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Institute of Medicine (US) Committee to Review Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin D and Calcium; Ross AC, Taylor CL, Yaktine AL, et al., editors. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2011.

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D.

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DMethods and Results from the AHRQ-Tufts Evidence-Based Report on Vitamin D and Calcium

The purpose of this systematic evidence-based review, referred to as AHRQ-Tufts,1 requested by the Office of Dietary Supplements/National Institutes of Health, the Public Health Agency of Canada, Health Canada, and the Food and Drug Administration and conducted by the Tufts Evidence-based Practice Center (EPC), was to answer key scientific questions on how dietary vitamin D and calcium intake effect health outcomes. The key questions addressed in the AHRQ-Tufts reports are as follows:

  • Key Question 1. What is the effect of vitamin D, calcium, or combined vitamin D and calcium intakes on clinical outcomes, including growth, cardiovascular diseases, body weight outcomes, cancer, immune function, pregnancy or birth outcomes, mortality, fracture, renal outcomes, and soft tissue calcification?
  • Key Question 2. What is the effect of vitamin D, calcium, or combined vitamin D and calcium intakes on surrogate or intermediate outcomes, such as hypertension, blood pressure, and bone mineral density?
  • Key Question 3. What is the association between serum 25(OH)D concentrations or calcium balance and clinical outcomes?
  • Key Question 4. What is the effect of vitamin D or combined vitamin D and calcium intakes on serum 25(OH)D concentrations?
  • Key Question 5. What is the association between serum 25(OH)D concentrations and surrogate or intermediate outcomes?

The review focused on electronic searches of the medical literature (1969–April 2009) to identify publications addressing the aforementioned questions. One hundred and sixty-five primary articles and 11 systematic reviews that incorporated more than 200 additional primary articles were systematically reviewed, and each was rated on quality and used to assess the strength of evidence for each outcome.

The methods and results chapters of the AHRQ-Tufts evidence review are reprinted below. The report in its entirety, including appendices and evidence tables, can be accessed and viewed at http://www.ahrq.gov/clinic/tp/vitadcaltp.htm.

Footnotes

1

Chung, M., E. M. Balk, M. Brendel, S. Ip, J. Lau, J. Lee, A. Lichtenstein, K. Patel, G. Raman, A. Tatsioni, T. Terasawa and T. A. Trikalinos. 2009. Vitamin D and Calcium: A Systematic Review of Health Outcomes. Evidence Report No. 183. (Prepared by the Tufts Evidence-based Practice Center under Contract No. HHSA 290-2007-10055-I.) AHRQ Publication No. 09-E015. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.

Copyright © 2011, National Academy of Sciences.
Bookshelf ID: NBK56057

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