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Institute of Medicine (US) Committee to Review Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin D and Calcium; Ross AC, Taylor CL, Yaktine AL, et al., editors. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2011.

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D.

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AAcronyms, Abbreviations, and Glossary

ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

25-hydroxyvitamin D

In this report, 25OHD (also referred to as calcidiol or calcifediol); indicates no distinction between D2 and D3 forms. When relevant, forms distinguished as 25OHD2 and 25OHD3.

1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D

In this report, calcitriol. Ercalcitriol refers to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D2, but in this report, the term “calcitriol” will be used for both.

24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D

In this report, 24,25(OH)2D.

AHRQ

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality

AI

Adequate Intake

ALTM

All-laboratory trimmed mean

AMDR

Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range

ATBC

Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study

BDI

Beck Depression Inventory

BMAD

Bone mineral apparent density

BMC

Bone mineral content

BMD

Bone mineral density

BMI

Body mass index

BV

Bone volume

CCHS

Canadian Community Health Survey

CDC

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

CG

Control group

CHMS

Canadian Health Measures Survey

CI

Confidence interval

CNF

Canadian Nutrient File

CPBA

Competitive protein binding assay

CVD

Cardiovascular disease

CYP

Cytochrome P450

DBP

Vitamin D binding protein

DEQAS

Vitamin D External Quality Assurance Scheme

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid

DRI

Dietary Reference Intake

DXA

Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry

EAR

Estimated Average Requirement

EPIC

European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

EPIDOS

Epidémiologie de l'Ostéoporose study

FGF23

Fibroblast-like growth factor-23

FN

Femoral neck

GC

Gas chromatography

GFR

Glomerular filtration rate

HPFS

Health Professionals Follow-up Study

HR

Hazard ratio

IBD

Inflammatory bowel disease

IFN

Interferon

Ig

Immunoglobulin

IG

Intervention group

IHD

Ischemic heart disease

IL

Interleukin

IOM

Institute of Medicine

iPTH

Intact parathyroid hormone

IU

International Unit

K-MMSE

Mini-Mental State Examination for Koreans

LC

Liquid chromatography

LOAEL

Lowest-observed-adverse-effect level

LS

Lumbar spine

LSM

Least squares mean

MAS

Milk-alkali syndrome

MMSE

Mini-Mental State Examination

mo

Month(s)

mRNA

Messenger ribonucleic acid

MrOS

Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study

MS

Mass spectrometry; Multiple sclerosis

MS/MS

Tandem mass spectrometry

NA

Not applicable

NCa

Normocalcemic

NCHS

National Center for Health Statistics

NCI

National Cancer Institute

ND

Not determined

NHANES

National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

NHS

Nurses' Health Study

NIH

National Institutes of Health

NIST

National Institute of Standards and Technology

NOAEL

No-observed-adverse-effect level

NOD

Nonobese diabetic

NR

Not reported

NS

Not significant

OA

Osteoarthritis

OC

Oral contraceptive

OP

Osteoporosis

OR

Odds ratio

OV

Osteoid volume

PLCO

Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial

PM

Postmenopausal

POMS

Profile of Mood States

PTH

Parathyroid hormone

PTHrP

Parathyroid hormone–related protein

RA

Rheumatoid arthritis

RANK

Receptor activator for nuclear factor κ B

RCT

Randomized controlled trial

RDA

Recommended Dietary Allowance

RECORD

Randomised Evaluation of Calcium and/Or vitamin D trial

RIA

Radioimmunoassay

RNI

Recommended Nutrient Intake

RR

Relative risk

SD

Standard deviation

SE

Standard error

SEM

Standard error of the mean

SLE

Systemic lupus erythematosus

SPA

Single-photon absorptiometry

SPF

Sun protection factor

SRM

Standard Reference Material

TB

Tuberculosis; Total body

Th

T helper

TH

Total hip

Tr

Trochanter

TRPV6

Transient receptor potential cation channel, vanilloid family member 6

Tx

Treatment

UK

United Kingdom

UL

Tolerable Upper Intake Level

U.S.

United States

USDA

U.S. Department of Agriculture

UV

Ultraviolet

UVB

Ultraviolet B

VDDR

Vitamin D–dependent rickets

VDR

Vitamin D receptor

VDRE

Vitamin D–responsive element

VEGF

Vascular endothelial growth factor

WHI

Women's Health Initiative

WWEIA

What We Eat in America

wk

Week(s)

y

Year(s)

GLOSSARY

Achlorhydria

A lack of hydrochloric acid in the digestive juices in the stomach.

Adenoma

A benign epithelial tumor of glandular origin.

Adequate Intake

The recommended average daily intake level of a nutrient based on observed or experimentally determined approximations or estimates of intakes that are assumed to be adequate for a group (or groups) of appendixes.app1rently healthy people; used when the Recommended Dietary Allowance cannot be determined.

Adipokines

Cytokines, growth factors, and other proteins produced and secreted by adipose tissue.

Adipose tissue

A connective tissue consisting chiefly of fat cells surrounded by reticular fibers and arranged in lobular groups or along the course of one of the smaller blood vessels.

Amenorrhea

Abnormal suppression or absence of menstruation.

Anorexia

The symptom of poor appetite whatever the cause.

Anorexia nervosa

A psychophysiological disorder usually occurring in teenage women that is characterized by fear of becoming obese, a distorted self-image, a persistent aversion to food, and severe weight loss, and that is often marked by hyperactivity, self-induced vomiting, amenorrhea, and other physiological changes.

Antigen

Any substance that stimulates an immune response in the body.

Antirachitic

Cures or prevents rickets.

Asthma

A chronic inflammatory disease of the airways.

Autism

A complex developmental disability that typically appears during the first few years of life; is the result of a neurological disorder that affects the normal functioning of the brain, impacting development in the areas of social interaction and communication skills.

Biomarker

A biochemical, physiological, behavioral, or other alteration that can be measured in the body or its products that influences, predicts, or is associated with an established or possible outcome, health impairment, or disease.

Body mass index

An indirect measure of body fat calculated as the ratio of a person's body weight to the square of a person's height:

  • BMI (kg/m2) = weight (kilograms)/height (meters)2
  • BMI (lb/in2) = weight (pounds)/height (inches)2 × 703
Bone mineral content

The hardness of bone results from its mineral content in the organic matrix.

Bone mineral density

A measure of bone density that reflects the strength of bones as represented by calcium content.

Calcification

Impregnation with calcium or calcium salts; hardening, as of tissue, by such impregnation.

Calcinosis

The abnormal deposition of calcium salts in a part or tissue of the body.

Calcitonin

A peptide hormone, produced by the thyroid gland in humans, that acts to lower plasma calcium and phosphate levels without augmenting calcium accretion.

Calcitriol

Another name for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D.

Calcium

A mineral found mainly in the hard part of bones, where it is stored; it is essential for healthy bones and is important for muscle contraction, heart action, nervous system maintenance, and normal blood clotting.

Calciuria

The presence of calcium in the urine.

Cancer

A malignant and invasive growth or tumor.

Cardiovascular disease

Any abnormal condition characterized by dysfunction of the heart and blood vessels; includes atherosclerosis (especially coronary heart disease), cerebrovascular disease, and hypertension.

Chondrocyte

A connective tissue cell that occupies a lacuna within the cartilage matrix.

Chylomicron

One of the microscopic particles of fat occurring in chyle (a digestive fluid) and in the blood, especially after a meal high in fat.

Computed tomography

Tomography used in diagnostic studies of internal bodily structures, in which computer analysis of a series of cross–sectional scans made along a single axis of a bodily structure or tissue is used to construct a three-dimensional image of that structure.

Creatinine

One of the nonprotein constituents of blood, a breakdown product of creatinine (protein used to make adenosine triphosphate). Increased quantities of serum creatinine are found in advanced stages of renal disease.

Crohn's disease

A chronic inflammatory disease of the intestines that primarily causes ulcerations (breaks in the lining) of the small and large intestines, but can affect the digestive system anywhere from the mouth to the anus.

Cut-point

A specified quantitative measure used to demarcate the presence or absence of a health-related condition; often used in interpreting measures obtained from analysis of blood (example: blood measures below “x” ng/mL indicate a deficiency state for Nutrient Y).

Cytochrome

Any of a class of iron-containing proteins important to cell respiration as catalysts of oxidation–reduction reactions.

Depression

A condition of general emotional dejection and withdrawal; sadness greater and more prolonged than that warranted by any objective reason.

Dermis

The sensitive connective tissue layer of the skin located below the epidermis, containing nerve endings, sweat and sebaceous glands, and blood and lymph vessels.

Diabetes mellitus

A group of metabolic diseases characterized by high blood sugar (glucose) levels that result from defects in insulin secretion or action, or both.

Diabetes, type 1

An autoimmune disease that occurs when T cells attack and decimate the β-cells in the pancreas that are needed to produce insulin, so that the pancreas makes too little insulin (or no insulin); there is a genetic predisposition to type 1 diabetes, and the disease tends to occur in childhood, adolescence, or early adulthood (before age 30), but it may have its clinical onset at any age.

Diabetes, type 2

Disease in which the β-cells of the pancreas produce insulin but the body is unable to use it effectively because the cells of the body are resistant to the action of insulin; also known as insulin-resistant diabetes, non-insulin-dependent diabetes, and adult-onset diabetes.

Dietary Reference Intake

A set of four distinct nutrient-based reference values that replaced the former Recommended Dietary Allowance in the United States. These include Estimated Average Requirement (EAR), Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), Adequate Intake (AI), and Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL).

Dose–response assessment

Determination of the relationship between nutrient intake (dose) and some criterion of either adequacy or adverse effect.

Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry

Means of measuring bone density with two X-ray beams with differing energy levels aimed at an individual's bones.

Emesis

The act or process of vomiting.

Endocrine

Pertaining to hormones and the glands that make and secrete them into the bloodstream through which they travel to affect distant organs.

Epidermis

The nonvascular outer protective layer of the skin, covering the dermis.

Ergosterol

A plant sterol that is converted into vitamin D by ultraviolet radiation.

Estimated Average Requirement

The average daily nutrient intake level that is estimated to meet the requirements of half of the healthy individuals in a particular life stage and gender group.

Estradiol

The most potent naturally occurring estrogen.

Etiology

Causes and origins of disease.

Fibroblast

A cell ubiquitous in connective tissue that makes and secretes collagen.

Glucocorticoid

Any of a group of steroid-like compounds, such as, that are produced by the adrenal cortex, are involved in carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism, and are used as anti-inflammatory agents.

Hematocrit

The percentage by volume of packed red blood cells in a given sample of blood after centrifugation.

Homeostasis

A property of cells, tissues, and organisms that allows the maintenance and regulation of the stability and constancy needed to function properly.

Hormone

A substance, usually a peptide or a steroid, produced by one tissue and conveyed in the bloodstream to another to effect physiological activity, such as growth or metabolism.

Hydroxyapatite

The principal bone salt that provides the compressional strength of vertebrate bone.

Hypercalcemia

A higher than normal level of calcium in the blood.

Hypercalciuria

Excess calcium in the urine.

Hyperglycemia

A high blood sugar; an elevated level specifically of the sugar glucose in the blood.

Hypertension/hypertensive

Systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg.

Hypophosphatemia

Abnormally low concentrations of phosphates in the blood.

Inflammatory bowel disease

Any of several incurable and debilitating diseases of the gastrointestinal tract characterized by inflammation and obstruction of parts of the intestine.

Influenza

An acute, commonly epidemic disease occurring in several forms, caused by numerous rapidly mutating viral strains and characterized by respiratory symptoms and general prostration.

Ligand

An ion, a molecule, or a molecular group that binds to another chemical entity to form a larger complex.

LOAEL

The lowest intake (or experimental dose) of a nutrient at which an adverse effect has been identified.

Lumisterol

A naturally occurring compound that is part of the vitamin D family of steroid compounds.

Macrophage

A type of white blood cell that ingests foreign material.

Menopause

The state of an absence of menstrual periods for 12 months.

Metabolic syndrome

Also called insulin resistance syndrome and Metabolic Syndrome X. A group of conditions that increase risk of heart disease, diabetes, and stroke. The five conditions are high blood pressure, high blood sugar levels, high levels of circulating triglycerides, low levels of circulating high-density lipoprotein, and excess fat in the abdominal area.

Microsome

A small particle in the cytoplasm of a cell, typically consisting of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum to which ribosomes are attached.

Milk-alkali syndrome

Caused by the ingestion of large amounts of calcium and absorbable alkali with resulting hypercalcemia; if untreated, can lead to metastatic calcification and renal failure.

Morbidity

Illness or disease.

Mortality

A fatal outcome; death.

Multiple sclerosis

A disease in which the nerves of the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) degenerate.

Natriuresis

Excretion of excessive amounts of sodium in the urine.

Neoplasm

A new, often uncontrolled growth of abnormal tissue; tumor.

Nephrocalcinosis

Renal lithiasis characterized by diffusely scattered foci of calcification in the kidneys.

Nephrolithiasis

Calculi in the kidneys.

NOAEL

The highest intake (or experimental dose) of a nutrient at which no adverse effect has been observed.

Nutrient

A substance (such as a chemical element or inorganic compound) that an organism needs to live and grow; a substance used in an organism's metabolism that must be taken in from its environment.

Nutriture

A state of nutrition in the body.

Osteoblast

A cell from which bone develops.

Osteoclast

A large multinucleate cell found in growing bone that resorbs bony tissue, as in the formation of canals and cavities.

Osteocyte

A branched cell imbedded in the matrix of bone tissue.

Osteogenesis

Formation and development of bony tissue.

Osteoid

Resembling bone; the bone matrix, especially before calcification.

Osteomalacia

The softening of bone, the depletion of calcium from bone; may be caused by poor dietary intake or poor absorption of calcium and other minerals needed to harden bones and can be a characteristic feature of vitamin D deficiency in adults.

Osteopenia

A condition of bone in which decreased calcification, decreased density, or reduced mass occurs.

Osteoporosis

A condition characterized by a decrease in bone density (a decrease in bone strength that results in fragile bones); leads to abnormally porous bone that is compressible, like a sponge.

Parathyroid gland

A gland that regulates calcium, located behind the thyroid gland in the neck, which secretes parathyroid hormone.

Parathyroid hormone

A hormone that is made by the parathyroid gland and that is critical to calcium and phosphorus balance.

Perimenopause

The interval in which a women's body begins its transition into menopause.

Periosteal

Pertaining to the periosteum, the membrane covering the bones.

Phosphate

A form of phosphoric acid; calcium phosphate makes bones and teeth hard.

Polyuria

The excessive passage of urine, resulting in profuse urination and urinary frequency.

Preeclampsia

A toxic condition developing in late pregnancy characterized by a sudden rise in blood pressure, generalized edema, proteinuria, severe headache, and visual disturbances that may result in eclampsia (convulsive or coma state) if untreated.

Previtamin D3

A short-lived intermediate form arising from exposure of provitamin D3 (7-dehydrocholesterol) in the skin to UVB irradiation. Body heat quickly changes previtamin D3 into vitamin D3.

Prohormone

An intraglandular precursor of a hormone.

Provitamin D3 (7-dehydrocholesterol)

A provitamin present in the skin of humans as well as the milk of mammals that becomes vitamin D3 when exposed to ultraviolet light.

Recommended Dietary Allowance

The average daily dietary intake level that is sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all (97.5 percent) healthy individuals in a particular life stage and gender group.

Rheumatoid arthritis

An autoimmune disease that causes chronic inflammation of the joints.

Rickets

A disorder caused by a deficiency of vitamin D, calcium, or phosphate, which leads to softening and weakening of the bones and is seen most commonly in children 6 to 24 months of age.

Sarcoidosis

A disease that results from a specific type of inflammation of tissues of the body that can appear in almost any body organ, often starting in the lungs or lymph nodes.

Scleroderma

A pathological thickening and hardening of the skin caused by swelling and thickening of fibrous tissue.

Systemic lupus erythematosus

A chronic, autoimmune, inflammatory disease of connective tissue that causes fever, weakness, fatigue, joint pains, and skin lesions on the face, neck, or arms.

Tachysterol

An isomer of ergosterol that forms vitamin D2 when irradiated with ultraviolet light.

Tolerable Upper Intake Level

The highest average daily nutrient intake level that is likely to pose no risk of adverse effects to almost all individuals in the general population. As intake increases above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level, the potential risk of adverse effects may increase.

Transgenic

Having genetic material (deoxyribonucleic acid) from another species.

Tuberculosis

A highly contagious infection caused by the bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Ultraviolet

Pertaining to electromagnetic radiation having wavelengths in the range of approximately 5 to 400 nm; shorter than visible light, but longer than X-rays.

Ultraviolet B

Medium wavelength (280 to 320 nm) ultraviolet rays from the sun; help synthesis of vitamin D3; the “burning” rays in the ultraviolet spectrum.

Vasodilatation

Relaxation or widening of the blood vessels; leads to a lowered blood pressure.

Vitamin D

Also referred to as calciferol; comprises a group of fat-soluble seco-sterols. The two major forms are vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 (both vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 can be synthesized commercially and may be found in dietary supplements or fortified foods; they differ only in their side chain structure).

Vitamin D2

Also referred to as ergocalciferol; originates from plants and is found in the human diet.

Vitamin D3

Also referred to as cholecalciferol; is synthesized in the skin of humans from 7-dehydrocholesterol and is also consumed in the diet via the intake of animal-based foods.

Vitamin D–resistant rickets

An inherited form of rickets characterized by high concentrations of phosphate in the blood due to defective renal tubular reabsorption of phosphate and subnormal absorption of dietary calcium.

Copyright © 2011, National Academy of Sciences.
Bookshelf ID: NBK56062

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