Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Recommended Dietary Allowances and Adequate Intakes, Total Water and Macronutrients

Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, National Academies

Life Stage
Total Watera
Total Fiber
Linoleic Acid
α-Linolenic Acid
 0–6 mo0.7*60*ND31*4.4*0.5*9.1*
 6–12 mo0.8*95*ND30*4.6*0.5*11.0
 1–3 y1.3*13019*NDc7*0.7*13
 4–8 y1.7*13025*ND10*0.9*19
 9–13 y2.4*13031*ND12*1.2*34
 14–18 y3.3*13038*ND16*1.6*52
 19–30 y3.7*13038*ND17*1.6*56
 31–50 y3.7*13038*ND17*1.6*56
 51–70 y3.7*13030*ND14*1.6*56
 > 70 y3.7*13030*ND14*1.6*56
 9–13 y2.1*13026*ND10*1.0*34
 14–18 y2.3*13026*ND11*1.1*46
 19–30 y2.7*13025*ND12*1.1*46
 31–50 y2.7*13025*ND12*1.1*46
 51–70 y2.7*13021*ND11*1.1*46
 > 70 y2.7*13021*ND11*1.1*46
 14–18 y3.0*17528*ND13*1.4*71
 19–30 y3.0*17528*ND13*1.4*71
 31–50 y3.0*17528*ND13*1.4*71
 19–30 y3.8*21029*ND13*1.3*71
 31–50 y3.8*21029*ND13*1.3*71

NOTE: This table (take from the DRI reports, see www​ presents Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) in bold type and Adequate Intakes (AI) in ordinary type followed by an asterisk (*). An RDA is the average daily dietary intake level sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all (97–98 percent) healthy individuals in a group. It is calculated from an Estimated Average Requirement (EAR). If sufficient scientific evidence is not available to establish an EAR, and thus calculate an RDA, an AI is usually developed. For healthy breast-fed infants, an AI is the mean intake. The AI for other life stage and gender groups is believed to cover the needs of all healthy individuals in the groups, but lack of data or uncertainty in the data prevent being able to specify with confidence the percentage of individuals covered by this intake.


Total water includes all water contained in food, beverages, and drinking water.


Based on g protein per kg of body weight for the reference body weight, e.g., for adults 0.8 g/kg body weight for the reference body weight.


Not determined.

SOURCE: Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids (2002/2005) and Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate (2005). The report may be accessed via www​

From: Summary Tables

Cover of Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D
Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D.
Institute of Medicine (US) Committee to Review Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin D and Calcium; Ross AC, Taylor CL, Yaktine AL, et al., editors.
Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2011.
Copyright © 2011, National Academy of Sciences.

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