Bethesda (MD): American Medical Informatics Association. 2003 -   .

2. Standard citation to a journal title on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk that ceased publication

PrimePractice: a CD-ROM quarterly for primary care physicians [CD-ROM]. Minneapolis (MN): IVI Pub. Vol. 1, No. 1, 1994 - Vol. 2, No. 4, 1996.

Discotest [disk]. New York: Scientific American Medicine. No. 47, 1985 - No. 152, 1997.

Health Care Cost Analyzer [disk]. Lexington (MA): DRI/McGraw-Hill. 1987-1992.

3. Journal title on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with subtitle

Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry [CD-ROM]. Basel (Switzerland): Molecular Diversity Preservation International. Vol. 1, 1996 -   .

4. Journal title on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk not in English

Atti della Societa Italiana delle Scienze Veterinarie [CD-ROM]. Grado (Italy): Societa Italiana delle Scienze Veterinarie. Vol. 58, 2004 -   . Italian.

5. Journal title on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk not in English with optional translation

Atti della Societa Italiana delle Scienze Veterinarie [Acts of the Italian Society for Veterinary Science] [CD-ROM]. Grado (Italy): Societa Italiana delle Scienze Veterinarie. Vol. 58, 2004 -   . Italian.

6. Journal title on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk published in two equal languages

Brinkman's Cumulatieve Catalogus op CD-ROM: Nationale Bibliografie van Nederland = Brinkman's Cumulative Catalogue on CD-ROM: Dutch National Bibliography [CD-ROM]. Munich (Germany): K.G. Saur. 1995 -   . Dutch, English.

7. Journal title on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk published in multiple languages

Action Against Infection: a Newsletter for WHO and its Partners [CD-ROM]. Geneva: World Health Organization, CDS Information Resource Centre. Vol. 1, No. 1, Dec 1999 - Vol. 4, No. 5, 2004. English, French, Spanish.

Romulus [CD-ROM]. Ottawa (ON): National Library of Canada. 1992-1998. English, French.

8. Journal title on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with edition

Nucleic Acids Research (Electronic Edition) [CD-ROM]. Oxford (UK): Oxford University Press. Vol. 21, No. 1, Jan 1993 -   .

9. Journal title on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with editor named

Molecules Online (CD-ROM Edition) [CD-ROM]. Stephen Hanessian, editor. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. Vol. 1, 1996 - Vol. 3, 1999.

10. Journal title on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with well-known place of publication

Journal of Bacteriology [CD-ROM]. Washington: American Society for Microbiology. Vol. 174, 1992 -   .

11. Journal title on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with lesser-known place of publication

The AIDS Stack [disk]. Pleasant Hill (CA): Heizer Software. Oct 1987 -   .

Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry [CD-ROM]. Basel (Switzerland): Molecular Diversity Preservation International. Vol. 1, 1996 -   .

12. Journal title on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with publisher including subsidiary part

Californian Journal of Health Promotion [CD-ROM]. Chico (CA): California State University, Department of Health and Community Services. Mar 2003 -   .

13. Journal title on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with unknown publisher

Advances in Common Joint Problems [disk]. Udine (Italy): [publisher unknown]. No. 1, 1996 - No. 3, 1997. English, Italian.

14. Journal title on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with volume and number

Primary Care Medicine on CD [CD-ROM]. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven. Vol. 1, No. 1, 1997 - Vol. 3, No. 4, 1999.

15. Journal title on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with volume, but no number

Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry [CD-ROM]. Basel (Switzerland): Molecular Diversity Preservation International. Vol. 1, 1996 -   .

16. Journal title on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with number, but no volume

Advances in Common Joint Problems [disk]. Udine (Italy): [publisher unknown]. No. 1, 1996 - No. 3, 1997. English, Italian.

17. Journal title on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk without volume or number

Californian Journal of Health Promotion [CD-ROM]. Chico (CA): California State University, Department of Health and Community Services. Mar 2003 -   .

Ophthalmology on CD: the Journal of the American Academy of Ophthalmology [CD-ROM]. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott. 1994 -   .

Advanced Clinical Problems on Disk [disk]. Baltimore (MD): Williams & Wilkins. Disk 1, 1988 - Disk 9, 1991.

Clinical Pharmacology [CD-ROM]. Gainesville (FL): Gold Standard Multimedia. Version 1.1, 1994 -   .

18. Journal title on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with months in date

Reality Surgery [DVD]. Dublin (Ireland): Reality Surgery Ltd. Vol. 1, No. 1, Jan 2004 -   .

Ethics Index: an Interdisciplinary Resource of Journal and Essay Information in the Field of Ethics [CD-ROM]. Evanston (IL): American Theological Library Association. Feb 1994 -   .

19. Journal title on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with multiple months included in date

Interactions: Programs in Clinical Decision Making [disk]. Hamilton (ON): Decker Electronic Pub. Vol. 1, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1988 - Vol. 8, No. 6, 1996.

20. Journal title on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with season in date

Cyberlog: the Quarterly of Applied Medical Software [disk]. Eden Prairie (MN): Cardinal Health Systems, Inc. Vol. 1, No. 1, Spring 1985 - No. 20, 1991.

21. Journal title on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with physical description

Primary Care Medicine on CD [CD-ROM]. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven. Vol. 1, No. 1, 1997 - Vol. 3, No. 4, 1999. CD-ROMs: 4 3/4 in.

Cyberlog: the Quarterly of Applied Medical Software [disk]. Eden Prairie (MN): Cardinal Health Systems, Inc. Vol. 1, No. 1, Spring 1985 - No. 20, 1991. Computer disks: 5 1/4 in.

Reality Surgery [DVD]. Dublin (Ireland): Reality Surgery Ltd. Vol. 1, No. 1, Jan 2004 -   . DVDs: color, 4 3/4 in.

22. Journal title on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with system requirements provided

The AIDS Stack [disk]. Pleasant Hill (CA): Heizer Software. Oct 1987 -   . Computer disks: 3 1/2 in. System Requirements: 1 MB Macintosh with two 800K byte floppy disk drives or one hard disk drive; Excel, Works, HyperCard or SuperCard software.

23. Journal title on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk previously published under another name

Electronic Journal of Pathology and Histology [CD-ROM]. Amsterdam: IOS Press. Vol. 6, No. 1, Mar 2000 -   . Continues: EJPathol.

24. Journal title on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk continuing under another name

EJPathol [disk]. Munich: VaW Verlag fur Angewandte Wissenschaften. Vol. 1, No. 1, Mar 1995 - Vol. 5, No. 4, Oct-Dec 1999. Computer disks: 3 1/2 in. Continued by: Electronic Journal of Pathology and Histology.

The Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins [disk]. Botucatu (Brazil): Center for the Study of Venoms and Venomous Animals. Vol. 1, No. 1, 1995 - Vol. 8, 2002. Computer disks: 3 1/2 in. Continued by: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases.

25. Journal title on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with note on Internet availability

Health Indicators [CD-ROM]. Ottawa (ON): Canadian Institute for Health Information. Vol. 2000, No. 1, Dec 2000 -   . Also available on the Internet: http://www.statcan.ca/english/freepub/82-221-XIE/free.htm

26. Journal title on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with sponsorship note

Advanced Clinical Problems on Disk [disk]. Baltimore (MD): Williams & Wilkins. Disk 1, 1988 - Disk 9, 1991. Computer disks: 5 1/4 in. Sponsored by the American College of Physicians and Massachusetts General Hospital.

Interactions: Programs in Clinical Decision Making [disk]. Hamilton (ON): Decker Electronic Pub. Vol. 1, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1988 - Vol. 8, No. 6, 1996. Sponsored by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Also called ACOG Interactions.

27. Journal title on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with frequency of publication note

RNdex Professional [CD-ROM]. Pasadena (CA): Information Resources Group. Vol. 1, No, 1, 1996 -   . 3 per year.

Journal of Bacteriology [CD-ROM]. Washington: American Society for Microbiology. Vol. 174, 1992 -   . Annual.

28. Journal title on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with ISSN note

Computer Select [CD-ROM]. New York: Ziff Communications. Feb 1991 -   . ISSN: 1062-8509.

29. Journal title on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with note on a library where it may be located

Cyberlog: the Quarterly of Applied Medical Software [disk]. Eden Prairie (MN): Cardinal Health Systems, Inc. Vol. 1, No. 1, Spring 1985 - No. 20, 1991. Computer disks: 5 1/4 in. Located at: National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD; W1 CY343.

30. Journal title on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with examples of other notes

Interactions: Programs in Clinical Decision Making [disk]. Hamilton (ON): Decker Electronic Pub. Vol. 1, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1988 - Vol. 8, No. 6, 1996. Also called ACOG Interactions.

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