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National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK). Chronic Heart Failure: National Clinical Guideline for Diagnosis and Management in Primary and Secondary Care: Partial Update [Internet]. London: Royal College of Physicians (UK); 2010 Aug. (NICE Clinical Guidelines, No. 108.)

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Chronic Heart Failure: National Clinical Guideline for Diagnosis and Management in Primary and Secondary Care: Partial Update [Internet].

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Appendix DSearch Strategies

Search strategies used for the Chronic Heart Failure Guideline partial update are outlined below.

Searches were run in Medline, Embase (OVID), the Cochrane Library and Cinahl (EBSCO) according to the NICE Guidelines Manual 2007 http://www.nice.org.uk/media/FA1/59/GuidelinesManualChapters2007.pdf and 2009 http://www.nice.org.uk/media/5F2/44/The_guidelines_manual_2009_-_All_chapters.pdf.

Searches were constructed using the PICO format.

Population AND Intervention AND Comparison (if there was one) AND study type search filters (if used)

Outcomes were not used in the search strategy. Whilst correct at the time of writing strategies may need editing for future use in light of changes in terminology and index headings.

The cut off date for searches for this partial update was 9 October 2009

Chronic Heart Failure Population Search strategies

Medline search terms

  1. Heart Failure/
  2. Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/
  3. Shock, Cardiogenic/
  4. exp Ventricular Dysfunction/
  5. Cardiac Output, Low/
  6. ((heart or cardiac or myocardial) adj2 (failure or decompensation)).ti.
  7. ((congestive or chronic) adj2 “ heart failure”).ti,ab.
  8. ((dilated or congestive) adj2 cardiomyopath$).ti.
  9. “cardiogenic shock”.ti.
  10. ((ventricular or ventricle$) adj2 (failure or insufficien$ or dysfunction$)).ti.
  11. ((“left ventricular” or “left ventricle”) adj2 (failure or insufficien$ or dysfunction$))ti,ab.
  12. lvsd.ti,ab.
  13. or/1–12
  14. letter.pt.
  15. letter/
  16. letter$/
  17. editorial.pt.
  18. historical article.pt.
  19. anecdote.pt.
  20. commentary.pt.
  21. note.pt.
  22. case report/
  23. case report$.pt.
  24. case study/
  25. case study.pt.
  26. exp animal/not human/
  27. nonhuman/
  28. exp Animal Studies/
  29. Animals, Laboratory/
  30. exp experimental animal/
  31. exp animal experiment/
  32. exp animal model/
  33. exp Rodentia/
  34. exp rodents/
  35. or/14–34
  36. 13 not 35
  37. limit 36 to English language

Embase search terms

  1. *heart failure/or *acute heart failure/or *cardiogenic shock/or *diastolic dysfunction/or *forward heart failure/or *high output heart failure/or *systolic dysfunction/
  2. *Congestive Cardiomyopathy/or exp *Congestive Heart Failure/
  3. exp *Heart Ventricle Failure/
  4. ((heart or cardiac or myocardial) adj2 (failure or decompensation)).ti.
  5. ((congestive or chronic) adj2 “ heart failure”).ti,ab.
  6. ((dilated or congestive) adj2 cardiomyopath$).ti.
  7. “cardiogenic shock”.ti.
  8. ((ventricular or ventricle$) adj2 (failure or insufficien$ or dysfunction$)).ti.
  9. ((“left ventricular” or “left ventricle”) adj2 (failure or insufficien$ or dysfunction$)).ti,ab.
  10. lvsd.ti,ab.
  11. or/1–10
  12. letter.pt.
  13. letter/
  14. letter$/
  15. editorial.pt.
  16. historical article.pt.
  17. anecdote.pt.
  18. commentary.pt.
  19. note.pt.
  20. case report/
  21. case report$.pt.
  22. case study/)
  23. case study.pt. (0)
  24. exp animal/not human/
  25. nonhuman/
  26. exp Animal Studies/
  27. Animals, Laboratory/
  28. exp experimental animal/
  29. exp animal experiment/
  30. exp animal model/
  31. exp Rodentia/
  32. exp rodents/
  33. or/12–32
  34. 11 not 33
  35. limit 34 to english language

Cinahl search terms

S1.

(MH "Heart Failure, Congestive+") or (MH "Shock, Cardiogenic") or MH "Ventricular Dysfunction+")

S2.

TI heart N2 failure or TI heart N2 decompensation or TI cardiac N2 failure or TI cardiac N2 decompensation or TI myocardial N2 decompensation or TI myocardial N2 failure or TX congestive N2 "heart failure" or TX chronic N2 "heart failure" or TI dilated N2 cardiomyopath* or TI congestive N2 cardiomyopath* or TI cardiogenic N2 shock or TX LVSD

S3.

TX ventricular N2 failure or TX ventricular N2 dysfunction or TX ventricular N2 insufficiency or TX ventricle N2 failure or TX ventricle N2 dysfunction or TX ventricle N2 insufficiency

S4.

S1 or S2 or S3 or S4

S5.

(MH "Case Studies") or (MH "Mammals+") or PT case study or PT commentary or PT anecdote or PT editorial or PT letter or (MH "Rodents+") or (MH "Animals+") or (MH "Animals, Laboratory") or (MH "Animal Studies") or (MH "Models, Biological")

S6.

S4 NOT S5 LIMIT English language

Cochrane search terms

  1. MeSH descriptor Heart Failure explode all trees
  2. MeSH descriptor Cardiomyopathy, Dilated, this term only
  3. MeSH descriptor Shock, Cardiogenic, this term only
  4. MeSH descriptor Ventricular Dysfunction explode all trees
  5. MeSH descriptor Cardiac Output, Low, this term only
  6. ((heart or cardiac or myocardial) NEXT (failure or decompensation)):ti
  7. ((congestive or chronic) NEXT ("heart failure")):ti,ab
  8. ((dilated or congestive) NEXT cardiomyopath*):ti
  9. ("cardiogenic shock"):ti
  10. ((ventricular or ventricle) NEXT (failure or insufficienc* or dysfunction*)):ti
  11. lvsd:ti,ab
  12. (("left ventricular" or "left ventricle") NEXT (failure or insufficienc* or dysfunction*)):ti,ab
  13. (#1 OR #2 OR #3 OR #4 OR #5 OR #6 OR #7 OR #8 OR #9 OR #10 OR #11 OR #12)

Generic study type search filters

Medline and Embase systematic reviews search terms

  1. "review"/or review.pt. or review.ti.
  2. (systematic or evidence$ or methodol$ or quantitativ$) ti,ab.
  3. 1 and 2
  4. meta-analysis.pt.
  5. Meta-Analysis/
  6. exp Meta-Analysis as Topic/
  7. ”systematic review”/
  8. (meta-analy$ or metanaly$ or metaanaly$ or meta analy$).ti,ab.
  9. ((systematic$ or evidence$ or methodol$ or quantitativ$) adj3 (review$ or survey$ or overview$)).ti,ab.
  10. ((pool$ or combined or combining) adj2 (data or trials or studies or results)).ti,ab.
  11. or/3–10

Medline randomised controlled trials search terms

  1. randomized controlled trial.pt.
  2. controlled clinical trial.pt.
  3. double-blind method/or random allocation/or single-blind method/
  4. exp Clinical Trial/
  5. exp Clinical Trials as Topic/
  6. clinical trial.pt.
  7. random$.ti,ab.
  8. ((clinical$ or control$) adj3 (trial$ or study or studies)).ti,ab
  9. ((singl$ or doubl$ or trebl$ or tripl$) adj5 (blind$ or mask$)).ti,ab.
  10. Placebos/or placebo$.ti,ab.
  11. (volunteer$ or "control group" or controls). ti,ab.
  12. Cross-Over Studies/
  13. ((crossover or cross-over or cross over) adj2 (design$ or stud$ or procedure$ or trial$)).ti,ab.
  14. or/1–13

Medline observational studies search terms

  1. Research Design/or Comparative Studies/or nonexperimental studies/
  2. exp Evaluation Studies/or evaluation studies as topic/or follow-up studies/or exp prospective studies/or retrospective studies/
  3. exp Cohort studies/or cohort analysis/or longitudinal studies/
  4. exp Case-Control Studies/or control group/
  5. exp Cross-Sectional Studies/
  6. (case-control or case control).ti,ab
  7. (observ$ or cohort$ or follow-up or follow up or longitudinal or prospective or retrospective or comparative) adj1 (stud$ or research or analys$).ti,ab
  8. or/1–7

Medline diagnostic studies search terms

  1. exp Heart Failure/di [Diagnosis]
  2. diagnosis/or diagnosis, differential/or "diagnostic techniques and procedures"/or diagnostic techniques, cardiovascular/or early diagnosis/
  3. detection.ti,ab.
  4. specificity.ti,ab.
  5. diagnos$.ti,ab.
  6. or/1–6

Medline prognostic studies search terms

  1. exp prognosis/
  2. (prognos$ or predict$).ti,ab
  3. 1 or 2

Embase randomised controlled trials search terms

  1. controlled study/or randomized controlled trial/
  2. Clinical Trial/
  3. clinical study/or major clinical study/or clinical trial/or phase 1 clinical trial/or phase 2 clinical trial/or phase 3 clinical trial/or phase 4 clinical trial/
  4. "Double Blind Procedure"/
  5. ((clinical$ or control$) adj3 (trial$ or study or studies)).ti,ab
  6. "Clinical Article"/
  7. Randomization/
  8. placebo.ti,ab.
  9. randomi$.ti,ab.
  10. ((singl* or double$ or triple$ or treble$) adj5 (blind$ or mask$)).ti,ab.
  11. (volunteer$ or "control group" or controls). ti,ab.
  12. crossover procedure/
  13. ((crossover or cross-over or cross over) adj2 (design$ or stud$ or procedure$ or trial$)).ti,ab.
  14. or/1–14

Embase observational studies search terms

  1. Cohort Analysis/
  2. Longitudinal Study/
  3. Prospective Study/or retrospective study/
  4. Comparative study/or observational study/
  5. (cross-sectional or cross sectional).ti,ab
  6. (observ$ or cohort$ or follow-up or follow up or longitudinal or prospective or retrospective or comparative) adj1 (stud$ or research or analys$).ti,ab
  7. Case Control Study/or control group/
  8. (“case control” or case-control).ti,ab
  9. or/1–8

Embase diagnostic studies search terms

  1. exp Heart Failure/di [Diagnosis]
  2. diagnosis/or diagnosis, differential/or "diagnostic techniques and procedures"/or diagnostic techniques, cardiovascular/or early diagnosis/
  3. (detection or diagnos$).ti,ab.
  4. specificity.ti,ab.
  5. or/1–5

Embase prognostic studies search terms

  1. prognosis/
  2. (prognos$ or predict$).ti,ab
  3. 1 or 2

Cinahl and Cochrane generic study type search filters

None used except in Question DIAG

Cinahl diagnostic studies search terms ( DIAG only)

S1.

diagnos* or specificity

S2.

(MH "Sensitivity and Specificity")

S3.

(MH "Diagnostic Tests, Routine") or (MH "Clinical Assessment Tools")

S4.

(MH "Diagnosis") or (MH "Diagnosis, Cardiovascular") or (MH "Diagnosis, Differential")

S5.

S1 or S2 or S3 or S4

Cochrane diagnostic studies search terms (DIAG only)

  1. MeSH descriptor Heart Failure explode all trees with qualifier: DI
  2. MeSH descriptor Diagnosis, this term only
  3. MeSH descriptor Diagnosis, Differential, this term only
  4. MeSH descriptor Early Diagnosis, this term only
  5. MeSH descriptor Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures, this term only
  6. MeSH descriptor Diagnostic Techniques, Cardiovascular, this term only
  7. MeSH descriptor Sensitivity and Specificity, this term only
  8. (diagnos* or specificity):ti,ab
  9. (#1 OR #2 OR #3 OR #4 OR #5 OR #6 OR #7 OR #8)

Clinical Questions and intervention search strategies

DIAG: What is the diagnostic accuracy of a collection of symptoms and signs, including any scoring systems vs gold standard in the diagnosis of heart failure?

PopulationInterventionComparisonFilters usedDate parameters
Chronic Heart failureSymptoms/signs scoring systemsSRAll years

Intervention search strategies

Medline search terms
  1. ((framingham or boston or duke or killip or MICE or clinical) adj2 (criteria or scor$ or class or system$)).ti,ab.
  2. ((scor$ or diagnost$) adj2 (system$ or tool$ or criteria)).ti,ab.
  3. (symptom$ adj5 sign$).ti,ab.
  4. (jugular adj3 (pressure or pulse)).ti,ab.
  5. JVP.ti,ab.
  6. ((venous or vein) adj2 distension).ti,ab.
  7. exp Heart Sounds/
  8. (heart adj2 sound$).ti,ab.
  9. (gallop or oscillation$ or tachypnea or murmur$ or rale$ or crackle$ or crepitation$).ti,ab.
  10. exp Cardiomegaly/
  11. cardiomegal$.ti,ab.
  12. ((displaced or beat) adj2 apex).ti,ab.
  13. (apical adj2 impulse).ti,ab.
  14. exp Edema/
  15. (fluid adj2 retention).ti,ab.
  16. exp Fatigue/
  17. (edema or oedema or fatigue or asthenia or malaise or tired$ or dyspnea or dyspnoea or SOB or breathless$ or orthopnoea or orthopnea).ti,ab.
  18. exp Dyspnea/
  19. (venous adj2 insufficicien$).ti,ab.
  20. ((swelling or swollen) adj2 (leg$ or ankle$ or limb$ or extremit$)).ti,ab.
  21. Physical Examination/
  22. ((physical or clinical) adj2 examination).ti,ab.
  23. Exercise Test/or Exercise Tolerance/
  24. (effort adj2 intolerance).ti,ab.
  25. or/1–24
Embase search terms
  1. ((framingham or boston or duke or killip or MICE or clinical) adj2 (criteria or scor$ or class or system$)).ti,ab.)
  2. ((scor$ or diagnost$) adj2 (system$ or tool$ or criteria)).ti,ab.
  3. (symptom$ adj5 sign$).ti,ab.
  4. (jugular adj3 (pressure or pulse)).ti,ab
  5. JVP.ti,ab
  6. ((venous or vein) adj2 distension).ti,ab.
  7. exp Heart Sounds/
  8. (heart adj2 sound$).ti,ab.
  9. (gallop or oscillation$ or tachypnea or murmur$ or rale$ or crackle$ or crepitation$).ti,ab.
  10. exp Cardiomegaly/
  11. cardiomegal$.ti,ab.
  12. ((displaced or beat) adj2 apex).ti,ab.
  13. (apical adj2 impulse).ti,ab.
  14. exp Edema/
  15. (fluid adj2 retention).ti,ab.)
  16. exp Fatigue/
  17. (edema or oedema or fatigue or asthenia or malaise or tired$ or dyspnea or dyspnoea or SOB or breathless$ or orthopnoea or orthopnea).ti,ab.
  18. exp Dyspnea/
  19. (venous adj2 insufficicien$).ti,ab.
  20. ((swelling or swollen) adj2 (leg$ or ankle$ or limb$ or extremit$)).ti,ab.
  21. Physical Examination/
  22. ((physical or clinical) adj2 examination).ti,ab.
  23. Exercise Test/ or Exercise Tolerance/
  24. (effort adj2 intolerance).ti,ab
  25. or/1–24
Cinahl search terms
S1.

(MH “Dyspnea+”)

S2.

duke or boston or framingham or killip or MICE or diagnos* N2 criteria or diagnos* N2 tool* or scor* N2 tool* or scor* N2 criteria

S3.

heart N2 sound* or venous N2 distension or vein N2 distension or jugular N3 pressure or jugular N3 pulse or symptom* N5 sign* or scor* N2 system*

S4.

apical N2 impulse or displaced N2 apex or apex N2 beat or swelling N2 ankle* or swollen N2 ankle* or swelling N2 limb* or swollen N2 limb*

S5.

(JVP or gallop or oscillation* or tachypnea or murmur* or rale* or crackle* or crepitation* or cardiomegal* or edema or oedema or fatigue or asthenia or malaise or tired* or dyspnea or dyspnoea or SOD or breathless* or orthopnoea or orthopnea ) or venous N2 insufficienc* or fluid N2 retention or effort N2 intolerance or exercise N2 tolerance or physical N2 examination or clinical N2 examination

S6.

(MH “Heart Hypertrophy+”) or (MH “Physical Examination”) or (MH “Exercise Tolerance”) or (MH “Heart Sounds”) or (MH “Fatigue+”) or (MH “Edema”)

S7.

S1 or S2 or S3 or S4 or S5 or S6

Cochrane search terms
  1. MeSH descriptor Heart Sounds, this term only
  2. MeSH descriptor Cardiomegaly explode all trees
  3. MeSH descriptor Edema explode all trees
  4. MeSH descriptor Fatigue explode all trees
  5. MeSH descriptor Dyspnea explode all trees
  6. MeSH descriptor Physical Examination, this term only
  7. MeSH descriptor Exercise Tolerance explode all trees
  8. ((effort or exercise) NEXT (intolerance or tolerance)):ti,ab
  9. ((physical or clinical) NEXT examination):ti,ab
  10. ((swelling or swollen) NEXT (leg* or ankle* or limb* or extremit*)):ti,ab
  11. (venous NEXT insufficiency):ti,ab
  12. (cardiomegal* or edema or oedema or fatigue or asthenia or malaise or tired* or dyspnea or dyspnoea or SOB or breathless* or orthopnea or orthopnoea or JVP or gallop or oscillation* or tachypnea or murmur* or rale* or crackle* or crepitation*):ti,ab
  13. (fluid NEXT retention):ti,ab
  14. (apical NEXT impulse):ti,ab
  15. ((displaced or beat) NEXT apex):ti,ab
  16. (heart NEXT sound*):ti,ab
  17. ((venous or vein) NEXT distension):ti,ab
  18. (jugular NEXT (pressure or pulse)):ti,ab
  19. (symptom* NEAR sign*):ti,ab
  20. ((scor* or diagnost*) NEXT (criteria or tool* or system*)):ti,ab
  21. ((framingham or boston or duke or killip or MICE or clinical) NEXT (criteria or scor* or class* or system*)):ti,ab
  22. (#1 or #2 or #3 or #4 or #5 or #6 or #7 or #8 or #9 or #10 or #11 or #12 or #13 or #14 or #15 or #16 or #17 or #18 or #19 or #20 or #21)

BNP1: What is the accuracy of natriuretic peptides vs gold standard in the diagnosis of heart failure?
BNP2: What is the accuracy of echocardiography vs natriuretic peptides in the diagnosis of diastolic dysfunction?
BNP3: Does serial BNP monitoring (guided therapy) improve outcome compared to standard care in adults with chronic heart failure?

Questions BNP 1, 2 and 3 were run as one search

PopulationInterventionComparisonFilters usedDate parameters
Chronic heart failureNatriuretic peptidesSR, RCT, observational, diagnostic, prognostic2002–2009 (2000–2009 for BNP3)

Intervention search strategies

Medline search terms
  1. exp Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/
  2. (natriuretic adj2 peptide$).ti,ab.
  3. (BNP or NT-proBNP or NT-pro BNP or NT-BNP).ti,ab.
  4. (nesiritide or natrecor).ti,ab.
  5. (natriuretic adj2 factor$).ti,ab.
  6. *Natriuretic Peptides/
  7. 1 or 2 or 3 or 4 or 5 or 6
Embase search terms
  1. *natriuretic factor/ or *amino terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide/ or *brain natriuretic peptide/ or *nesiritide/
  2. (BNP or NT-proBNP or NT-pro BNP or NT-BNP).ti,ab.
  3. (nesiritide or natrecor).ti,ab.
  4. (natriuretic adj2 peptide$).ti,ab.
  5. 1 or 2 or 3 or 4
Cinahl search terms
S1.

((MH “Natriuretic Peptides”) or (MH “Natriuretic Peptide, Brain”) ) or TX BNP or TX probnp or TX nesiritide or TX natrecor or TX natriuretic N2 peptide*

Cochrane search terms
  1. MeSH descriptor Natriuretic Peptide, Brain, this term only
  2. MeSH descriptor Natriuretic Peptides, this term only
  3. (BNP or NT-proBNP or NT-pro BNP or NT-BNP):ti,ab
  4. (natriuretic NEAR/4 peptide*):ti,ab
  5. (nesiritide or natrecor):ti,ab
  6. (#1 OR #2 OR #3 OR #4 OR #5)

ACE: What is the efficacy and safety of ACE Inhibitors in people with heart failure and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction?

PopulationInterventionComparisonFilters usedDate parameters
Chronic heart failureACE InhibitorsSR, RCT1986–2009

Intervention search strategies

Medline search terms
  1. exp *Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/
  2. ((“angiotensin-converting enzyme” or ACE) adj2 (inhibitor$ or antagonist$)).ti.)
  3. (captopril or capoten or cilazapril or vascace or enalapril or innovace or fosinopril or staril or imidapril or tanatril or lisinopril or carace or zestril or perdix or moexipril or perindopril or coversyl or quinapril or tritace or triapin or trandolapril or gopten).ti.
  4. or/1–3
Embase search terms
  1. ((“angiotensin-converting enzyme” or ACE) adj2 (inhibitor$ or antagonist$)).ti.
  2. (captopril or capoten or cilazapril or vascace or enalapril or innovace or fosinopril or staril or imidapril or tanatril or lisinopril or carace or zestril or perdix or moexipril or perindopril or coversyl or quinapril or tritace or triapin or trandolapril or gopten).ti.
  3. exp *Dipeptidyl Carboxypeptidase Inhibitor/
  4. or/1–3
Cinahl search terms
S1.

(MM “Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors+”)

S2.

TI angiotensin-converting enzyme N2 inhibitor* or TI angiotensin-converting enzyme N2 antagonist* or TI ACE N2 inhibitor*

S3.

TI captopril or cilazapril or enalapril or fosinopril or imidapril or lisinopril or moexipril or perindopril or coversyl or quinapril or ramipril or trandolapril

S4.

S1 or S2 or S3

Cochrane search terms
  1. MeSH descriptor Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors explode all trees with qualifiers: TH,DE,DT,AD,AE,TU,CO,CT,TO
  2. (captopril or capoten or cilazapril or vascace or enalapril or innovace or fosinopril or staril or imidapril or tanatril or lisinopril or carace or zestril or moexipril or perdix or perindopril or coversyl or quinapril or accupro or ramipril or tritace or triapin or trandolapril or gopten):ti
  3. (“angiotensin-converting enzyme” or ACE ) NEXT ( inhibitor* or antagonist*):ti
  4. (#1 or #2 or #3)

ALDO: What is the efficacy and safety of using an aldosterone antagonist in addition to optimal medical management compared to placebo plus optimal medical management in adults with chronic heart failure?

PopulationInterventionComparisonFilters usedDate parameters
Chronic heart failureAldosterone antagonistsSR, RCT1986–2009

Intervention search strategies

Medline search terms
  1. exp Aldosterone Antagonists/
  2. eplerenone.ti,ab.
  3. (inspra or aldactone).ti,ab.
  4. (aldosterone adj2 antagonist$).ti,ab.
  5. (ALDO or ALDOs).ti,ab.
  6. or/1–6
Embase search terms
  1. exp *Aldosterone Antagonist/
  2. (aldosterone adj2 antagonist$).ti,ab.
  3. (eplerenone or aldactone or inspra).ti,ab.
  4. (ALDO or ALDOs).ti,ab.
  5. or/1–5
Cinahl search strategy
S1.

(MH “Aldosterone Antagonists+”) or aldosterone N3 antagonist* or (spironolactone or aldactone or eplerenone or aldactone or ALDO or ALDOs or inspra)

Cochrane search terms
  1. MeSH descriptor Aldosterone Antagonists explode all trees
  2. (aldosterone NEXT antagonist*):ti,ab
  3. (spironolactone or eplerenone or aldactone or inspa):ti,ab
  4. (ALDO or ALDOs):ti,ab
  5. (#1 or #2 or #3 or #4)

ARB1: What is the efficacy and safety of angiotensin-II receptor antagonists (ARBs) in comparison to placebo in the medical management of adults with heart failure?
ARB2: What is the efficacy and safety of a) ARB plus ACE I in comparison to ACE I plus placebo b) ARB and ACEI and BB vs placebo and ACEI and BB in the medical management of adults with heart failure?

Questions ARB1 and ARB2 were run as one search

PopulationInterventionComparisonFilters usedDate parameters
Chronic heart failureARBSSR, RCT1986–2009

Intervention search strategies

Medline search terms
  1. exp Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/
  2. exp Receptors, Angiotensin/ai [Antagonists & Inhibitors]
  3. (angiotensin adj3 receptor adj3 (antagonist$ or blocker$)).ti,ab.
  4. (ARB or ARBs).ti,ab.
  5. amias.ti,ab.
  6. (teveten or aprovel or cozaar or cozaar-comp or diovan or co-diovan or micardis or olmetec or coaprovel or losartan or eprosartan or irbesartan or olmesartan or telmisartan or saralasin).ti.
  7. or/1–7
Embase search terms
  1. exp *Angiotensin Receptor Antagonist/
  2. (ARB or ARBs or amias).ti,ab.
  3. (angiotensin adj3 receptor adj3 (antagonist$ or blocker$)).ti,ab.
  4. (teveten or aprovel or cozaar or cozaar-comp or diovan or co-diovan or micardis or olmetec or coaprovel or losartan or eprosartan or irbesartan or olmesartan or telmisartan or saralasin).ti.
  5. or/1–6
Cinahl search terms
S1.

(MH “Angiotensin II Type I Receptor Blockers+”) or (MH “Angiotensins+/AI”)

S2.

TI losartan or eprosartan or irbesartan or olmesartan or telmisartan or angiotensin N2 receptor N2 antagonist* or angiotensin N2 receptor N2 blocker* or candesartan or valsartan or amias or ARB or ARBs

S3.

S1 or S2

Cochrane search terms
  1. MeSH descriptor Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers explode all trees
  2. MeSH descriptor Receptors, Angiotensin explode all trees with qualifier: AI
  3. (ARB or ARBs or amias or candesartan or valsartan or diovan):ti,ab
  4. ((angiotensin NEAR/2 receptor) NEAR/2 (antagonist* or blocker*)):ti,ab
  5. (losartan or eprosartan or irbesartan or olmesartan or telmisartan or saralasin):ti
  6. (#1 or #2 or #3 or #4 or #5)

BB: What is the efficacy and safety of beta-blockers in comparison to placebo, optimal medical management or other beta-blockers in people with chronic heart failure?

PopulationInterventionComparisonFilters usedDate parameters
Chronic heart failureBeta-blockersSR, RCT1986–2009

Intervention search strategies

Medline search terms
  1. *adrenergic beta-antagonists/ or exp bisoprolol/ or exp metoprolol/
  2. ((beta-adrenoceptor or b-adrenoceptor or beta-adrenergic) adj3 (blockade or blocker$ or blocking or antagonist$)).ti.
  3. (beta adj2 (blocker$ or blockade)).ti.
  4. or/1–4
Embase search terms
  1. *beta adrenergic receptor blocking agent/ or *bisoprolol/ or *bisoprolol fumarate/ or *bisoprolol fumarate plus hydrochlorothiazide/ or *carvedilol/ or *metoprolol/ or *metoprolol fumarate/ or *metoprolol succinate/ or *metoprolol tartrate/ or *nebivolol/
  2. (beta adj2 (blocker$ or blockade)).ti.
  3. ((beta-adrenoceptor or b-adrenoceptor or beta-adrenergic) adj3 (blockade or blocker$ or blocking or antagonist$)).ti.
  4. or/1–4
Cinahl search terms
S1.

((MH “Adrenergic Beta-Antagonist”) or (MH “Carvedilol”) or (MH “Metoprolol”)) or (carvedilol or metoprolol or bisoprolol or nebivolol) or TI beta N2 block* or TI beta-adrenoceptor N2 block* or TI beta-adrenoceptor N2 antagonist* or TI b-adrenoceptor N2 block* or TI b-adrenoceptor N2 antagonist* or TI beta-adrenergic N2 block* or TI beta-adrenergic N2 antagonist*

Cochrane search terms
  1. MeSH descriptor Adrenergic beta-Antagonists, this term only with qualifiers: AD,AE,DE,DT,TU,TH
  2. MeSH descriptor Bisoprolol, this term only
  3. MeSH descriptor Metoprolol, this term only
  4. (beta NEXT (blocker$ or blockade)):ti
  5. ((beta-adrenoceptor or b-adrenoceptor or beta-adrenergic) NEXT (block* or antagonist*)):ti
  6. (#1 or #2 or #3 or #4 or #5 or #6)

ISO: What is the efficacy and safety of isosorbide/hydralazine combination in comparison to a) placebo b) ACE I c) placebo and optimal medical management in the medical management of adults with heart failure?

PopulationInterventionComparisonFilters usedDate parameters
Chronic heart failureIsosorbide/hydralazine combinationSR, RCTAll years

Intervention search strategies

Medline search terms
  1. exp Hydralazine/ or exp Isosorbide/
  2. (hydralazine$ or isosorbide$).ti,ab.
  3. (depressan or dihydralazine or dihydrallazine or dihydrazinophthalazin or hydrallazin or hydrazinophthalazine or angitak or cedocard or retard-20 or apressin or nepresol or apressoline or apresoline).ti,ab.
  4. (dianhydrosorbitol or dilatrate or iso-bid or iso bid or isobid or isodinit or isoket or sorbonit or isomak or isordil or isotrate or nitrosorbide or cardonit or sorbitrate).ti,ab.
  5. bidil.ti,ab.
  6. or/1–5
Embase search terms
  1. *isosorbide/ or *isosorbide derivative/ or *isosorbide dinitrate/
  2. isosorbide$.ti,ab.
  3. (depressan or dihydralazine or cedocard or retard-20 or angitak or dihydrallazine or dihydrazinophthalazin or hydrallazin or hydrazinophthalazine or apressin or nepresol or apressoline or apresoline).ti,ab.
  4. (bidil or disorlon).ti,ab.
  5. hydralazine$.ti,ab.
  6. (dilatrate or iso bid or iso-bid or isobid or dianhydrosorbitol or isodinit or isoket or sorbonit or isomak or isordil or isotrate or nitrosorbide or sorbitrate or cardonit).ti,ab.
  7. or/1–8
Cinahl search terms
S1.

(MH “Hydralazine”) or (MH “Isosorbide Dinitrate”) or (hydralazine* or isosorbide*) or (bidil or disorlon or depressen or dihydralazine or dihydrallazine or dihydrazinophthalazin or hydrallazin or apressin or nepresol or apressoline or apresoline or dilatrate or dianhydrosorbitol or iso bid or iso-bid or isobid or isodinit or isomak or sorbonit or isordil or isotrate or nitrosorbide or sorbitrate or cardonit)

Cochrane search terms
  1. MeSH descriptor Isosorbide explode all trees
  2. MeSH descriptor Hydralazine explode all trees
  3. (isosorbide* or hydralazine* or disorlon or bidil or depressen or dihydralazine or dihydrallazine or hydrallazin or apressin or nepresol or apressoline or apresoline or dihydrazinophthalazin or hydrazonophthalizine):ti,ab
  4. (dilatrate or dianhydrosorbitol or iso-bid or iso bid or isobid or isodinit or isoket or sorbonit or isomak or isordil or isotrate or nitrosorbide or sorbitrate or cardonit):ti,ab
  5. (#1 or #2 or #3 or #4)

MONIT: What is the efficacy and safety of patient telemonitoring in comparison to outpatient monitoring for adults with chronic heart failure?

PopulationInterventionComparisonFilters usedDate parameters
Chronic heart failuretelemonitoringSR, RCT, observational1986–2009

Intervention search strategies

Medline search terms
  1. Self Care/
  2. (“telemanag$” or tele-manag$ or self-manag$ or “self manag$” or selfmonitor$ or “self monitor$” or self-monitor$ or “self care” or self-care or tele-monitor$ or “tele monitor$” or telemonitor$).ti,ab.
  3. (remote adj2 monit$).ti,ab.
  4. Telemedicine/
  5. *home care services/ and (telemetry/ or monitor$.ti,ab.))
  6. or/1–5
Embase search terms
  1. (self-manag$ or “self manag$” or selfmonit$ or “self monitor$” or self-monitor$ or “self care” or self-care or tele-monitor$ or “tele monitor$” or telemonitor$ or telemanag$ or tele-manag$).ti,ab.
  2. home monitoring/ or self monitoring/ or telemonitoring/
  3. self care/ or telehealth/ or telemedicine/ or telecardiology/
  4. (remote adj2 monitor$).ti,ab.
  5. *home care/ and (exp telemetry/ or monitor$.ti,ab.)
  6. or/1–6
Cinahl search terms
S1.

MH (“Telemedicine”) or (MH “Telehealth”) or (MH “Self Care”)

S2.

(MH “Home Health Care”) and monit*

S3.

(MH “Home Health Care”) and (MH “telemetry”)

S4.

remote N1 monit* or self N1 monit* or self N1 manag* or self N1 care or telemonitor* or tele N1 monitor* or telemanag* or tele N1 manag* or selfmonitor* or selfcare

S5.

S1 or S2 or S3 or S4

Cochrane search terms
  1. MeSH descriptor Self Care, this term only
  2. MeSH descriptor Telemedicine, this term only
  3. (“self manag*” or self-manag* or “self monitor*” or self-monitor* or selfmonitor* or telemanag* or tele-manag* or “self care” or self-care or selfcare or telemanag* or tele-manag* or telemonitor* or “tele monitor*” or tele-monitor*):ti,ab
  4. (remote NEXT monitor*):ti,ab
  5. (#1 or #2 or #3 or #4)

REHAB: What is the efficacy and safety of exercise based cardiac rehabilitation in adults with chronic heart failure?

PopulationInterventionComparisonFilters usedDate parameters
chronic heart failureRehabilitation programmesSR, RCT, observational2002–2009

Intervention search strategies

Medline search terms
  1. rehabilitation/ or exp exercise therapy/
  2. heart rehabilitation/
  3. community based rehabilitation/
  4. *”Physical Education and Training”/
  5. exp *exercise/ or *physical exertion/ or *muscle training/
  6. *Physical Fitness/
  7. (*Exercise Test/ or *exercise tolerance/) and rehab$.ti,ab.
  8. exp heart failure/rh
  9. (exp *Sports/ or *community care/ or *health program/) and (exercise$ or rehab$).ti,ab.
  10. rehabilitation.ti.
  11. ((cardiac or heart or coronary or exercise) adj2 rehabilitation).ti,ab.
  12. (rehabilitation adj2 (program$ or class$ or team$)).ti,ab.
  13. exercise$.ti.
  14. (exercise adj2 (therap$ or training or program$ or class$ or session$)).ti,ab.
  15. (physical adj2 (fitness or education or training or activit$)).ti,ab.
  16. ((aerobic or muscle or resistive) adj2 (exercise$ or training)).ti,ab.
  17. or/1–17
Embase search terms
  1. rehabilitation/ or exp exercise therapy/ or treadmill exercise/
  2. heart rehabilitation/
  3. community based rehabilitation/
  4. *”Physical Education and Training”/
  5. exp *exercise/ or *physical exertion/ or *muscle training/
  6. *Physical Fitness/
  7. (*Exercise Test/ or *exercise tolerance/) and rehab$.ti,ab.
  8. exp heart failure/rh
  9. (exp *Sports/ or *community care/ or *health program/) and (exercise$ or rehab$).ti,ab.
  10. rehabilitation.ti.
  11. ((cardiac or heart or coronary or exercise) adj2 rehabilitation).ti,ab.
  12. (rehabilitation adj2 (program$ or class$ or team$)).ti,ab.
  13. exercise$.ti.
  14. (exercise adj2 (therap$ or training or program$ or class$ or session$)).ti,ab.
  15. (physical adj2 (fitness or education or training or activit$)).ti,ab.
  16. ((aerobic or muscle or resistive) adj2 (exercise$ or training)).ti,ab.
  17. home rehabilitation/ or geriatric rehabilitation/ or rehabilitation patient/
  18. or/1–18
Cinahl search strategy
S1.

(MH “Physical Activity”) or (MH “Physical Fitness”) or (MH “Rehabilitation Nursing”) or (MH “Rehabilitation, Geriatric”)

S2.

((MH “Exercise Tolerance”) or (MH “Exercise Test”) or (MH “Exercise Test, Cardiopulmonary”)) and rehab*

S3.

((MM “Sports+”) or (MH “Community Health Nursing”) or (MH “Community Health Services”) or (MH “Community Programs”)) and (exercise* or rehab*)

S4.

TI (rehabilitation or exercise*) or cardiac N2 rehabilitation or heart N2 rehabilitation or exercise N2 rehabilitation or rehabilitation N2 program* or exercise N2 therap* or exercise N2 training or exercise N2 therap* or physical N2 training or aerobic N2 exercise* or resistive N2 exercise or resistive N2 training

S5.

S1 or S2 or S3 or S4

Cochrane search terms
  1. ((cardiac or heart or coronary or exercise) NEAR/2 rehabilitat*):ti,ab
  2. (exercise NEAR/2 (therap* or training or program* or class* or session*)):ti,ab
  3. MeSH descriptor Rehabilitation, this term only
  4. MeSH descriptor Exercise Therapy explode all trees
  5. MeSH descriptor Physical Education and Training, this term only
  6. MeSH descriptor Exercise explode all trees
  7. MeSH descriptor Physical Exertion explode all trees
  8. MeSH descriptor Physical Fitness, this term only
  9. MeSH descriptor Heart Failure explode all trees with qualifier: RH
  10. (rehabilitation or exercise):ti
  11. (rehabilitation NEAR/2 (program* or class*)):ti,ab
  12. MeSH descriptor Rehabilitation Nursing, this term only
  13. (physical NEXT (fitness or education or training or activit*)):ti,ab
  14. ((aerobic or resistant or resistive or muscle) NEXT (exercise* or training)):ti,ab
  15. MeSH descriptor Exercise Test explode all trees
  16. MeSH descriptor Exercise Tolerance explode all trees
  17. MeSH descriptor Sports explode all trees
  18. MeSH descriptor Community Health Services, this term only
  19. exercise*:ti,ab
  20. rehab*:ti,ab
  21. (#1 or #2 or #3 or #4 or #5 or #6 or #7 or #8 or #9 or #10 or #11 or #12 or #13 or #14 or #15 or #16 or #17 or #18 or #19 or #20)
Economics Search

Economic searches were conducted in Medline, Embase and Cochrane Library EED and HTA databases

PopulationInterventionComparisonFilters usedDate parameters
Chronic heart failureEconomic (Medline and Embase only2002–2009
Medline economic filter search terms
  1. exp “costs and cost analysis”/
  2. economics/
  3. (economic$ or pharmacoeconomic$).ti,ab.
  4. (cost or costs or costed or costly or costing$ or price or prices or pricing).ti.
  5. (expenditure or budget$).ti,ab.
  6. cost-effective$.ti,ab.
  7. (cost adj2 (effectiv$ or reduc$ or saving$)).ti,ab.
  8. (value adj2 money).ti,ab.
  9. quality-adjusted life years/
  10. QALY$.ti,ab.
  11. or/1–10
  12. ((metabolic or energy or oxygen) adj2 (expenditure or cost$)).ti,ab.
  13. 11 not 12
Embase economic filter search terms
  1. exp economic aspect/
  2. (economic$ or pharmacoeconomic$).ti,ab.
  3. (cost or costs or costed or costly or costing$ or price or prices or pricing).ti.
  4. (expenditure or budget$).ti,ab.
  5. cost-effective$.ti,ab.
  6. (cost adj2 (effectiv$ or reduc$ or saving$)).ti,ab.
  7. (value adj2 money).ti,ab.
  8. quality-adjusted life years/
  9. QALY$.ti,ab.
  10. or/1–9
  11. ((metabolic or energy or oxygen) adj2 (expenditure or cost$)).ti,ab.
  12. 10 not 11
Copyright © 2010, National Clinical Guideline Centre.

Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the publisher or, in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency in the UK. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside the terms stated here should be sent to the publisher at the UK address printed on this page.

Bookshelf ID: NBK65331

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