Table 4. Use of Other Mistletoe Products in Cancer Treatment: Clinical Reports Describing Therapeutic Endpointsa

Reference Citation(s)Type of StudyProduct TestedType(s) of CancerNo. of Patients: Enrolled; Treated; ControlbStrongest Benefit ReportedcConcurrent TherapydLevel of Evidence Scoree
[3]Randomized trialEurixorBladder, noninvasive45; 23; 22NoneNo1iiDi
[1,33]Randomized trialEurixorBrain, glioma; 74% of patients, stages III–IV; 26% of patients, no stage information 47; 20; 18Improved survival, stages III–IV patients only Yes1iiA
[46,47]Randomized trialEurixorColorectal, metastatic107; 38; 41Improved quality of lifeYes1iiA
[2]Randomized trialEurixorHead and neck, squamous cell, stages I–IV 495; 235f; 242fNoneYesf1iiA
[35]Randomized trialHelixorBreast, stages I–III692; 192; 274Improved survivalYes1iiA
[36]Randomized trialHelixorColorectal, metastatic60; 20; 20Improved mean survivalYes1iiA
[13]Randomized controlled trialPS76A (Lektin)Breast352; 176; 176Improved quality of lifeYes1iC
[34]Randomized trialIsorelColorectal64; 50; 14 Improved survival and tolerance to either adjuvant or palliative treatmentYes1iiA
[48]Nonrandomized controlled trialIsorelDigestive tract70; 40; 30Enhanced cellular immunity and improved quality of lifeNo2C
[42]Nonrandomized controlled trialabnobaVISCUM QuercusMetastatic colorectal25; 25; noneNoneYes2Diii
[21]Nonrandomized controlled trialViscum fraxini-2Hepatocellular carcinoma23; 23; noneImproved survival No2Dii

No. = number.

aRefer to text and the NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms for additional information and definition of terms.

bNumber of patients treated plus number of patients controlled may not equal number of patients enrolled; number of patients enrolled = number of patients initially recruited/considered by the researchers who conducted a study; number of patients treated = number of enrolled patients who were administered the treatment being studied and for whom results were reported; historical control subjects are not included in number of patients enrolled.

cStrongest evidence reported that the treatment under study has anticancer activity or otherwise improves the well-being of cancer patients.

dChemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormonal therapy, or cytokine therapy administered/allowed at the same time as mistletoe therapy.

eFor information about levels of evidence analysis and an explanation of the level of evidence scores, refer to Levels of Evidence for Human Studies of Integrative, Alternative, and Complementary Therapies.

fThis trial was a four-arm trial; patients were randomly assigned to surgery only or to surgery plus radiation therapy, followed by a second randomization to no mistletoe treatment or to treatment with Eurixor; the resulting treatment groups contained the following numbers of evaluable patients: surgery only = 105, surgery plus Eurixor = 97, surgery plus radiation therapy = 137, and surgery plus radiation therapy plus Eurixor = 138; radiation therapy and Eurixor treatment overlapped; no treatment approach was superior in terms of disease-free survival, disease-specific survival, improvement in quality of life, or stimulation of the immune system; in the table, mistletoe-treated and nontreated (control) patients were grouped (i.e., number treated = 97 + 138 = 235, and number control = 105 + 137 = 242).

From: Mistletoe Extracts (PDQ®)

Cover of PDQ Cancer Information Summaries
PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet].
Bethesda (MD): National Cancer Institute (US); 2002-.

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