Table 4Prevalence of human polyomavirus replication in healthy individuals as determined by the presence of viral proteins, DNA sequences or virions in urine samplesa

VirusNumber of Positive Samples/Number of Tested (%)References
BKV191/19,845 (0.96)67,184-200
JCV303/870 (34.8)48,67,184,187,197,198,201-207
SV401/100 (1)197,208

aViral sequences, proteins or virions were detected by hybridisation, PCR, ELISA, indirect immunofluorescence, hemagglutination inhibition test, light microscopy (‘Decoy’ cells), or electron microscopy.

From: Immunity and Autoimmunity Induced by Polyomaviruses: Clinical, Experimental and Theoretical Aspects

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