Table IISurgical therapy for fecal incontinence

Primary repair
Apposition vs. overlap +/- temporary colostomy
Secondary repair
Sphincteroplasty
Postanal repair
Combined pelvic floor repair
Correction of underlying disease or condition
Rectal prolapse
Carcinoma
Infection
Radiation
Inflammatory bowel disease
Congenital
Encirclement procedures
Foreign material
Thiersch procedure
Artificial bowel sphincter
Muscle transfer
Gracilis and other skeletal muscles with electrostimulation
Stoma procedure

From: Anal incontinence

Cover of Surgical Treatment
Surgical Treatment: Evidence-Based and Problem-Oriented.
Holzheimer RG, Mannick JA, editors.
Munich: Zuckschwerdt; 2001.
Copyright © 2001, W. Zuckschwerdt Verlag GmbH.

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