Table 1Mutations affecting prostatic branching morphogenesis

GeneSymbolProtein TypeExpression1 Alleles1 Phenotypes1 References
Androgen receptor Ar nuclear receptormes + epihuman AIS, mouse Tfmno branching(Brown et al, 1988; He et al, 1991)
Bone morphogenetic protein 4 Bmp4 secretedmesmouse knockout (heterozygote)increased branching in the AP and VP(Lamm et al, 2001a)
Fibroblast growth factor 10 Fgf10 secretedmesmouse knockout (homozygote)no branching(Donjacour et al, 2003)
Growth hormone receptorGhrtransmembrane receptortransgenic antagonistsmall prostate with reduced branching(Ruan et al, 1999)
Homeobox A10 Hoxa10 transcription factormes + epimouse knockout (homozygote)reduced AP branching, partial AP to DLP transformation(Podlasek et al, 1999d)
Homeobox A13 Hoxa13 transcription factormes + epimouse Hd (heterozygote)reduced size and reduced branching in the VP and DLP(Podlasek et al, 1999b)
Homeobox D13 Hoxd13 transcription factormes + epimouse knockout (homozygote)small VP and DLP, reduced DLP branching(Podlasek et al, 1997a)
Insulin-like growth factor 1 Igf1 secretedmouse knockout (homozygote)small prostate with reduced branching(Baker et al, 1996; Ruan et al, 1999)
NK-3 transcription factor, locus 1 Nkx3.1 transcription factorepimouse knockout (homozygote)reduced branching(Bhatia-Gaur et al, 1999; Schneider et al, 2000; Tanaka et al, 2000a)
Tumor protein p63 p63 nuclearepimouse knockout (homozygote)no branching(Signoretti et al, 2000)
Prolactin Prl hormonemouse knockout (homozygote)small VP(Steger et al, 1998)
Steroid 5-alpha reductase 2 Srd5a2 enzymemesmouse knockout (homozygote), human PPSH (homozygote)small prostate(Andersson et al, 1991; Mahendroo et al, 2001)

1 Abbreviations: mesenchyme (mes), epithelium (epi), androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS), pseudovaginal perineoscrotal hypospadias (PPSH), Testicular feminization (Tfm), Hypodactyly (Hd), anterior prostate (AP), dorsolateral prostate (DLP), ventral prostate (VP). The tissue layer expressing the gene is indicated for the prostate only.

From: Branching Morphogenesis of the Prostate

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