Table 2Review of experimental Ross River virus studies in animal models: viral detection, pathology and identification of cellular infiltrates associated with infection and disease

Study (Ref #)Year of article (species)RRV detected? (Method of detection)Tissue examined/Pathology producedNature of the cell infiltrate associated with infection/pathology
Mims et al81973 (mouse)Yes (< day 1 pi by plaque assay; day 3 pi by IFA)Brain tissue, serum, muscle/neurologic lesions, cortical thinning, muscle necrosisMonocyte infiltration associated with “cortical thinning” (day 13 pi)
Murphy et al91973 (mouse)Yes (< day 1 pi by plaque assay; day 3 pi by IFA; day 4 pi by EM)Muscle, brown fat, perichondrium, periosteum/“confluent necrosis” of muscle by day 10 pi (fully recovered by day 34 pi)Muscle only had a small number of “inflammatorycells” noted at day 7 pi; monocyte infiltrate into brown fat not observed until day 13 pi
Pearson et al411976 (sheep)Yes, in lymph node at <1.0 hour pi (plaque assay); detected to 36 hrs pi; clearance assoc. with antiviral AbLymph node/no pathology notedIncreased “white blood cells”; particularly an increase in “large lymphocytes” noted post RRV infection in lymph node lavage
Seay et al201981 (1-week-old mice)Yes, in serum & muscle at day 1 pi (plaque assay); RRV persisted longer in muscleMuscle/necrosis observed at day 5 pi; confluent muscle necrosis + inflammation by day 11 pi; recovery by day 65 piLocal monocyte infiltrates noted at day 5 pi; prominent mononuclear infiltrate by day 7 pi + intrasarcoplasmic macrophages; inflammatory infiltrate decreasing by day 15pi
Seay & Wolinsky211982 (mouse)Yes, 10 hours pi in the serumBrain/demylination of brain tissue (recognized at day 8 pi)Monocytes & polymorphs observed in cerebellum &brainstem by 48 hours pi; at day 5 pi polymorphs decrease while monos/macs increase; macrophages present at sites of myelin loss and disruption
Seay & Wolinsky22 1983 (mouse)Yes, at day 2 & 3 pi (EM)Brain/further studies on demylination post-RRV infection. Cyclophosphamide did not reduce inflammation or damage in the CNS+++ polymorphs & + macrophages at days 2-3 pi;polymorphs rare and macrophages numerous by day 5 pi; myelin debris noted in macrophages from days 5-14 pi
Lidbury et al232000 (mouse)Yes, in serum, brain and muscle (day 1-6 pi; plaque assay)Striated muscle of hind-leg/loss of muscle striations and structure; centralized muscle cell nucleiMassive F4/80+ mononuclear cell infiltrate observed at day 8 pi (IHC on muscle sections) correlating with onset of clinical disease

Abbreviations: IFA, immunofluorescent antibody; pi, post infection; EM, electron microscopy; c, subcutaneous; IHC, immunohistochemistry; CNS, central nervous system; RRV, Ross River virus.

From: A Role for Chemokine Activity in Alphavirus Pathogenesis: Evidence from the Analysis of Polyarthritis and Myalgia Post-Ross River Virus Infection

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