Table 6.6Variables associated with higher or lower abstinence rates

Variables associated with higher abstinence rates
Variable Examples
High motivation

Ready to change

Moderate to high self-efficacy

Supportive social network
Tobacco user reports a strong motivation to quit.

Tobacco user is ready to quit within a 1-month period.

Tobacco user is confident in his or her ability to quit.

A smoke-free workplace and home; friends who do not smoke in the quitter's presence.
Variables associated with lower abstinence rates
Variable Examples
High nicotine dependence

Psychiatric comorbidity and substance use

High stress level

Exposure to other smokers
Tobacco user smokes heavily ( ≥ 20 cigarettes/day), and/or has first cigarette of the day within 30 minutes after waking in the morning.

Tobacco user currently has elevated depressive symptoms, active alcohol abuse, or schizophrenia.

Stressful life circumstances and/or recent or anticipated major life changes (e.g., divorce, job change).

Other smokers in the household.

From: 6, Evidence and Recommendations

Cover of Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence: 2008 Update
Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence: 2008 Update.
Tobacco Use and Dependence Guideline Panel.

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