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Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. Assessment and Treatment Planning for Cocaine-Abusing Methadone-Maintained Patients. Rockville (MD): Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (US); 1994. (Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series, No. 10.)

  • This publication is provided for historical reference only and the information may be out of date.

This publication is provided for historical reference only and the information may be out of date.

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Assessment and Treatment Planning for Cocaine-Abusing Methadone-Maintained Patients.

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Appendix G - DSM-IV Criteria for Substance-Related Disorders

Criteria for Substance Dependence

Criteria for Substance Dependence
A maladaptive pattern of substance use, leading to clinically significant impairment or distress, as manifested by three (or more) of the following, occurring at any time in the same 12-month period:
  1. Tolerance, as defined by either of the following:
    1. A need for markedly increased amounts of the substance to achieve intoxication or desired effect
    2. Markedly diminished effect with continued use of the same amount of the substance
  2. Withdrawal, as manifested by either of the following:
    1. The characteristic withdrawal syndrome for the substance (refer to criteria A and B of the criteria sets for Withdrawal from the specific substances)
    2. The same (or a closely related) substance is taken to relieve or avoid withdrawal symptoms
  3. The substance is often taken in larger amounts or over a longer period than was intended
  4. There is a persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control substance use
  5. A great deal of time is spent in activities necessary to obtain the substance (e.g., visiting multiple doctors or driving long distances), use the substance (e.g., chain smoking), or recover from its effects
  6. Important social, occupational, or recreational activities are given up or reduced because of substance use
  7. The substance use is continued despite knowledge of having a persistent or recurrent physical or psychological problem that is likely to have been caused or exacerbated by the substance (e.g., current cocaine use despite recognition of cocaine-induced depression, or continued drinking despite recognition that an ulcer was made worse by alcohol consumption)
Specify if:
  • With Physiological Dependence: Evidence of tolerance or withdrawal (i.e., either item 1 or 2 is present)
  • Without Physiological Dependence: No evidence of tolerance or withdrawal (i.e., neither item 1 nor 2 is present)
Course specifiers (see text for definitions):
  • Early Full Remission
  • Early Partial Remission
  • Sustained Full Remission
  • Sustained Partial Remission
  • On Agonist Therapy
  • In a Controlled Environment
*Used with permission from the American Psychiatric Association. Adapted from Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Washiongton, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 1994. Copyright 1994 by the American Psychiatric Association.

Course Specifiers

Six course specifiers are available for Substance Dependence. The four Remission specifiers can be applied only after none of the criteria for Substance Dependence or Substance Abuse have been present for at least 1 month. The definition of these four types of Remission is based on the interval of time that has elapsed since the cessation of Dependence (Early versus Sustained Remission) and whether there is continued presence of one or more of the items included in the criteria sets for Dependence or Abuse (Partial versus Full Remission). A diagnosis of Substance Abuse is preempted by the diagnosis of Substance Dependence if the individual's pattern of substance use has ever met the criteria for Dependence for that class of substances.

Early Remission: Because the first 12 months following Dependence is a time of particularly high risk for relapse, this period is designated Early Remission. There are two categories:

  • Early Full Remission: This specifier is used if, for at least 1 month, but for less than 12 months, no criteria for Dependence or Abuse have been met.
  • Early Partial Remission: This specifier is used if, for at least 1 month, but less than 12 months, one or more criteria for Dependence or Abuse have been met (but the full criteria for Dependence have not been met).
  • Sustained Remission: After 12 months of Early Remission have passed without relapse to Dependence, the person enters into Sustained Remission. There are two categories:Sustained Full Remission: This specifier is use, if none of the criteria for Dependence or Abuse have been met at any time during a period of 12 months or longer. Sustained Partial Remission: This specifier is used if full criteria for Dependence have not been met for a period of 12 months or longer; however, one or more criteria for Dependence or Abuse have been met.

The following specifiers apply if the individual is on agonist therapy or in a controlled environment:

  • On Agonist Therapy: This specifier is used if the individual is on a prescribed agonist medication, and no criteria for Dependence or Abuse have been met for that class of medication for at least the past month (except tolerance to, or withdrawal from, the agonist). This category also applies to those being treated for dependence using a partial agonist or an agonist/antagonist.
  • In a Controlled Environment: This specifier is used if the individual is in an environment where access to alcohol and controlled substances is restricted, and no criteria for Dependence or Abuse have been met for at least the past month. Examples of these environments are closely supervised and substance-free jails, therapeutic communities, or locked hospital units.

Note: For an individual to qualify for Early Remission after cessation of agonist therapy or release from a controlled environment, there must be a 1-month period in which none of the criteria for Dependence or Abuse are met.

Criteria for Substance Abuse

Criteria for Substance Intoxication

Criteria for Substance Withdrawal

Cocaine-Related Disorders

Diagnostic Criteria for Cocaine Intoxication

if

Diagnostic Criteria for Cocaine Withdrawal

Opioid-Related Disorders

Diagnostic Criteria for Opioid Intoxication

hallucinations with intact reality testing or auditory, visual, or tactile illusions that occur in the absence of a delirium.

Diagnostic Criteria for Opioid Withdrawal

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