Figure 4. Neural crest-mesoderm boundary in the head.

Figure 4

Neural crest-mesoderm boundary in the head. A) The location of the neural crest-mesoderm interface is shown at a stage following the initial translocation of neural crest cells but before the secondary movements associated with muscle morphogenesis. Listed are tissue types derived in amniotes from either neural crest or mesoderm exclusively, or from both of these mesenchymal populations. B) The extent and boundaries of neural crest contributions to the avian skull are shown in a bisected head from a 14-day chick embryo whose neural plate, including neural crest precursors, and surface ectoderm were washed with a replication-incompetent retrovirus containing the LacZ (β galactosidase) reporter gene. Note the complete labeling (blue stain) of frontonasal, maxillary, mandibular, and other pharyngeal arch skeletal structures in addition to sensory ganglia such as the trigeminal (n.V). The red arrow points to the site of the neural crest-mesoderm boundary between rostral and calvarial parts of the frontal bone. Asterisk (*) denotes labeled cells within a semicircular duct, which is derived from the otic placode. C) Schematic showing the contributions of mesodermal and neural crest mesenchyme to the cartilages and bones in the avian head skeleton based on data from quail-chick chimeras and retroviral labeling. D) Neural crest-derived tissues in a Wnt1-Cre/R26R transgenic mouse embryo appear blue following X-Gal staining. Bones are also stained with Alizarin Red. Image courtesy of G. Morriss-Kay. E) Schematic of neural crest contributions to the mouse head skeleton as extrapolated from transgenic data. Redrawn from reference 175. Abbreviations are as follows: Als = Alisphenoid; Bs = Basisphenoid; Eth = Ethmoid; Nc = Nasal capsule; Os = Orbitosphenoid; Ps = Parasphenoid; Pls = Pleurosphenoid; Po = Postorbital; Prf = Prefrontal; Ptr = Pterygoid; Qju = Quadratojugal; Sq = Squamosal; Supraoccip = Supraoccipital; n.V = Trigeminal Nerve.

From: Neural Crest Cells and the Community of Plan for Craniofacial Development: Historical Debates and Current Perspectives

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