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Institute of Medicine (US) Forum on Microbial Threats. The Causes and Impacts of Neglected Tropical and Zoonotic Diseases: Opportunities for Integrated Intervention Strategies. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2011.

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The Causes and Impacts of Neglected Tropical and Zoonotic Diseases: Opportunities for Integrated Intervention Strategies.

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EForum Member Biographies

David A. Relman, M.D. (Chair), is the Thomas C. and Joan M. Merigan Professor in the Departments of Medicine and of Microbiology and Immunology at Stanford University, and Chief of Infectious Diseases at the VA Palo Alto Health Care System in Palo Alto, California. He received an S.B. (biology) from Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1977), received his M.D. (magna cum laude) from Harvard Medical School (1982), completed his clinical training in internal medicine and infectious diseases at Massachusetts General Hospital, served as a postdoctoral fellow in microbiology at Stanford University, and joined the faculty at Stanford in 1994.

Dr. Relman's current research focus is the human indigenous microbiota (microbiome) and, in particular, the nature and mechanisms of variation in patterns of microbial diversity within the human body as a function of time (microbial succession), space (biogeography within the host landscape), and in response to perturbation, for example, antibiotics (community robustness and resilience). One of the goals of this work is to define the role of the human microbiome in health and disease. This research integrates theory and methods from ecology, population biology, environmental microbiology, genomics, and clinical medicine. During the past few decades, his research directions have also included pathogen discovery and the development of new strategies for identifying previously unrecognized microbial agents of disease. This work helped to spearhead the application of molecular methods to the diagnosis of infectious diseases in the 1990s. His research has emphasized the use of genomic approaches for exploring host–microbe relationships. Past scientific achievements include the description of a novel approach for identifying previously unknown pathogens; the identification of a number of new human microbial pathogens, including the agent of Whipple's disease; and some of the most extensive and revealing analyses to date of the human indigenous microbial ecosystem.

Dr. Relman advises the U.S. government, as well as nongovernmental organizations, in matters pertaining to microbiology, emerging infectious diseases, and biosecurity. He is a member of the National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity, a member of the Physical and Life Sciences Directorate Review Committee for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and he advises several U.S. government departments and agencies on matters related to pathogen diversity, the future life sciences landscape, and the nature of present and future biological threats. He has served as Chair of the Board of Scientific Counselors of the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (National Institutes of Health [NIH]) and as a member of the Board of Directors, Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA). Dr. Relman is currently Vice-Chair of a National Academy of Sciences (NAS) study of the science underlying the Federal Bureau of Investigation investigation of the 2001 anthrax mailings, and he co-chaired a three-year NAS study that produced a widely cited report titled Globalization, Biosecurity, and the Future of the Life Sciences (2006). He is a Fellow of the American Academy of Microbiology and a member of the Association of American Physicians. Dr. Relman received the Squibb Award from the IDSA in 2001 and was the recipient of both the NIH Director's Pioneer Award and the Distinguished Clinical Scientist Award from the Doris Duke Charitable Foundation in 2006.

James M. Hughes, M.D. (Vice-Chair), is professor of medicine and public health at Emory University's School of Medicine and Rollins School of Public Health, serving as director of the Emory Program in Global Infectious Diseases, executive director of the Southeastern Center for Emerging Biological Threats, and senior advisor to the Emory Center for Global Safe Water. He is the senior scientific advisor for infectious diseases to the International Association of National Public Health Institutes funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Prior to joining Emory in June 2005, Dr. Hughes served as director of the National Center for Infectious Diseases (NCID) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Dr. Hughes received his B.A. and M.D. degrees from Stanford University and completed postgraduate training in internal medicine at the University of Washington, infectious diseases at the University of Virginia, and preventive medicine at CDC. After joining CDC as an Epidemic Intelligence Service officer in 1973, Dr. Hughes worked initially on food-borne and water-related diseases and subsequently on infection control in health care settings. He served as director of CDC's Hospital Infections Program from 1983 to 1988, as deputy director of NCID from 1988 to 1992, and as director of NCID from 1992 to 2005. A major focus of Dr. Hughes' career is on building partnerships among the clinical, research, public health, and veterinary communities to prevent and respond to infectious diseases at the national and global levels. His research interests include emerging and reemerging infectious diseases, antimicrobial resistance, food-borne diseases, health care–associated infections, vector-borne and zoonotic diseases, rapid detection of and response to infectious diseases and bioterrorism, strengthening public health capacity at the local, national, and global levels, and prevention of water-related diseases in the developing world. Dr. Hughes is a fellow and Council Delegate of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), a fellow of the American College of Physicians and IDSA, President of IDSA, Councilor of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, and a member of the International Board of the American Society for Microbiology (ASM). He is a member of the Institute of Medicine (IOM).

Lonnie J. King, D.V.M. (Vice-Chair), is the 10th dean of the College of Veterinary Medicine at The Ohio State University (OSU). In addition to leading this college, Dr. King is also a professor of preventive medicine and holds the Ruth Stanton Endowed Chair in Veterinary Medicine. Before becoming dean at OSU, he was the director of CDC's new National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED). In this new position, Dr. King leads the Center's activities for surveillance, diagnostics, disease investigations, epidemiology, research, public education, policy development, and diseases prevention and control programs. NCZVED also focuses on water-borne, food-borne, vector-borne, and zoonotic diseases of public health concern, which also include most of CDC's select and bioterrorism agents, neglected tropical diseases, and emerging zoonoses. Before serving as director, he was the first chief of the agency's Office of Strategy and Innovation.

Dr. King served as dean of the College of Veterinary Medicine, Michigan State University, from 1996 to 2006. As at OSU, he served as the CEO for academic programs, research, the teaching hospital, the diagnostic center for population and animal health, basic and clinical science departments, and the outreach and continuing education programs. As dean and professor of large-animal clinical sciences, Dr. King was instrumental in obtaining funds for the construction of a $60 million Diagnostic Center for Population and Animal Health; he initiated the Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases in the college, he served as the campus leader in food safety, and he had oversight for the National Food Safety and Toxicology Center.

In 1992, Dr. King was appointed administrator for the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), in Washington, DC. In this role, he provided executive leadership and direction for ensuring the health and care of animals and plants, to improve agricultural productivity and competitiveness, and to contribute to the national economy and public health. Dr. King also served as the country's chief veterinary officer for five years, worked extensively in global trade agreements within the North American Free Trade Agreement and the World Trade Organization, and worked extensively with the World Animal Health Association. During this time he was the Deputy Administrator for Veterinary Services of APHIS, USDA, where he led national efforts in disease eradication, imports and exports, and diagnostics in both Ames, Iowa, and Plum Island. He spent five years in Hyattsville, Maryland, in staff assignments in Emergency Programs, as well as Animal Health Information. While in Hyattsville, Dr. King directed the development of the agency's National Animal Health Monitoring System. He left APHIS briefly to serve as the director of the Governmental Relations Division of the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) in Washington, DC, and served as the lobbyist for the AVMA on Capitol Hill.

Dr. King was in private veterinary practice for seven years in Dayton, Ohio, and Atlanta, Georgia. As a native of Wooster, Ohio, Dr. King received his B.S. and D.V.M. from OSU in 1966 and 1970, respectively. He earned his M.S. in epidemiology from the University of Minnesota and received his M.P.A. from American University in Washington, DC, in 1991. Dr. King is a board-certified member of the American College of Veterinary Preventive Medicine and has completed the Senior Executive Fellowship program at Harvard University. He served as president of the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges from 1999 to 2000 and was the Vice-Chair for the National Commission on Veterinary Economic Issues from 2000 to 2004. He has served on four NAS committees, including chairing the National Academies' Committee on Assessing the Nation's Framework for Addressing Animal Diseases. He is also Chair of the IOM Committee on Lyme Disease and Other Tick-Borne Diseases and for State of the Science, and he is also chairing the AVMA's Commission for AVMA Vision 2020. Dr. King is currently a member of the IOM Committee on Microbial Threats to Health, is a past member of the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Board of Scientific Advisors, and is past President of the American Veterinary Epidemiology Society. He served as the Chair for the national One Medicine Task Force for the AVMA, which helped start the country's One Health Initiative. Dr. King was elected as a member of the IOM of the National Academies in 2004.

Kevin Anderson, Ph.D., serves as a Senior Program Manager in the Department of Homeland Security's (DHS's) Science and Technology Directorate, providing oversight and requirements for science programs focused on rapid detection and characterization of biological agents. Since joining DHS in 2003, Dr. Anderson has provided leadership for science program development, laboratory design and strategic planning, served as a subject matter expert and advisor to the Bioterrorism Risk Assessment and Biological Threat Characterization programs, and has participated in interagency working groups and assessments which provide guidance to medical countermeasure development, a key component of the nation's biodefense strategy. Prior to joining DHS, Dr. Anderson was a Principal Investigator at the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, leading research focused on understanding basic mechanisms of viral diseases causing hemorrhagic fever and development of medical countermeasures. He received postdoctoral training in molecular virology at the University of Alabama at Birmingham and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, performing basic research on human respiratory syncytial viruses, and earned Ph.D. and B.S. degrees in microbiology from Montana State University and the University of Maryland, College Park, respectively.

Ruth L. Berkelman, M.D., is the Rollins Professor and Director of the Center for Public Health Preparedness and Research at the Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, in Atlanta. She received her A.B. from Princeton University and her M.D. from Harvard Medical School. Board certified in pediatrics and internal medicine, she began her career at CDC in 1980 and later became Deputy Director of NCID. She also served as a senior advisor to the Director of CDC and as Assistant Surgeon General in the U.S. Public Health Service. In 2001 she went to her current position at Emory University, directing a center focused on emerging infectious diseases and other urgent threats to health, including terrorism. She has also consulted with the biologic program of the Nuclear Threat Initiative and is most recognized for her work in infectious diseases and disease surveillance. She was elected to the IOM in 2004. Currently a member of the Board on Life Sciences of the National Academies, she also chairs the Board of Public and Scientific Affairs at the ASM.

Enriqueta C. Bond, Ph.D., is president emeritus of the Burroughs Wellcome Fund. Dr. Bond is currently a partner in QE Philanthropic Advisors, LLC, an organization that provides consulting services to foundations and nonprofits on matters of program, strategic planning, and capacity development related to medical sciences, international health, and science and math K–12 education. She received her undergraduate degree from Wellesley College, her M.A. from the University of Virginia, and her Ph.D. in molecular biology and biochemical genetics from Georgetown University. She is a member of the IOM and a fellow of the AAAS. Dr. Bond chairs the Academies' Board on African Science Academy Development and serves on the NRC Committee on the Future of the Research University. She serves on the board and executive committee of the Hamner Institute, the board of the Health Effects Institute, the board of the James B. Hunt Jr. Institute for Educational Leadership and Policy, and the NIH Council of Councils. In addition Dr. Bond serves on a scientific advisory committee for the World Health Organization (WHO) Tropical Disease Research Program. Prior to being named president of the Burroughs Wellcome Fund in 1994, Dr. Bond served on the staff of the IOM beginning in 1979, becoming its Executive Officer in 1989.

Roger G. Breeze, Ph.D., received his veterinary degree in 1968 and his Ph.D. in veterinary pathology in 1973, both from the University of Glasgow, Scotland. He was engaged in teaching, diagnostic pathology, and research on respiratory and cardiovascular diseases at the University of Glasgow Veterinary School from 1968 to 1977 and at Washington State University College of Veterinary Medicine from 1977 to 1987, where he was professor and Chair of the Department of Microbiology and Pathology. From 1984 to 1987 he was Deputy Director of the Washington Technology Center, the state's high-technology sciences initiative, based in the College of Engineering at the University of Washington. In 1987, he was appointed Director of the USDA's Plum Island Animal Disease Center, a Biosafety Level 3 (BSL-3) facility for research and diagnosis of the world's most dangerous livestock diseases. In that role he initiated research into the genomic and functional genomic basis of disease pathogenesis, diagnosis, and control of livestock RNA and DNA virus infections. This work became the basis of U.S. defense against natural and deliberate infection with these agents and led to his involvement in the early 1990s in biological weapons defense and proliferation prevention. From 1995 to 1998, he directed research programs in 20 laboratories in the Southeast for USDA's Agricultural Research Service before going to Washington, DC, to establish biological weapons defense research programs for USDA. He received the Distinguished Executive Award from President Clinton in 1998 for his work at Plum Island and in biodefense. Since 2004 he has been CEO of Centaur Science Group, which provides consulting services in biodefense. His main commitment is to the Defense Threat Reduction Agency's Biological Weapons Proliferation Prevention Program in Europe, the Caucasus, and Central Asia.

Steven J. Brickner, Ph.D.,1 is an independent consultant based in southeastern Connecticut. He received his Ph.D. in organic chemistry from Cornell University and completed an NIH postdoctoral research fellowship at the University of Wisconsin, Madison. Dr. Brickner is a synthetic organic/medicinal chemist with more than 25 years of research experience focused entirely on the discovery of novel antibacterial agents during his prior tenure at Upjohn, Pharmacia & Upjohn, and Pfizer. He is co-inventor of Zyvox® (linezolid), an oxazolidinone recognized as the first member of an entirely new class of antibiotic to reach the market in the more than 35 years since the discovery of the first quinolone. Approved in 2000, linezolid has annual worldwide sales of more than US$1 billion. He initiated the oxazolidinone research program at Upjohn and led the team that discovered linezolid and clinical candidates eperezolid and PNU-100480. While at Pfizer, he led the early development team that placed the oxazolidinone PNU-100480 into clinical trials, where it is being studied as a potential treatment for tuberculosis. Dr. Brickner received an honorary doctor of science degree from the University of Notre Dame in 2010, and he was a corecipient of the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America 2007 Discoverers Award and the 2007 American Chemical Society Award for Team Innovation. He was named the 2002–2003 Outstanding Alumni Lecturer, College of Arts and Science, Miami University (Ohio). He is an inventor or co-inventor on 21 U.S. patents, has published more than 30 peer-reviewed scientific papers, and has given 25 invited speaker presentations; he has been a member of the IOM Forum on Microbial Threats since 1997. In February 2009, he established SJ Brickner Consulting, LLC, which serves various clients in offering consulting services on all aspects of medicinal chemistry and drug design related to the discovery and development of new antibiotics.

Paula R. Bryant, Ph.D., is Chief of the Medical S&T Division, Chemical and Biological Defense Program at the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) in Fort Belvoir, Virginia. As the Chief of the Medical S&T Division, Bryant interfaces with all levels of the Department of Defense and DTRA to plan, coordinate, integrate, and execute program activities necessary to provide timely and effective medical countermeasures against chemical, biological, and radiological (CBR) threats to U.S. interests worldwide. She also served as a Senior Scientist and Senior S&T Manager while at DTRA. Prior to joining DTRA, she was an Assistant Professor in the Department of Microbiology and The Ohio State University. She received her Ph.D. in microbiology and immunology from the Baylor College of Medicine.

John E. Burris, Ph.D., became president of the Burroughs Wellcome Fund in July 2008. He is the former president of Beloit College. Prior to his appointment at Beloit in 2000, Dr. Burris served for eight years as director and CEO of the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts. From 1984 to 1992 he was at the National Research Council/National Academies, where he served as the executive director of the Commission on Life Sciences. A native of Wisconsin, he received an A.B. in biology from Harvard University in 1971, attended the University of Wisconsin, Madison, in an M.D.-Ph.D. program, and received a Ph.D. in marine biology from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California, San Diego, in 1976. A professor of biology at the Pennsylvania State University from 1976 to 1985, he held an adjunct appointment there until going to Beloit. His research interests are in the areas of marine and terrestrial plant physiology and ecology. He has served as president of the American Institute of Biological Sciences and is or has been a member of a number of distinguished scientific boards and advisory committees, including the Grass Foundation; the Stazione Zoologica “Anton Dohrn” in Naples, Italy; the AAAS; and the Radiation Effects Research Foundation in Hiroshima, Japan. He has also served as a consultant to the National Conference of Catholic Bishops' Committee on Science and Human Values.

Peter Daszak, Ph.D., is President of EcoHealth Alliance (formerly Wildlife Trust), a U.S.-based organization that conducts research and field programs on global health and conservation. At Wildlife Trust, Dr. Daszak manages a headquarters staff of 35 and a global staff of more than 700, which conducts research and manages initiatives to prevent emerging pandemics and conserve wildlife biodiversity. This includes research on zoonoses that spill over from wildlife in emerging disease “hotspots,” including influenza, Nipah virus, SARS, West Nile virus, and others. Dr. Daszak's work includes identifying the first case of a species extinction due to disease; discovering chytridiomycosis, the major cause of global amphibian declines; publishing the first paper to highlight emerging diseases of wildlife; coining the term “pathogen pollution;” discovering the bat origin of SARS-like coronaviruses, identifying the drivers of Nipah and Hendra virus emergence, and producing the first ever emerging disease “hotspots” map.

Dr. Daszak is a member of the Council of Advisors of the One Health Commission, Treasurer of DIVERSITAS (ICSU), past member of the International Standing Advisory Board of the Australian Biosecurity CRC, and past member of the IOM Committee on Global Surveillance for Emerging Zoonoses and the National Research Council (NRC) committee on the future of veterinary research. He is Editor-in-Chief of the Springer journal Ecohealth, and past Treasurer and a founding director of the International Ecohealth Association. In 2000, he won the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation medal for collaborative research in the discovery of amphibian chytridiomycosis. He has published more than 130 scientific papers and book chapters, including papers in Science, Nature, PNAS, The Lancet, PLoS Biology, and other leading journals. His work has been the focus of articles in the New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, The Economist, The Washington Post, U.S. News & World Report, CBS, 60 Minutes, CNN, ABC, NPR's Talk of the Nation, and Morning Edition & Fresh Air with Terri Gross. He is a former guest worker at the CDC, where he assisted in the pathology activity during the 1999 Nipah virus outbreak. His work is funded by the John E. Fogarty International Center of NIH, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), the National Science Foundation (NSF), the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID),, Rockefeller, and other foundations. To date, his group is one of the few to have been awarded three prestigious NIH/NSF Ecology of Infectious Disease awards, and it is one of four partners to share a recent multi-million-dollar award from USAID (“PREDICT”) with the goal of predicting and preventing the next emerging zoonotic disease.

Jeffrey Duchin, M.D., is Chief of the Communicable Disease Epidemiology & Immunization Section for Public Health–Seattle & King County, Washington, and Associate Professor of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases (adjunct Associate Professor in the School of Public Health and Community Medicine) at the University of Washington.

Dr. Duchin trained in internal medicine at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital followed by a fellowship in general internal medicine and emergency medicine at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania. He did his infectious disease subspecialty training at the University of Washington. Dr. Duchin is a graduate of CDC's Epidemic Intelligence Service, assigned to the NCID. He subsequently worked for CDC as a medical epidemiologist in the Divisions of Tuberculosis Elimination and HIV/AIDS Special Studies Branch before assuming his current position.

Dr. Duchin is a member of the IOM's Forum on Medical and Public Health Preparedness for Catastrophic Events and a current member of the CDC's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). He is a Fellow of the Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) and of the American College of Physicians; a member of the IDSA's National and Global Public Health Committee and Pandemic Influenza Task Force; and is past-Chair of the IDSA's Bioemergencies Task Force. Dr. Duchin serves on the Editorial Board and Technical Advisory Group for Communicable Disease Alert and Response to Mass Gatherings for WHO and previously served as a member of the Department of Health and Human Services 2004 Tiger Team consulting with the Government of Greece on health preparations for the 2004 Olympics, in Athens, Greece.

Dr. Duchin's peer review publications and research interests focus on communicable diseases of public health significance, and he has authored text book chapters on the epidemiology of HIV/AIDS, bioterrorism, and outbreak investigations.

Jonathan Eisen, Ph.D., is a Professor at the Genome Center at the University of California (UC), Davis and holds appointments in the Department of Evolution and Ecology in the College of Biological Sciences and Medical Microbiology and Immunology in the School of Medicine.

His research focuses on the mechanisms underlying the origin of novelty (how new processes and functions originate). Most of his work involves the use of high-throughput DNA sequencing methods to characterize microbes and then the use and development of computational methods to analyze this type of data. In particular, his computational work has focused on integrating evolutionary analysis with genome analysis—so-called phylogenomics. Previously, he applied this phylogenomic approach to cultured organisms, such as those from extreme environments and those with key properties as they relate to evolution or global climate cycles. Currently he is using sequencing and phylogenomic methods to study microbes directly in their natural habitats (i.e., without culturing). In particular he focuses on how communities of microbes interact with each other or with plant and animal hosts to create new functions. Dr. Eisen is also coordinating one of the largest microbial genome sequencing projects to date—the “Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea” being done at the Department of Energy (DOE) Joint Genome Institute, where he holds an Adjunct Appointment.

In addition to his research, Dr. Eisen is also a vocal advocate for “open access” to scientific publications and is the Academic Editor-in-Chief of PLoS Biology. He is also an active and award-winning blogger/microblogger (e.g., and Prior to moving to UC Davis he was on the faculty of The Institute for Genomic Research (TIGR) in Rockville, Maryland. He earned his Ph.D. in biological sciences from Stanford University, where he worked on the evolution of DNA repair processes in the lab of Philip C. Hanawalt, and his undergraduate degree in biology from Harvard College.

Mark B. Feinberg, M.D., Ph.D., is vice president for medical affairs and policy in global vaccine and infectious diseases at Merck & Co., Inc., and is responsible for global efforts to implement vaccines to achieve the greatest health benefits, including efforts to expand access to new vaccines in the developing world. Dr. Feinberg received a bachelor's degree magna cum laude from the University of Pennsylvania in 1978 and his M.D. and Ph.D. degrees from Stanford University School of Medicine in 1987. His Ph.D. research at Stanford was supervised by Dr. Irving Weissman and included time spent studying the molecular biology of the human retroviruses—human T-cell lymphotrophic virus, type I (HTLV-I) and HIV—as a visiting scientist in the laboratory of Dr. Robert Gallo at the National Cancer Institute. From 1985 to 1986, Dr. Feinberg served as a project officer for the IOM Committee on a National Strategy for AIDS. After receiving his M.D. and Ph.D. degrees, Dr. Feinberg pursued postgraduate residency training in internal medicine at the Brigham and Women's Hospital of Harvard Medical School and postdoctoral fellowship research in the laboratory of Dr. David Baltimore at the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research. From 1991 to 1995, Dr. Feinberg was an assistant professor of medicine and microbiology and immunology at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), where he also served as an attending physician in the AIDS-oncology division and as director of the virology research laboratory at San Francisco General Hospital. From 1995 to 1997, Dr. Feinberg was a medical officer in the Office of AIDS Research in the Office of the Director of the NIH, the chair of the NIH Coordinating Committee on AIDS Etiology and Pathogenesis Research, and an attending physician at the NIH Clinical Center. During this period, he also served as Executive Secretary of the NIH Panel to Define Principles of Therapy of HIV Infection. Prior to joining Merck in 2004, Dr. Feinberg served as Professor of Medicine and Microbiology and immunology at the Emory University School of Medicine, as an investigator at the Emory Vaccine Center, and as an attending physician at Grady Memorial Hospital. At UCSF and Emory, Dr. Feinberg and colleagues were engaged in the preclinical development and evaluation of novel vaccines for HIV and other infectious diseases and in basic research studies focused on revealing fundamental aspects of the pathogenesis of AIDS. Dr. Feinberg also founded and served as the medical director of the Hope Clinic of the Emory Vaccine Center—a clinical research facility devoted to the clinical evaluation of novel vaccines and to translational research studies of human immune system biology. In addition to his other professional roles, Dr. Feinberg has also served as a consultant to, and a member of, several IOM and NAS committees. Dr. Feinberg currently serves as a member of the National Vaccine Advisory Committee and is a member of the Board of Trustees of the National Foundation for Infectious Diseases. Dr. Feinberg has earned board certification in internal medicine; he is a fellow of the American College of Physicians, a member of the Association of American Physicians, and the recipient of an Elizabeth Glaser Scientist Award from the Pediatric AIDS Foundation and an Innovation in Clinical Research Award from the Doris Duke Charitable Foundation.

Jacqueline Fletcher, Ph.D., Regents Professor of Plant Pathology at Oklahoma State University, received a B.S. in biology from Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, a M.S. in botany from the University of Montana, and a Ph.D. in plant pathology from Texas A&M University. She served as a postdoctoral associate at the University of Illinois before joining OSU in 1984, where she was appointed Sarkeys Distinguished Professor in 2001 and Regents Professor in 2008. She was named a fellow of the American Phytopathological Society (APS) in 2005 and a fellow of AAAS in 2007.

Dr. Fletcher is Director of the National Institute for Microbial Forensics and Food and Agricultural Biosecurity (NIMFFAB), a multidisciplinary OSU initiative that addresses high-priority national issues in research, teaching/education, and outreach with emphases in microbial forensics applications in plant pathology and produce safety. The NIMFFAB serves as a spoke laboratory for the Department of Homeland Security (DHS)-affiliated National Bioforensic Analysis Center, in the area of plant pathogen forensics. Dr. Fletcher's research focuses on mechanisms of virulence and insect transmission of plant pathogenic bacteria; on the relationships between human pathogens, such as Salmonella and Escherichia coli, and plants; and on the emerging disciplines of microbial forensics and agricultural biosecurity.

Dr. Fletcher served on the APS Council for 10 years, including the 4-year APS presidential sequence. In the months following September 11, 2001, Dr. Fletcher led APS responses and input to new national biosecurity initiatives. She has served for 9 years on the APS Public Policy Board (4 years as chair) and is currently on the APS Threatening Pathogens Advisory Committee. She also serves on several federal biosecurity advisory panels.

S. Elizabeth George, Ph.D.,2 is director of the Biological Countermeasures Portfolio within the Science and Technology Directorate in DHS. Until it merged into the new department in 2003, she was Program Manager of the Chemical and Biological National Security Program in DOE's National Nuclear Security Administration's Office of Nonproliferation Research and Engineering. Significant accomplishments include the design and deployment of BioWatch, the nation's first civilian biological threat agent monitoring system, and PROTECT, the first civilian operational chemical detection and response capability deployed in the Washington, DC, area subway system. Previously, she spent 16 years at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Office of Research and Development, National Health and Ecological Effects Research Laboratory, Environmental Carcinogenesis Division, where she was Branch Chief of the Molecular and Cellular Toxicology Branch. She received her B.S. in biology in 1977 from Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University and her M.S. and Ph.D. in microbiology in 1979 and 1984, respectively, from North Carolina State University. From 1984 to 1986, she was an NRC fellow in the laboratory of Dr. Larry Claxton at EPA. Dr. George is the 2005 chair of the Chemical and Biological Terrorism Defense Gordon Research Conference. She has served as Councillor for the Environmental Mutagen Society and President and Decretary of the Genotoxicity and Environmental Mutagen Society. She holds memberships in the ASM and the AAAS and is an adjunct faculty member in the School of Rural Public Health, Texas A&M University. She is a recipient of the EPA Bronze Medal and Scientific and Technological Achievement Awards and the Department of Homeland Security Under Secretary's Award for Science and Technology. She is the author of numerous journal articles and has presented her research at national and international meetings.

Jesse L. Goodman, M.D., M.P.H., became Chief Scientist and Deputy Commissioner for Science and Public Health of FDA in 2009. He has broad responsibility for and engagement in leadership and coordination of FDA's crosscutting scientific and public health efforts. From 2003 to 2009, Dr. Goodman was Director of FDA's Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, which oversees medical and public health activities critical to U.S. and global preparedness and the development, evaluation, safety, quality, and availability of biologics. A graduate of Harvard, Dr. Goodman received his M.D. from the Albert Einstein College of Medicine and did residency and fellowship training at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania and at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), where he was also Chief Medical Resident. Prior to joining FDA, he was professor of medicine and chief of infectious diseases at the University of Minnesota, where he directed the multihospital infectious diseases research, training, and clinical programs, and where his NIH-funded laboratory first isolated and characterized Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the infectious agent causing a new tickborne disease, human granulocytic ehrlichiosis. Dr. Goodman has authored numerous scientific papers and edited the book Tick Borne Diseases of Humans (ASM Press, 2005). Dr. Goodman has been elected to the American Society for Clinical Investigation and to the IOM of the NAS, where he is a long-standing member of the Forum on Microbial Threats. He is an active clinician and teacher who is board certified in internal medicine, oncology, and infectious diseases and is staff physician and infectious diseases consultant at the National Naval and Walter Reed Army Medical Centers. Dr. Goodman is adjunct professor of medicine at the University of Minnesota.

Eduardo Gotuzzo, M.D., is Principal Professor of the Department of Medicine and director of the “Alexander von Humboldt” Institute of Tropical Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Peruvian University Cayetano Heredia in Lima, Peru, and head of the Department of Transmissible Diseases at the Cayetano Heredia Hospital. He is also an Adjunct Professor of medicine at the University of Alabama, Birmingham, School of Medicine. He is Director of the International Gorgas Course in Clinical Tropical Medicine, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, taught jointly with the University of Alabama, Birmingham. He is an adjunct faculty member of the William J. Harrington Training Programs for Latin America, University of Miami School of Medicine (since 1983); was associate to the International Health Department of the Johns Hopkins University (1986–1998); and was fellow of the Center for the Americas at Vanderbilt, Vanderbilt University. Dr. Gotuzzo is an active member in numerous international societies and has been President of the Latin American Society of Tropical Disease (2000–2003); the IDSA Scientific Program (2000–2003); the International Organizing Committee of the International Congress of Infectious Diseases (1994 to present); the International Society for Infectious Diseases (1996–1998); the PanAmerican Infectious Diseases Association; the International Federation for Tropical Medicine (2005–2008); and the Peruvian Society of Internal Medicine (1991–1992). He works on several research areas and teaches on subjects including emerging diseases, TB, HTLV-1, free-living amoebas, brucellosis, and parasites. He has published more than 290 articles and chapters as well as 6 manuals and 1 book. Recent honors and awards include being named an honorary member of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene in 2002; an honorary member of the Society of Internal Medicine in 2000; and a distinguished visitor at the Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Cordoba, Argentina (1999). In 1988, Dr. Gotuzzo received the Golden Medal for Outstanding Contribution in the Field of Infectious Diseases awarded by Trnava University, Slovakia. In 2007, Dr. Gotuzzo received the Society Citation Award from the IDSA. He was an honorary member of the Australian Society for Infectious Diseases (2008), the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (2002), Academia de Medicina de México, Sociedad Nenzolana de Infectología, Sociedad Paraguaya de Infectología, and the National Academy of Medicine of Mexico (2010).

Carole A. Heilman, Ph.D., serves as director of the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (DMID) of NIAID, a component of NIH. DMID supports research to prevent and control diseases caused by virtually all human infectious agents (except HIV), including bacterial, viral, parasitic, and prion diseases. DMID supports a wide variety of projects spanning the spectrum from basic biology of human pathogens and their interaction with human hosts, through translational and clinical research, toward the development of new and improved diagnostics, drugs, and vaccines for infectious diseases. As director, Dr. Heilman provides scientific direction, oversight, and management for an extramural research portfolio that encompasses 300 different organisms.

DMID supports the nation's biodefense as well as a solid research infrastructure that readily responds to public health challenges, such as emerging diseases. These resources were recently mobilized to respond to the emergence of 2009 H1N1 influenza by providing the first in-depth characterization of the H1N1 pandemic virus and conducting nine clinical trials that provided safety and efficacy data to inform public health practice.

Dr. Heilman has a Ph.D. in microbiology from Rutgers University. She did her postdoctoral work in molecular virology at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and continued at the NCI as a senior staff fellow in molecular oncology. She later moved into health science administration, where she focused on respiratory pathogens, particularly vaccine development. Dr. Heilman has received numerous awards for scientific management and leadership, including three Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Secretary's Awards for Distinguished Service recognizing her efforts on development of acellular pertussis vaccines, AIDS vaccines, and on accelerating biodefense research and development (R&D). Dr. Heilman serves as an infectious disease expert on the Board of Scientific Counselors for CDC. She also serves on the scientific board of the Fondation Mérieux's annual Advanced Course of Vaccinology and is a lecturer in this highly selective training program for decision makers in vaccinology. Throughout her career, Dr. Heilman has been a pioneer supporting the advancement of women in biomedical careers and serves as a mentor to a number of women within and outside of NIAID.

David L. Heymann, M.D., is currently Chair of the Health Protection Agency, United Kingdom; Professor and Chair, infectious disease epidemiology, at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine; and Head of the Global Health Security Programme at Chatham House, London. Until April 2009, he was Assistant Director-General for Health Security Environment and Representative of the director-general for Polio Eradication at WHO. Prior to that, from July 1998 until July 2003, he was Executive Director of the WHO Communicable Diseases Cluster, which included WHO's programs on infectious and tropical diseases, and from which the public health response to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was mounted in 2003. From October 1995 to July 1998, he was Director of the WHO Programme on Emerging and Other Communicable Diseases, and prior to that he was the Chief of Research Activities in the WHO Global Programme on AIDS. Dr. Heymann has worked in the area of public health for the past 35 years, 25 of which were on various assignments from CDC, and 10 of which have been with WHO. Before joining WHO, Dr. Heymann worked for 13 years as a medical epidemiologist in sub-Saharan Africa (Cameroon, Côte d'Ivoire, Malawi, and the Democratic Republic of Congo, formerly Zaire) on assignment from CDC in CDC-supported activities. These activities aimed at strengthening capacity in surveillance of infectious diseases and their control, with special emphasis on the childhood immunizable diseases, including measles and polio, African hemorrhagic fevers, poxviruses, and malaria. While based in Africa, Dr. Heymann participated in the investigation of the first outbreak of Ebola in Yambuku (former Zaire) in 1976, then again investigated the second outbreak of Ebola in 1977 in Tandala, and in 1995 directed the international response to the Ebola outbreak in Kikwit for WHO. Prior to assignments in Africa, he was assigned for two years to India as a medical epidemiologist in the WHO Smallpox Eradication Programme. Dr. Heymann's educational qualifications include a B.A. from the Pennsylvania State University, an M.D. from Wake Forest University, a Diploma in Tropical Medicine and Hygiene from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, and practical epidemiology training in the two-year Epidemic Intelligence Service of CDC. He is a member of the IOM; he was awarded the 2004 Award for Excellence of American Public Health Association, the 2005 Donald Mackay Award from the American Society for Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, and the 2007 Heinz Award on the Human Condition. In 2009 he was appointed an honorary Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire for services to global public health, and he was recently elected a fellow of the Academy of Medical Sciences in the United Kingdom. Dr. Heymann has been Visiting Professor at Stanford University, the University of Southern California, and the George Washington University School of Public Health; has published more than 145 scientific articles on infectious diseases and related issues in peer-reviewed medical and scientific journals; and has authored several chapters on infectious diseases in medical textbooks. He is currently the editor of the 19th edition of the Control of Communicable Diseases Manual, a joint publication of the American Public Health Association and WHO.

Philip Hosbach currently holds the position of Vice President of Immunization Policy and Government Relations at sanofi pasteur. The departments under his supervision are state government affairs, federal government affairs, medical communications, strategic advocacy, and immunization initiatives. His responsibilities include oversight of both public policy and immunization policy development. Mr. Hosbach acts as sanofi pasteur's principle liaison with CDC. He is currently coordinating sanofi pasteur's global efforts in responding to the emerging H1N1 pandemic. He is a graduate of Lafayette College (1984); shortly after that he began his professional career in the pharmaceutical industry with American Home Products. That career has now spanned 25 years, including the past 22 years focused solely on vaccines. Mr. Hosbach joined sanofi pasteur (then Connaught Labs) in 1987 in Clinical Research and held positions of increasing responsibility, including Director of Clinical Operations. While in Clinical Research, he also served as project manager for the development and licensure of Tripedia, the first diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine approved by FDA for use in U.S. infants. During his clinical research career at sanofi pasteur, he contributed to the development and licensure of seven vaccines. Following his work in clinical research, Mr. Hosbach took a position in the commercial operations area of sanofi pasteur and quickly moved through the ranks on the business administration side of the vaccine division. During that time, Mr. Hosbach led a number of departments within sanofi pasteur, gaining valuable business experience within U.S. Commercial Operations. The departments he led during that time included Public Health Sales and Marketing, Public Relations, Public Affairs, New Product Marketing, and Business Intelligence. He has been a member of the IOM Forum on Microbial Threats since 2005 and has been a Steering Committee member of the Influenza Summit, which is jointly sponsored by CDC and the American Medical Association, since its inception. Since 2000 Mr. Hosbach has served on the Board of Directors for Pocono Medical Center and Pocono Health Systems, located in East Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania. He also serves as Chairman of the Compensation Committee.

Stephen A. Johnston, Ph.D., is currently director of the Center for Innovations in Medicine in the Biodesign Institute at Arizona State University. His center focuses on formulating and implementing disruptive technologies for basic problems in health care. The center has three divisions: Genomes to Vaccines, Cancer Eradication, and DocInBox. Genomes to Vaccines has developed high-throughput systems to screen for vaccine candidates and is applying them to predict and produce chemical vaccines. The Cancer Eradication group is working on formulating a universal prophylactic vaccine for cancer. DocInBox is developing technologies to facilitate presymptomatic diagnosis. Dr. Johnston founded the Center for Biomedical Inventions (also known as the Center for Translation Research) at the University of Texas, Southwestern, the first center of its kind in the medical arena. He and his colleagues have developed numerous inventions and innovations, including the gene gun, genetic immunization, the tobacco etch virus protease system, organelle transformation, digital optical chemistry arrays, expression library immunization, linear expression elements, synbodies, immunosignaturing diagnosis, and others. He also was involved in transcription research for years, first cloning Gal4 and later discovering functional domains in transcription factors and the connection of the proteasome to transcription. He has been Professor at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas and Associate and Assistant Professor at Duke University. He has been involved in several capacities as an adviser on biosecurity since 1996 and is a founding member of BioChem 20/20.

Kent Kester, M.D., is currently the commander of the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR) in Silver Spring, Maryland. Dr. Kester holds an undergraduate biology degree from Bucknell University (1982) and an M.D. from Jefferson Medical College (1986). He completed his internship and residency in internal medicine at the University of Maryland Hospital/Baltimore VA Medical Center (1989) and a fellowship in infectious diseases at the Walter Reed Army Medical Center (1995). A malaria vaccine researcher with more than 50 authored or coauthored scientific manuscripts and book chapters, Dr. Kester has played a major role in the development of the candidate falciparum malaria vaccine known as RTS,S, having safely conducted the largest number of experimental malaria challenge studies ever attempted to date. Dr. Kester's previous military medical research assignments have included Director of the WRAIR Malaria Serology Reference Laboratory; Chief, Clinical Malaria Vaccine Development Program; Chief of the WRAIR Clinical Trials Center; and Director of the WRAIR Division of Regulated Activities. He currently is a member of the Steering Committee of the NIAID/Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, as well as multiple NIAID Safety Monitoring Committees. He also serves as the consultant to the U.S. Army Surgeon General in Medical Research and Development. Board certified in both internal medicine and infectious diseases, Dr. Kester is also a fellow of both the American College of Physicians and the IDSA. He holds faculty appointments at both the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences and the University of Maryland School of Medicine.

Gerald T. Keusch, M.D., is Associate Provost and Associate Dean for Global Health at Boston University and Boston University School of Public Health. He is a graduate of Columbia College (1958) and Harvard Medical School (1963). After completing a residency in internal medicine, fellowship training in infectious diseases, and two years as an NIH research associate at the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization Medical Research Laboratory in Bangkok, Thailand, Dr. Keusch joined the faculty of the Mt. Sinai School of Medicine in 1970, where he established a laboratory to study the pathogenesis of bacillary dysentery and the biology and biochemistry of Shiga toxin. In 1979 he moved to Tufts Medical School and New England Medical Center in Boston to found the Division of Geographic Medicine, which focused on the molecular and cellular biology of tropical infectious diseases. In 1986 he integrated the clinical infectious diseases program into the Division of Geographic Medicine and Infectious Diseases, continuing as Division Chief until 1998. He has worked in the laboratory and in the field in Latin America, Africa, and Asia on basic and clinical infectious diseases and HIV/AIDS research. From 1998 to 2003, he was Associate Director for International Research and Director of the Fogarty International Center at NIH. Dr. Keusch is a member of the American Society for Clinical Investigation, the Association of American Physicians, the ASM, and the IDSA. He has received the Squibb (1981), Finland (1997), and Bristol (2002) awards of the IDSA. In 2002 he was elected to the IOM.

Rima F. Khabbaz, M.D., is Deputy Director for Infectious Diseases at CDC. Prior to her current position, she served as Director of CDC's National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases and held other leadership positions across the agency's infectious disease national centers. She is a graduate of the American University of Beirut, Lebanon, where she obtained both her bachelor's degree in science and her medical doctorate degree. She trained in internal medicine and completed a fellowship in infectious diseases at the University of Maryland, Baltimore. She joined CDC in 1980 as an Epidemic Intelligence Service Officer, working in the Hospital Infections Program. During her CDC career, she has made major contributions to advance infectious disease prevention, including leadership in defining the epidemiology of non-HIV retroviruses (HTLV-I and II) in the United States and developing guidance for counseling HTLV-infected persons, establishing national surveillance for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome following the 1993 U.S. outbreak, and developing CDC's blood safety and food safety programs related to viral diseases. She has also played key roles in CDC's responses to outbreaks of new and/or reemerging viral infections, including Nipah, Ebola, West Nile, SARS, and monkeypox, as well as the 2001 anthrax attacks. She is a fellow of the IDSA and member of the American Epidemiologic Society, the ASM, and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists. She served on IDSA's Annual Meeting Scientific Program Committee and currently serves on the society's National and Global Public Health Committee. In addition to her CDC position, she serves as Clinical Associate Professor of medicine (infectious diseases) at Emory University. She is a graduate of the National Preparedness Leadership Initiative at Harvard University and of the Public Health Leadership Institute at the University of North Carolina.

Stanley M. Lemon, M.D., is Professor of Medicine at the University of North Carolina, School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina. He received his undergraduate A.B. degree in biochemical sciences from Princeton University summa cum laude and his M.D. with honors from the University of Rochester. He completed postgraduate training in internal medicine and infectious diseases at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, and is board certified in both. From 1977 to 1983 he served with the U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command, followed by a 14-year period on the faculty of the University of North Carolina, School of Medicine. He moved to the University of Texas Medical Branch in 1997, serving first as Chair of the Department of Microbiology and Immunology, then as Dean of the School of Medicine from 1999 to 2004. Dr. Lemon's research interests relate to the molecular virology and pathogenesis of the positive-stranded RNA viruses responsible for hepatitis. He has had a longstanding interest in antiviral and vaccine development and has served as Chair of FDA's Anti-Infective Drugs Advisory Committee. He is the past Chair of the Steering Committee on Hepatitis and Poliomyelitis of the WHO Programme on Vaccine Development. He is past Chair of the NCID-CDC Board of Scientific Counselors and currently serves as a member of the U.S. Delegation to the U.S.– Japan Cooperative Medical Sciences Program. He was Co-Chair of the NAS Committee on Advances in Technology and the Prevention of Their Application to Next Generation Biowarfare Threats, and he recently chaired an IOM study committee related to vaccines for the protection of the military against naturally occurring infectious disease threats.

Edward McSweegan, Ph.D., is a Program Officer at NIAID. He graduated from Boston College with a B.S. in biology in 1978. He has an M.S. in microbiology from the University of New Hampshire and a Ph.D. in microbiology from the University of Rhode Island. He was an NRC associate from 1984 to 1986 and did postdoctoral research at the Naval Medical Research Institute in Bethesda, Maryland. Dr. McSweegan served as an AAAS diplomacy fellow in the U.S. State Department from 1986 to 1988, where he helped to negotiate science and technology agreements with Poland, Hungary, and the former Soviet Union. After moving to NIH, he continued to work on international health and infectious disease projects in Egypt, Israel, India, and Russia. Currently, he manages NIAID's bilateral program with India, the Indo–U.S. Vaccine Action Program, and he represents NIAID in the HHS Biotechnology Engagement Program with Russia and related countries. He is a member of AAAS, the ASM, and the National Association of Science Writers. He is the author of numerous journal and freelance articles.

Mark A. Miller, M.D., is currently the Director of the Division of International Epidemiology and Population Studies for the Fogarty International Center at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland. He is also a Physician at the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta Regional Hospital in Bethel, Alaska, which primarily serves Native Americans. He previously served as a Medical Officer on the Children's Vaccine Initiative for WHO and CDC, and Medical Epidemiologist for the CDC National Immunizations Program and Epidemiology Program Office, Office of the Director. He also conducted research at the Armed Forces Research Institute for Medical Studies in Bangkok, Thailand, the Yale Arbovirus Research Unit, and Cornell University Medical College.

Dr. Miller received his B.A., magna cum laude, in neuroscience, biology and human ecology from Amherst College in 1983, and his M.D. from Yale University School of Medicine in 1990. He completed his internal medicine residency at Yale New Haven Hospital/Hospital of St. Raphael and became board certified in 1994. He has served as a member of many professional societies and steering committees, including the Secretary's Advisory Council on Public Health Preparedness Smallpox Modeling and several NSF, HHS, and NIH task forces. He has presented and consulted nationally and internationally for organizations including USAID, the Pan American Health Organization, and the World Bank. Dr. Miller is a reviewer for nine journals, including the Journal of Infectious Diseases, The Lancet, and the Journal of the American Public Health Association. He has won many awards, including the Distinguished Service Medal, from the U.S. Public Health Service and the CDC. He has published more than 50 scientific articles in the peer-reviewed literature, 9 books and/or book chapters, and more than 50 letters and abstracts.

Paul F. Miller, Ph.D., is Chief Scientific Officer for Antibacterials Research at Pfizer, Inc. He received his undergraduate degree in biology from LeMoyne College and subsequently earned a Ph.D. in microbiology and immunology from the Albany Medical College in 1987. Following four years of postdoctoral studies on yeast molecular genetics at NIH in Bethesda, Maryland, Dr. Miller joined the Parke-Davis Pharmaceutical Research Division of Warner-Lambert Company in Ann Arbor, Michigan, in 1990 as a senior scientist in the Infectious Diseases Department, where he developed a number of novel screens and mechanism-of-action tools. He then moved to Pfizer in 1997 as Manager of the Antibacterials Biology Research group within the Antibacterials, Immunology, and Cancer Zone at the Groton, Connecticut, research labs, and has taken on increasing responsibility since that time. In his current role, he is responsible for all antibacterial research activities through early clinical development, as well as collaboratively establishing R&D strategies in this disease area. His specific research interests and expertise include genetic mechanisms of intrinsic antibiotic resistance in bacteria as well as the use of novel genetic technologies for the elucidation of antibiotic mechanisms of action.

Stephen S. Morse, Ph.D.,3 is Professor of Epidemiology at the Mailman School of Public Health of Columbia University, and Director of the PREDICT project of the USAID Emerging Pandemic Threats program. He was also founding Director of the Columbia University Center for Public Health Preparedness. He returned to Columbia in 2000 after four years in government service as Program Manager at the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, where he codirected the Pathogen Countermeasures Program and subsequently directed the Advanced Diagnostics Program. Before going to Columbia, he was Assistant Professor of Virology at the Rockefeller University in New York, where he remains an adjunct faculty member. He is the editor of two books, Emerging Viruses (Oxford University Press, 1993; paperback, 1996), which was selected by American Scientist for its list of 100 Top Science Books of the 20th Century, and The Evolutionary Biology of Viruses (Raven Press, 1994). He was a founding Section Editor of the CDC journal Emerging Infectious Diseases and was formerly an Editor-in-Chief of the Pasteur Institute's journal Research in Virology. Dr. Morse was Chair and principal organizer of the 1989 NIAID-NIH Conference on Emerging Viruses, for which he originated the term and concept of emerging viruses/infections. He has served as a member of the IOM-NAS Committee on Emerging Microbial Threats to Health, chaired its Task Force on Viruses, and was a contributor to the resulting report Emerging Infections (1992). He has served on a number of NAS and IOM committees, including the IOM Committee on Xenograft Transplantation. Dr. Morse also served as an adviser to WHO and several government agencies. He is a fellow of the AAAS, the New York Academy of Sciences (and a past Chair of its microbiology section), the American Academy of Microbiology, the American College of Epidemiology, and an elected life member of the Council on Foreign Relations. He was the founding Chair of ProMED, the nonprofit international Program to Monitor Emerging Diseases, and was one of the originators of ProMED-mail, an international network inaugurated by ProMED in 1994 for outbreak reporting and disease monitoring using the Internet. Dr. Morse received his Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin, Madison.

George Poste, Ph.D., D.V.M., is Chief Scientist, Complex Adaptive Systems Initiative, and Del E. Webb Professor of Health Innovation at Arizona State University (ASU). He assumed this post in 2009. From 2003 to 2009 he directed and built the Biodesign Institute at ASU. In addition to his academic post, he serves on the Board of Directors of Monsanto, Exelixis, Caris Life Sciences, LGC, and the Scientific Advisory Board of Synthetic Genomics. From 1992 to 1999 he was Chief Science and Technology Officer and President, R&D, of SmithKline Beecham (SB). During his tenure at SB he was associated with the successful registration of 31 drug, vaccine, and diagnostic products. In 2004 he was named “R&D Scientist of the Year” by R&D Magazine, in 2006 he received the Einstein award from the Global Business Leadership Council, and in 2009 he received the Scrip Lifetime Achievement award voted by the leadership of the global pharmaceutical industry.

He has published more than 350 research papers and edited 14 books on pharmaceutical technologies and oncology. He has received honorary degrees in science, law, and medicine for his research contributions and was honored in 1999 by Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II as a Commander of the British Empire for his contributions to international security. He is a Fellow of the Royal Society, the Royal College of Pathologists, and the U.K. Academy of Medicine; a Distinguished Fellow at the Hoover Institution, Stanford University; and a member of the Council on Foreign Relations. He has served on numerous government panels related to biosecurity and national competitiveness.

John C. Pottage, Jr., M.D., is the Chief Scientific and Medical Officer at ViiV Healthcare, where he oversees R&D, Regulatory, Safety and Medical Affairs. From 2007–2010 he was vice president for Global Clinical Development in the Infectious Disease Medicine Development Center at GlaxoSmithKline. Previously he was senior vice president and chief medical officer at Achillion Pharmaceuticals in New Haven, Connecticut. Achillion is a small biotechnology company devoted to the discovery and development of medicines for HIV, hepatitis C virus, and resistant antibiotics. Dr. Pottage initially joined Achillion in May 2002. Prior to Achillion, Dr. Pottage was medical director of Antivirals at Vertex Pharmaceuticals. During this time he also served as an associate attending physician at the Tufts New England Medical Center in Boston. From 1984 to 1998, Dr. Pottage was a faculty member at Rush Medical College in Chicago, where he held the position of associate professor, and also served as the medical director of the Outpatient HIV Clinic at Rush-Presbyterian-St. Luke's Medical Center. While at Rush, Dr. Pottage was the recipient of several teaching awards and is a member of the Mark Lepper Society. Dr. Pottage is a graduate of St. Louis University School of Medicine and Colgate University.

Gary A. Roselle, M.D., is Program Director for Infectious Diseases for the VA Central Office in Washington, DC, as well as the Chief of the Medical Service at the Cincinnati VA Medical Center. He is a Professor of Medicine in the Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, at the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine. Dr. Roselle serves on several national advisory committees. In addition, he is currently heading the Emerging Pathogens Initiative for the VA. He has received commendations from the Under Secretary for Health for the VA and the Secretary of VA for his work in the Infectious Diseases Program for the VA. He has been an invited speaker at several national and international meetings and has published more than 90 papers and several book chapters. Dr. Roselle received his medical degree from the OSU School of Medicine in 1973. He served his residency at the Northwestern University School of Medicine and his infectious diseases fellowship at the University of Cincinnati School of Medicine.

Alan S. Rudolph, Ph.D., M.B.A., has led an active career in translating interdisciplinary life sciences into useful applications for biotechnology development. His experience spans basic research to advanced development in academia, government laboratories, and most recently in the nonprofit and private sectors. He has published more than 100 technical publications in areas including molecular biophysics, lipid self-assembly, drug delivery, blood substitutes, medical imaging, tissue engineering, neuroscience, and diagnostics. As a National Research Council postdoctoral fellow, his earliest work at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) demonstrated the translational value of strategies used by organisms that survive environmental extremes to preserve defense products such as biosensors and blood products for field deployment. After a decade at NRL he was recruited to join the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, to lead new strategic efforts to extract and exploit useful principles and practices in life sciences and technology and establish an agency-wide strategy for investments in biosciences and biotechnology. As Chief of Biological Sciences and Technology, Dr. Rudolph established a framework for investments that continue today. These include new programs in broad areas of bioscience and technology such as sensors, diagnostics, materials, robotics, biomolecular, cell and tissue engineering, medical devices, and neuroscience and technology, including the current efforts in revolutionizing prosthetics. He received a meritorious civil service citation from the Office of the Secretary of Defense for his contributions to defining and implementing a new generation of life sciences and national security investments.

In 2003, he left civil service for the private sector and starting new corporate biotechnology efforts. As Chief Executive Officer of Adlyfe Inc., a diagnostic platform company, and Board Chairman of Cellphire Inc., focused on development of novel hemostatic biologics for bleeding injury, he took nascent technology demonstrations and secured venture capital funding and pharmaceutical partnerships while managing all aspects of development toward first human use. These efforts included managing early manufacturing and regulatory strategies required for FDA approval of diagnostics and therapeutics. Most recently, he started a new international nonprofit foundation and, as Director of the International Neuroscience Network Foundation, he has secured corporate and private philanthropic donors to fulfill the mission of the organization focused on brain STEM efforts and clinical trial management in underserved populations. He has a doctorate degree in zoology from the University of California at Davis and an M.B.A. from the George Washington University.

Kevin Russell, M.D., M.T.M.&H., F.I.D.S.A. CAPT MC USN, is the Director, Department of Defense Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System, and Deputy Director, Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, in the U.S. Department of Defense. In this position, his priorities have been standardization, greater affiliations with world militaries, continuing to introduce scientific rigor into the network, and synchronization with other U.S. government global surveillance programs. He graduated from the University of Texas Health Science Center San Antonio Medical School in 1990; after a family practice internship, he was accepted into the Navy Undersea Medicine program. He was stationed in Panama City, Florida, at the Experimental Diving Unit where he worked in diving medicine research from 1991 to 1995. After a preventive medicine residency with a master's in tropical medicine and hygiene, he was transferred to Lima, Peru, where he became head of the Virology Laboratory. His portfolio included febrile illness (largely arboviral in origin) and HIV surveillance studies in eight different countries of South America, as well as prospective dengue transmission studies. In 2001, he moved back to the United States and became the director of the Respiratory Disease Laboratory at the Naval Health Research Center in San Diego, California. Febrile respiratory illness surveillance in recruits of all services was expanded into shipboard populations, Mexican border populations, support for outbreaks, and deployed settings. Validation and integration of new and emerging advanced diagnostic capabilities, utilizing the archives of specimens maintained at the laboratory, became a priority. A BSL-3-Enhanced was constructed. Projects expanded in 2006 to clinical trials support as Dr. Russell became the Principal Investigator for the Navy site in the FDA Phase III adenovirus vaccines trial, and more recently to support the Phase IV postmarketing trial of the recently FDA-approved ACAM2000 smallpox vaccine.

Janet Shoemaker is Director of the ASM's Public Affairs Office, a position she has held since 1989. She is responsible for managing the legislative and regulatory affairs of this 42,000-member organization, the largest single biological science society in the world. Previously, she held positions as Assistant Director of Public Affairs for the ASM; as ASM coordinator of the U.S.–U.S.S.R. Exchange Program in Microbiology, a program sponsored and coordinated by the NSF and the U.S. Department of State; and as a freelance editor and writer. She received her baccalaureate, cum laude, from the University of Massachusetts and is a graduate of the George Washington University programs in public policy and in editing and publications. She is a member of Women in Government Relations, the American Society of Association Executives, and the AAAS. She has coauthored articles on research funding, biotechnology, biodefense, and public policy issues related to microbiology.

P. Frederick Sparling, M.D., is professor of medicine, microbiology, and immunology at the University of North Carolina (UNC), Chapel Hill. He is Director of the SouthEast Sexually Transmitted Infections Cooperative Research Center and also the Southeast Regional Centers of Excellence in Biodefense and Emerging Infections. Previously he served as Chair of the Department of Medicine and Chair of the Department of Microbiology and Immunology at UNC. He was President of the IDSA from 1996 to 1997. He was also a member of the IOM Committee on Microbial Threats to Health (1990–1992) and the IOM Committee on Emerging Microbial Threats to Health in the 21st Century (2001–2003). Dr. Sparling's laboratory research has been on the genetics and molecular biology of bacterial outer membrane proteins, with a major emphasis on gonococci and meningococci. His work helped to define the genetics of antibiotic resistance in gonococci and the role of iron-scavenging systems in the pathogenesis of human gonorrhea. Current interests include pathogenesis of gonococcal infections and development of a vaccine for gonorrhea and managing a large multi-institution interactive research group focused on emerging infections and biodefense.

Terence Taylor is the founding President of the International Council for the Life Sciences (ICLS). The ICLS is an independent nonprofit organization registered in the United States and in the European Union. The ICLS is designed to promote best practices and codes of conduct for safety and security in relation to biological risks. Terence Taylor also served as the vice president, Global Health and Security, at the Nuclear Threat Initiative. Prior to these appointments Terence Taylor was Assistant Director at the International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) in London and was President and Executive Director of IISS-US in Washington, DC. At IISS, in addition to his overall program responsibilities, he led the Institute's work on life sciences and security. He has substantial experience in international security policy matters as a U.K. government official (both military and diplomatic) and for the United Nations (UN) both in the field and at UN Headquarters. He was a Commissioner and one of the Chief Inspectors with the UN Special Commission on Iraq, with particular responsibilities for biological issues. His government experience is related to both military field operations and to the development and implementation of policies in relation to arms control and nonproliferation treaties and agreements for both conventional weapons and weapons of mass destruction and the law of armed conflict aspects of International Humanitarian Law. He has also conducted consulting work on political risk assessment and studies of the private biotechnology industry. He was a science fellow at Stanford University's Center for International Security and Cooperation. He was an officer in the British Army with experience in many parts of the world including UN peacekeeping, counterinsurgency, and counterterrorism operations.

Murray Trostle, Dr.P.H., is a Foreign Service Officer with USAID, presently serving as the Deputy Director of the Avian and Pandemic Influenza Preparedness and Response Unit. Dr. Trostle attended Yale University, where he received a master's in public health in 1978, focusing on health services administration. In 1990, he received his doctorate in public health from UCLA. His research involved household survival strategies during famine in Kenya. Dr. Trostle has worked in international health and development for approximately 38 years. He first worked overseas in the Malaysian national malaria eradication program in 1968 and has since focused on health development efforts in the former Soviet Union, Africa, and Southeast Asia. He began his career with USAID in 1992 as a postdoctoral fellow with the AAAS. During his career he has worked with a number of development organizations, such as the American Red Cross, Project Concern International, and the Center for Development and Population Activities. With USAID, Dr. Trostle has served as Director of the child immunization cluster, where he was Chairman of the European Immunization Interagency Coordinating Committee and USAID representative to the Global Alliance on Vaccines and Immunization. Currently, Dr. Trostle leads the USAID Infectious Disease Surveillance Initiative as well as the Avian Influenza Unit.

Mary E. Wilson, M.D., is Associate Professor of Global Health and Population at the Harvard School of Public Health. Her academic interests include the ecology of infections and emergence of microbial threats, travel medicine, tuberculosis, and vaccines. Her undergraduate degree in French, English, and philosophy was awarded by Indiana University; she received her M.D. from the University of Wisconsin and completed an internal medicine residency and infectious disease fellowship at the Beth Israel Hospital in Boston (now Beth Israel-Deaconess Medical Center). She was Chief of Infectious Diseases at Mount Auburn Hospital, a Harvard-affiliated community teaching hospital in Cam bridge, Massachusetts, for more than 20 years. She is a fellow in the IDSA and the American College of Physicians. She has served on ACIP of CDC, the Academic Advisory Committee for the National Institute of Public Health in Mexico, and on four committees for the IOM of the National Academies, including the Committee on Emerging Microbial Threats to Health in the 21st Century, whose report (Microbial Threats to Health: Emergence, Detection, and Response) was released in March 2003. She has worked in Haiti at the Albert Schweitzer Hospital and leads the Harvard-Brazil Collaborative Course on Infectious Diseases, which is taught in Brazil. In 1996 she was a resident scholar at the Bellagio Study Center, Italy, and in 2002 she was a fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences in Stanford, California. She was a member of the Pew National Commission on Industrial Farm Animal Production, whose report Putting Meat on the Table: Industrial Farm Animal Production in America was released in the spring of 2008. A former GeoSentinel Site Director (Cambridge), she now serves as a Special Advisor to the GeoSentinel Surveillance Network, a global network. She has lectured and published widely, serves on several editorial boards, and is an Associate Editor for Journal Watch Infectious Diseases. She is the author of A World Guide to Infections: Diseases, Distribution, Diagnosis (Oxford University Press, New York, 1991); Senior Editor, with Richard Levins and Andrew Spielman, of Disease in Evolution: Global Changes and Emergence of Infectious Diseases (New York Academy of Sciences, 1994); and Editor of the volume New and Emerging Infectious Diseases (Medical Clinics of North America) published in 2008. She joined the Board of Trustees for ICDDR,B (International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh) in 2009 and is a member of the Board of Scientific Counselors for CDC, the FXB-USA Board, and the APUA Board of Directors.



Forum member until December 31, 2010.


Forum member until December 31, 2010.


Forum member until December 31, 2010.

Copyright © 2011, National Academy of Sciences.
Bookshelf ID: NBK62502


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