NCBI Bookshelf. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.

Ketchum K, Peterson K, Thakurta S, et al. Drug Class Review: Newer Antiplatelet Agents: Final Update 2 Report [Internet]. Portland (OR): Oregon Health & Science University; 2011 Jun.

  • This publication is provided for historical reference only and the information may be out of date.

This publication is provided for historical reference only and the information may be out of date.

Cover of Drug Class Review: Newer Antiplatelet Agents

Drug Class Review: Newer Antiplatelet Agents: Final Update 2 Report [Internet].

Show details


Roger V, Go A, Lloyd-Jones D, et al. Heart disease and stroke statistics – 2011 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2010;123(4):E18–E209. [PMC free article: PMC4418670] [PubMed: 21160056]
Albers GW, Amarenco P, Easton JD, Sacco RL, Teal P. Antithrombotic and Thrombolytic Therapy for Ischemic Stroke: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines (8th Edition). Chest. 2008;133(6 Suppl):630S–669S. [PubMed: 18574275]
Anderson JL, Adams CD, Antman EM, Bridges CR, Califf RM, et al. ACC/AHA 2007 Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Unstable Angina/Non-ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Writing Committee to Revise the 2002 Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Unstable Angina/Non-ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction). Circulation. 2007;116(7):e148–e304. [PubMed: 17679616]
King SI, Smith SJ, Hirshfeld JJ, Jacobs A, Morrison D, et al. 2007 Focused Update of the ACC/AHA/SCAI 2005 Guideline Update for Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guideline. Circulation. 2008;117:261–295. [PubMed: 18079354]
Kushner F, Hand M, Smith SJ, et al. 2009 focused updates: ACC/AHA guidelines for the management of patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (updating the 2004 guideline and 2007 focused update) and ACC/AHA/SCAI guidelines on percutaneous coronary intervention (updating the 2005 guideline and 2007 focused update): a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009;54(23):2205–2241. [PubMed: 19942100]
Popma JJ, Berger P, Ohman EM, Harrington RA, Grines C, Weitz JI. Antithrombotic therapy during percutaneous coronary intervention: the Seventh ACCP Conference on Antithrombotic and Thrombolytic Therapy. Chest. 2004 Sep;126(3 Suppl):576S–599S. [PubMed: 15383485]
Sobel M, Verhaeghe R. American College of Chest Physicians. Antithrombotic therapy for peripheral artery occlusive disease: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines (8th Edition). Chest. 2008 Jun;133(6 Suppl):815S–843S. [PubMed: 18574279]
Furie KL, Kasner SE, Adams RJ, et al. Guidelines for the prevention of stroke in patients with stroke or transient ischemic attack: a guideline for healthcare professionals from the american heart association/american stroke association. Stroke. 2011 Jan;42(1):227–276. [PubMed: 20966421]
Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals. Formulary submission dossier for Aggrenox (aspirin/extended-release dipyridamole 25mg/200mg). Ridgefield, CT: Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals; 2001.
Bristol Myers Squibb/Sanofi Partnership. Plavix (clopidogrel bisulfate): formulary submission dossier. 2004.
Center for Reviews and Dissemination. Undertaking systematic reviews of research on effectiveness: CRD's guidance for those carrying out or commissioning reviews. CRD Report Number 4 (2nd ed.). York, UK: NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination; 2001.
Harris RP, Helfand M, Woolf SH, et al. Current methods of the third U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2001;20(3S):21–35. [PubMed: 11306229]
Owens DK, Lohr KN, Atkins D. Grading the strength of a body of evidence when comparing medical interventions, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Methods Guide for Comparative Effectiveness Reviews. Rockville, MD: 2009. [PubMed: 19595577]
Ferreira-Gonzalez I, Busse J, Heels-Ansdell D, Montori V, Akl E, et al. Problems with use of composite end points in cardiovascular trials: systematic review of randomised controlled trials. BMJ. 2007;334:1–7. [PMC free article: PMC1852019] [PubMed: 17403713]
Owens DK, Lohr KN, Atkins D, et al. Grading the strength of a body of evidence when comparing medical interventions-Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and the Effective Health Care Program. J Clin Epidemiol. 2010;63(5):513–523. [PubMed: 19595577]
Sutton AJ, Abrams KR, Jones DR, Sheldon TA, Song F. Methods for Meta-Analysis in Medical Research. John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2000.
Higgins JP, Thompson SG, Deeks JJ, Altman DG. Measuring inconsistency in meta-analyses. BMJ. 2003;327(7414):557–560. [PMC free article: PMC192859] [PubMed: 12958120]
Higgins JP, Thompson SG. Quantifying heterogeneity in a meta-analysis. Stat. Med. 2002;21(11):1539–1558. [PubMed: 12111919]
Liberati A, Altman D, Tetzlaff J, Mulrow C, et al. The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and emta-analyses of studies that evaluate health care interventions: explanation and elaboration. Ann Intern Med. 2009;151(4):W65–W94. [PubMed: 19622512]
Mehta SR, Yusuf S. Clopidogrel in Unstable angina to prevent Recurrent Events Study Investigators. The Clopidogrel in Unstable angina to prevent Recurrent Events (CURE) trial programme; rationale, design and baseline characteristics including a meta-analysis of the effects of thienopyridines in vascular disease. Eur Heart J. 2000 Dec;21(24):2033–2041. [PubMed: 11102254]
Yusuf S, Zhao F, Mehta SR, et al. Effects of clopidogrel in addition to aspirin in patients with acute coronary syndromes without ST-segment elevation.[erratum appears in N Engl J Med 2001 Dec 6;345(23):1716] N Engl J Med. 2001 Aug 16;345(7):494–502. [PubMed: 11519503]
Peters RJG, Mehta SR, Fox KAA, et al. Effects of aspirin dose when used alone or in combination with clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndromes: observations from the Clopidogrel in Unstable angina to prevent Recurrent Events (CURE) study. Circulation. 2003 Oct 7;108(14):1682–1687. [PubMed: 14504182]
Bhatt D, Fox K, Hacke W, et al. Clopidogrel and aspirin versus aspirin alone for the prevention of atherothrombotic events. N Engl J Med. 2006;354(16):1706–1717. [PubMed: 16531616]
CAPRIE Steering Committee. A randomised, blinded, trial of clopidogrel versus aspirin in patients at risk of ischaemic events (CAPRIE). Lancet. 1996 Nov 16;348(9038):1329–1339. [PubMed: 8918275]
Wiviott SD, Braunwald E, McCabe CH, et al. Prasugrel versus clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndromes. N Engl J Med. 2007 Nov 15;357(20):2001–2015. [PubMed: 17982182]
Montalescot G, Wiviott SD, Braunwald E, et al. Prasugrel compared with clopidogrel in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (TRITON-TIMI 38): double-blind, randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2009 Feb 28;373(9665):723–731. [PubMed: 19249633]
Wiviott SD, Antman EM, Winters KJ, et al. Randomized comparison of prasugrel (CS-747, LY640315), a novel thienopyridine P2Y12 antagonist, with clopidogrel in percutaneous coronary intervention: results of the Joint Utilization of Medications to Block Platelets Optimally (JUMBO)-TIMI 26 trial. Circulation. 2005 Jun 28;111(25):3366–3373. [PubMed: 15967851]
Wiviott SD, Trenk D, Frelinger AL, et al. Prasugrel compared with high loading- and maintenance-dose clopidogrel in patients with planned percutaneous coronary intervention: the Prasugrel in Comparison to Clopidogrel for Inhibition of Platelet Activation and Aggregation-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 44 trial. Circulation. 2007 Dec 18;116(25):2923–2932. [PubMed: 18056526]
Bertrand ME, Rupprecht HJ, Urban P, Gershlick AH. Classics Investigators. Double-blind study of the safety of clopidogrel with and without a loading dose in combination with aspirin compared with ticlopidine in combination with aspirin after coronary stenting : the clopidogrel aspirin stent international cooperative study (CLASSICS). Circulation. 2000 Aug 8;102(6):624–629. [PubMed: 10931801]
Atmaca Y, Dandachi R, Gulec S, Dincer I, Oral D. Comparison of clopidogrel versus ticlopidine for prevention of minor myocardial injury after elective coronary stenting. Int J Cardiol. 2003 Feb;87(2–3):143–149. [PubMed: 12559533]
Di Pasquale P, Cannizzaro S, Scalzo S, et al. Comparison of Ticlopidine and Aspirin versus Clopidogrel and Aspirin after Percutaneous Coronary Interventions in High-Risk Patients. Heart Drug. 2005;5:187–192.
Mueller C, Roskamm H, Neumann F-J, et al. A randomized comparison of clopidogrel and aspirin versus ticlopidine and aspirin after the placement of coronary artery stents. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003 Mar 19;41(6):969–973. [PubMed: 12651043]
Muller C, Buttner HJ, Petersen J, Roskamm H. A randomized comparison of clopidogrel and aspirin versus ticlopidine and aspirin after the placement of coronary-artery stents. Circulation. 2000 Feb 15;101(6):590–593. [PubMed: 10673248]
Taniuchi M, Kurz HI, Lasala JM. Randomized comparison of ticlopidine and clopidogrel after intracoronary stent implantation in a broad patient population. Circulation. 2001 Jul 31;104(5):539–543. [PubMed: 11479250]
Juergens CP, Wong AM, Leung DYC, et al. A randomized comparison of clopidogrel and aspirin versus ticlopidine and aspirin after coronary stent implantation. Am Heart J. 2004 Apr;147(4):E15. [PubMed: 15077098]
Moussa I, Oetgen M, Roubin G, et al. Effectiveness of clopidogrel and aspirin versus ticlopidine and aspirin in preventing stent thrombosis after coronary stent implantation. Circulation. 1999 May 11;99(18):2364–2366. [PubMed: 10318654]
Piamsomboon C, Laothavorn P, Chatlaong B, et al. Effectiveness of clopidogrel and aspirin versus ticlopidine and aspirin after coronary stent implantation: 1 and 6-month follow-up. J Med Assoc Thai. 2001 Dec;84(12):1701–1707. [PubMed: 11999816]
Hall P, Nakamura S, Maiello L, et al. A randomized comparison of combined ticlopidine and aspirin therapy versus aspirin therapy alone after successful intravascular ultrasound-guided stent implantation. Circulation. 1996 Jan 15;93(2):215–222. [PubMed: 8548891]
Rupprecht HJ, Darius H, Borkowski U, et al. Comparison of antiplatelet effects of aspirin, ticlopidine, or their combination after stent implantation. Circulation. 1998 Mar 24;97(11):1046–1052. [PubMed: 9531251]
Kayacioglu I, Gunay R, Saskin H, et al. The role of clopidogrel and acetylsalicylic acid in the prevention of early-phase graft occlusion due to reactive thrombocytosis after coronary artery bypass operation. Heart Surg Forum. 2008;11(3):E152–157. [PubMed: 18583285]
Fukuuchi Y, Tohgi H, Okudera T, et al. A randomized, double-blind study comparing the safety and efficacy of clopidogrel versus ticlopidine in Japanese patients with noncardioembolic cerebral infarction. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2008;25(1–2):40–49. [PubMed: 18033957]
Sacco RL, Diener H-C, Yusuf S, et al. Aspirin and extended-release dipyridamole versus clopidogrel for recurrent stroke. N Engl J Med. 2008 Sep 18;359(12):1238–1251. [PMC free article: PMC2714259] [PubMed: 18753638]
Uchiyama S, Fukuuchi Y, Yamaguchi T. The safety and efficacy of clopidogrel versus ticlopidine in Japanese stroke patients: combined results of two Phase III, multicenter, randomized clinical trials. J Neurol. 2009 Jun;256(6):888–897. [PubMed: 19288047]
Thijs V, Lemmens R, Fieuws S. Network meta-analysis: simultaneous meta-analysis of common antiplatelet regimens after transient ischaemic attack or stroke. Eur Heart J. 2008 May;29(9):1086–1092. [PubMed: 18349026]
Gorelick PB, Richardson D, Kelly M, et al. Aspirin and ticlopidine for prevention of recurrent stroke in black patients: a randomized trial. JAMA. 2003 Jun 11;289(22):2947–2957. [PubMed: 12799402]
Hass WK, Easton JD, Adams HP Jr, et al. A randomized trial comparing ticlopidine hydrochloride with aspirin for the prevention of stroke in high-risk patients. Ticlopidine Aspirin Stroke Study Group. N Engl J Med. 1989 Aug 24;321(8):501–507. [PubMed: 2761587]
Diener HC, Cunha L, Forbes C, Sivenius J, Smets P, Lowenthal A. European Stroke Prevention Study. 2. Dipyridamole and acetylsalicylic acid in the secondary prevention of stroke. J Neurol Sci. 1996 Nov;143(1–2):1–13. [PubMed: 8981292]
Esprit Study Group. Halkes PHA, van Gijn J, Kappelle LJ, Koudstaal PJ, Algra A. Aspirin plus dipyridamole versus aspirin alone after cerebral ischaemia of arterial origin (ESPRIT): randomised controlled trial.[erratum appears in Lancet. 2007 Jan 27;369(9558):274] Lancet. 2006 May 20;367(9523):1665–1673. [PubMed: 16714187]
Boehringer Ingelheim. BI Trial No 9178: Japanese Aggrenox Stroke Prevention vs. Aspirin Programme (JASAP): Phase III study to evaluate the preventive effect of recurrent cerebral infarction and safety of Aggrenox (a combination drug containing sustained-release dipyridamole 200 mg and acetylsalicylic acid 25 mg) twice daily compared with acetylsalicylic acid 81 mg once daily. 2009. [Accessed 1/26/2011]. http://trials​.boehringer-ingelheim​.com/res/trial/data/pdf/9​.178_U09-2224.pdf.
Boehringer Ingelheim. JASAP: Japanese Aggrenox Stroke Prevention vs Aspirin Programme: Phase III study to evaluate the preventive effect of recurrent brain infarction and safety of Aggrenox (combination drug containing sustained-release dipyridamole 200 mg/acetylsalicylic acid 25 mg) twice daily vs. acetylsalicylic acid 81 mg once daily, Identifier: NCT00311402. 2010. [Accessed 1/26/2011].
Kennedy J, Hill MD, Ryckborst KJ, et al. Fast assessment of stroke and transient ischaemic attack to prevent early recurrence (FASTER): a randomised controlled pilot trial. Lancet neurol. 2007 Nov;6(11):961–969. [PubMed: 17931979]
Belch JJF, Dormandy J, Committee CW, et al. Results of the randomized, placebo-controlled clopidogrel and acetylsalicylic acid in bypass surgery for peripheral arterial disease (CASPAR) trial. J Vasc Surg. 2010 Oct;52(4):825–833. [PubMed: 20678878]
Cacoub PP, Bhatt DL, Steg PG, Topol EJ, Creager MA. Charisma Investigators. Patients with peripheral arterial disease in the CHARISMA trial. Eur Heart J. 2009 Jan;30(2):192–201. [PubMed: 19136484]
Harker L, Boissel J, Pilgrim A, et al. Comparative safety and tolerability of clopidogrel and aspirin: results from CAPRIE. CAPRIE Steering Committee and Investigators. Clopidogrel versus aspirin in patients at risk of ischaemic events. Drug Saf. 1999;21(4):325–335. [PubMed: 10514023]
Hayashi F, Iijima R, Nakamura M, Sugi K. Safety and efficacy of clopidogrel treatment in Japanese patients undergoing drug-eluting stent implantation. J Cardiol. 2010 Jan;55(1):34–40. [PubMed: 20122546]
Berger JS, Frye CB, Harshaw Q, Edwards FH, Steinhubl SR, Becker RC. Impact of clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndromes requiring coronary artery bypass surgery: a multicenter analysis. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008 Nov 18;52(21):1693–1701. [PubMed: 19007688]
Geraghty OC, Kennedy J, Chandratheva A, Marquardt L, Buchan AM, Rothwell PM. Preliminary evidence of a high risk of bleeding on aspirin plus clopidogrel in aspirin-naive patients in the acute phase after TIA or minor ischaemic stroke. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2010;29(5):460–467. [PubMed: 20299785]
De Luca G, Cassetti E, Marino P. Impact of duration of clopidogrel prescription on outcome of DES as compared to BMS in primary angioplasty: a meta-regression analysis of randomized trials. J Thromb Thrombolysis. 2009 May;27(4):365–378. [PubMed: 18498003]
Park S-J, Park D-W, Kim Y-H, et al. Duration of dual antiplatelet therapy after implantation of drug-eluting stents. N Engl J Med. 2010 Apr 15;362(15):1374–1382. [PubMed: 20231231]
Akbulut M, Ozbay Y, Karaca I, Ilkay E, Gundogdu O, Arslan N. The effect of long-term clopidogrel use on neointimal formation after percutaneous coronary intervention. Coron Artery Dis. 2004;15:347–352. [PubMed: 15346093]
Bernardi V, Szarfer J, Summay G, et al. Long-term versus short-term clopidogrel therapy in patients undergoing coronary stenting (from the Randomized Argentine Clopidogrel Stent [RACS] trial). Am J Cardiol. 2007 Feb 1;99(3):349–352. [PubMed: 17261396]
Pekdemir H, Cin V, Camsari A, et al. A comparison of 1-month and 6-month clopidogrel therapy on clinical and angiographic outcome after stent implantation. Heart Vessels. 2003;18:123–129. [PubMed: 12955427]
Mehta SR, Yusuf S, Peters RJ, et al. Effects of pretreatment with clopidogrel and aspirin followed by long-term therapy in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: the PCI-CURE study. Lancet. 2001 Aug 18;358(9281):527–533. [PubMed: 11520521]
Steinhubl SR, Berger PB, Mann JT 3rd, et al. Early and sustained dual oral antiplatelet therapy following percutaneous coronary intervention: a randomized controlled trial.[erratum appears in JAMA. 2003 Feb 26;289(8):987.] JAMA. 2002 Nov 20;288(19):2411–2420. [PubMed: 12435254]
Banerjee S, Varghese C, Samuel J, et al. Comparison of the impact of short (<1 year) and long-term (> or =1 year) clopidogrel use following percutaneous coronary intervention on mortality. Am J Cardiol. 2008 Nov 1;102(9):1159–1162. [PubMed: 18940284]
Petersen JL, Barron JJ, Hammill BG, et al. Clopidogrel use and clinical events after drug-eluting stent implantation: findings from the HealthCore Integrated Research Database. Am Heart J. 2010 Mar;159(3):462–470.e461. [PubMed: 20211310]
Gurbuz AT, Zia AA, Vuran AC, Cui H, Aytac A. Postoperative clopidogrel improves mid-term outcome after off-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery: a prospective study. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2006 Feb;29(2):190–195. [PubMed: 16388957]
Sivenius J, Cunha L, Diener HC, et al. Second European Stroke Prevention Study: antiplatelet therapy is effective regardless of age. ESPS2 Working Group. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica. 1999 Jan;99(1):54–60. [PubMed: 9925239]
Quilliam BJ, Lapane KL, Eaton CB, Mor V. Effect of antiplatelet and anticoagulant agents on risk of hospitalization for bleeding among a population of elderly nursing home stroke survivors. Stroke. 2001 Oct;32(10):2299–2304. [PubMed: 11588317]
Berger JS, Bhatt DL, Cannon CP, et al. The relative efficacy and safety of clopidogrel in women and men a sex-specific collaborative meta-analysis. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009 Nov 17;54(21):1935–1945. [PubMed: 19909874]
Bhatt DL, Fox KA, Hacke W, et al. A global view of atherothrombosis: baseline characteristics in the Clopidogrel for High Atherothrombotic Risk and Ischemic Stabilization, Management, and Avoidance (CHARISMA) trial.[erratum appears in Am Heart J. 2006 Jan;151(1):247] Am Heart J. 2005 Sep;150(3):401. [PubMed: 16169314]
Sacco RL, Sivenius J, Diener H-C. Efficacy of aspirin plus extended-release dipyridamole in preventing recurrent stroke in high-risk populations. Arch Neurol. 2005 Mar;62(3):403–408. [PubMed: 15767505]
Bhatt DL, Cryer BL, Contant CF, et al. Clopidogrel with or without omeprazole in coronary artery disease. N Engl J Med. 2010 Nov 11;363(20):1909–1917. [PubMed: 20925534]
O'Donoghue ML, Braunwald E, Antman EM, et al. Pharmacodynamic effect and clinical efficacy of clopidogrel and prasugrel with or without a proton-pump inhibitor: an analysis of two randomised trials. Lancet. 2009 Sep 19;374(9694):989–997. [PubMed: 19726078]
Charlot M, Ahlehoff O, Norgaard ML, et al. Proton-pump inhibitors are associated with increased cardiovascular risk independent of clopidogrel use: a nationwide cohort study. Ann Intern Med. 2010 Sep 21;153(6):378–386. [PubMed: 20855802]
Collet J-P, Hulot J-S, Pena A, et al. Cytochrome P450 2C19 polymorphism in young patients treated with clopidogrel after myocardial infarction: a cohort study. Lancet. 2009 Jan 24;373(9660):309–317. [PubMed: 19108880]
Gaglia MA Jr, Torguson R, Hanna N, et al. Relation of proton pump inhibitor use after percutaneous coronary intervention with drug-eluting stents to outcomes. Am J Cardiol. 2010 Mar 15;105(6):833–838. [PubMed: 20211327]
Gupta E, Bansal D, Sotos J, Olden K. Risk of adverse clinical outcomes with concomitant use of clopidogrel and proton pump inhibitors following percutaneous coronary intervention. Dig Dis Sci. 2010 Jul;55(7):1964–1968. [PubMed: 19731021]
Ho PM, Maddox TM, Wang L, et al. Risk of adverse outcomes associated with concomitant use of clopidogrel and proton pump inhibitors following acute coronary syndrome. JAMA. 2009 Mar 4;301(9):937–944. [PubMed: 19258584]
Juurlink DN, Gomes T, Ko DT, et al. A population-based study of the drug interaction between proton pump inhibitors and clopidogrel. CMAJ. 2009 Mar 31;180(7):713–718. [PMC free article: PMC2659819] [PubMed: 19176635]
Rassen JA, Choudhry NK, Avorn J, Schneeweiss S. Cardiovascular outcomes and mortality in patients using clopidogrel with proton pump inhibitors after percutaneous coronary intervention or acute coronary syndrome. Circulation. 2009 Dec 8;120(23):2322–2329. [PMC free article: PMC2818789] [PubMed: 19933932]
Ray WA, Murray KT, Griffin MR, et al. Outcomes with concurrent use of clopidogrel and proton-pump inhibitors: a cohort study. Ann Intern Med. 2010 Mar 16;152(6):337–345. [PMC free article: PMC3176584] [PubMed: 20231564]
Simon T, Verstuyft C, Mary-Krause M, et al. Genetic determinants of response to clopidogrel and cardiovascular events. N Engl J Med. 2009 Jan 22;360(4):363–375. [PubMed: 19106083]
Stockl KM, Le L, Zakharyan A, et al. Risk of rehospitalization for patients using clopidogrel with a proton pump inhibitor. Arch Intern Med. 2010 Apr 26;170(8):704–710. [PubMed: 20421557]
Yasuda H, Yamada M, Sawada S, et al. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients receiving dual antiplatelet therapy after coronary stenting. Intern Med. 2009;48(19):1725–1730. [PubMed: 19797827]
Chin M, Yong G, Bulsara M, Rankin J, Forbes G. Predictive and protective factors associated with upper gastrointestinal bleeding after percutaneous coronary intervention: a case-control study. Am J Gastroenterol. 2007;102:2411–2416. [PubMed: 17850413]
Lanas A, Garcia-Rodriguez L, Arroyo M, et al. Effect of antisecretory drugs and nitrates on the risk of ulcer bleeding associated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antiplatelet agents, and anticoagulants. Am J Gastroenterol. 2007;102:507–515. [PubMed: 17338735]
Hsiao F-Y, Tsai Y-W, Huang W-F, et al. A comparison of aspirin and clopidogrel with or without proton pump inhibitors for the secondary prevention of cardiovascular events in patients at high risk for gastrointestinal bleeding. Clin Ther. 2009;31(9):2038–2047. [PubMed: 19843493]
Ng FH, Wong SY, Chang CM, et al. High incidence of clopidogrel-associated gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with previous peptic ulcer disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2003;18:443–449. [PubMed: 12940930]
Ng F-H, Lam K-F, Wong S-Y, et al. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with aspirin and clopidogrel co-therapy. Digestion. 2008;77:173–177. [PubMed: 18577887]
Abraham NS, Hlatky MA, Antman EM, Bhatt DL. ACCF/ACG/AHA 2010 Expert Consensus Document on the Concomitant Use of Proton Pump Inhibitors and Thienopyridines: A Focused Update of the ACCF/ACG/AHA 2008 Expert Consensus Document on Reducing the Gastrointestinal Risks of Antiplatelet Therapy and NSAID Use; A Report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Task Force on Expert Consensus Documents. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010;56(24):2051–2066. [PubMed: 21126648]
Brulotte S, Senechal M, Poirier P, et al. Safety of the cardiac triple therapy: the experience of the Quebec Heart Institute.[Erratum appears in Can J Cardiol. 2009 Mar;25(3):140] Can J Cardiol. 2007 Oct;23(Suppl B):80B–83B. [PMC free article: PMC2794467] [PubMed: 17932593]
Karjalainen PP, Porela P, Ylitalo A, et al. Safety and efficacy of combined antiplatelet-warfarin therapy after coronary stenting. Eur Heart J. 2007 Mar;28(6):726–732. [PubMed: 17267456]
Sorensen R, Hansen ML, Abildstrom SZ, et al. Risk of bleeding in patients with acute myocardial infarction treated with different combinations of aspirin, clopidogrel, and vitamin K antagonists in Denmark: a retrospective analysis of nationwide registry data. Lancet. 2009 Dec 12;374(9706):1967–1974. [PubMed: 20006130]
Mega J, Close S, Wiviott S, Shen L, Walker J, Simon T. Genetic variants in ABCB1 and CYP2C19 and cardiovascular outcomes after treatment with clopidogrel and prasugrel in the TRITON-TIMI 38 trial: a pharmacogenetic analysis. Lancet. 2010;376(9749):1312–1319. [PMC free article: PMC3036672] [PubMed: 20801494]
Sibbing D, Koch W, Gebhard D, et al. Cytochrome 2C19*17 allelic variant, platelet aggregation, bleeding events, and stent thrombosis in clopidogrel-treated patients with coronary stent placement. Circulation. 2010 Feb 2;121(4):512–518. [PubMed: 20083681]
Copyright © 2011 by Oregon Health & Science University.
Bookshelf ID: NBK61811


Other titles in this collection

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...