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LiverTox: Clinical and Research Information on Drug-Induced Liver Injury [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; 2012-.

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LiverTox: Clinical and Research Information on Drug-Induced Liver Injury [Internet].

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Last Update: April 7, 2014.



Ethambutol is a first line but adjunctive antituberculosis medication which is used only in combination with other agents such as isoniazid and rifampin. Ethambutol therapy has been associated with minor, transient and asymptomatic elevations in serum aminotransferase levels, but is a rare cause of clinically apparent acute liver injury.


Ethambutol (eth am' bue tol) is a semisynthetic antibiotic which is bacteriostatic against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Ethambutol interferes with the incorporation of mycolic acid into the mycobacterial cell wall, thus inhibiting its cell wall synthesis. Ethambutol has a broader spectrum of activity against mycobacterial species than isoniazid or rifampin and is therefore used largely in patients with suspected resistance or in atypical mycobacterial infections. Ethambutol is available in generic forms in tablets of 100 and 400 mg. The recommended dose is 15 mg/kg once daily in combination with other antituberculosis medications such as isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide, and streptomycin. Higher doses are recommended for patients being retreated after a relapse. Common side effects include gastrointestinal upset, nausea, dizziness, fever, and rash. Regularly updated information on guidelines for therapy of tuberculosis is available at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website:


Because ethambutol is almost always used in combination with isoniazid, rifampin or other antituberculosis agents, the frequency of serum aminotransferase elevations attributable to ethambutol alone cannot be estimated with any confidence. The addition of ethambutol to isoniazid, rifampin or pyrazinamide does not appear to increase the rate of transient ALT elevations during therapy. In addition, ethambutol is a rare cause of acute, symptomatic liver injury. Despite 50 years of use, ethambutol has been linked to clinically apparent liver injury in only a few case reports. In the best described instance (Case 1), the onset of symptoms was 2 months after starting combination antituberculosis therapy and, in contrast to liver injury due to isoniazid or pyrazinamide, the pattern of serum enzymes was distinctly cholestatic. The recurrence of liver injury upon rechallenge with ethambutol but not isoniazid made the attribution convincing. Features of fever, rash, eosinophilia and autoantibodies were absent, although there was rapid recurrence of cholestatic liver enzymes within days of rechallenge. Ethambutol can also cause allergic reactions and drug-rash including Stevens Johnson syndrome and erythema multiforme, which can be accompanied by transient, mild-to-moderate serum aminotransferase elevations. Ethambutol is mentioned as a cause of DRESS syndrome with accompanying liver disease, but most published instances have been in patients who were taking several drugs that can cause this syndrome.

Mechanism of Injury

The cause of liver injury due to ethambutol is not known, but is likely due to hypersensitivity.

Outcome and Management

Ethambutol is one of the few antituberculosis medications that is generally safe in the setting of liver disease. In the unlikely event of clinically apparent liver injury or allergic reaction to ethambutol, rechallenge should be avoided. There does not appear to be cross sensitivity to liver injury with other antituberculosis medications.

[First line medications used in the therapy of tuberculosis in the US include ethambutol, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, rifabutin, rifampin, and rifapentine. Second line medications include streptomycin, capreomycin, cycloserine, ethionamide, fluoroquinolones such as levofloxacin and moxifloxacin, aminoglycosides such as amikacin, and para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS).]

Drug Class: Antituberculosis Agents

Other Drugs in the Class: Bedaquiline, Capreomycin, Cycloserine, Ethionamide, Isoniazid, Pyrazinamide, Rifabutin, Rifampin, Rifapentine, Streptomycin


Case 1. Cholestatic hepatitis caused by ethambutol.

[Modified from: Guilliford M, MacKay AD, Prawse K. Cholestatic jaundice caused by ethambutol. Br Med J 1986; 292: 866. PubMed Citation]

A 76 year old woman with pulmonary tuberculosis developed jaundice without abdominal pain or nausea two months after starting a course of isoniazid, streptomycin and ethambutol. She had no history of liver disease or excessive alcohol use. Liver tests were reported to be normal before starting therapy. Laboratory results showed a total serum bilirubin of 11.8 mg/dL with marked elevations in alkaline phosphatase [976 U/L] and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase [616 U/L] (Table). Tests for hepatitis A and B and for autoantibodies were negative. Ultrasound examination of the abdomen showed no evidence of biliary obstruction, and a liver biopsy showed intrahepatic cholestasis. On first presentation with jaundice, all medications were stopped and she began to improve. The initial diagnosis was isoniazid induced liver injury. Accordingly, therapy was reinstituted using ethambutol alone. Within 6 days, serum AST and alkaline phosphatase levels increased (Table). Ethambutol was stopped for 11 days and again restarted; however, serum alkaline phosphatase levels again rose, and ethambutol was permanently discontinued. After further improvements, isoniazid and streptomycin were restarted and subsequent treatment was well tolerated without recurrence of evidence of liver injury.

Key Points

Medication:Ethambutol (750 mg daily)
Pattern:Cholestatic (R=0.9)
Severity:3+ (jaundice, hospitalization)
Latency:2 months
Recovery:Interrupted by rechallenge, ultimately complete
Other medications:Isoniazid, streptomycin

Laboratory Values

Time After StartingTime After StoppingAST* (U/L)Alk P* (U/L)Bilirubin (mg/dL)Other
8 weeks026497611.8Therapy stopped
9 weeks1 week144767
Ethambutol restarted for 6 days
10 weeks03561225
2 days2801050
4 days3001020
11 weeks7 days260950
10 days76812
Ethambutol restarted for 4 days
12 weeks02281128
3 days1201020
6 days1101000
13 weeks10 days105700
Normal Values<40<130<1.2

* Some values estimated from Figure 1.


The role of ethambutol was defined by the response to rechallenge on two occasions during recovery and the later tolerance of isoniazid without worsening of blood test results. Also suggestive was the cholestatic pattern which is rare with isoniazid as well as the lack of viral hepatitis-like symptoms of nausea, abdominal pain and fatigue. Cholestatic hepatitis is marked by slow improvements in liver tests. The laboratory results were said to have “…slowly returned to normal…” but were not provided.



Ethambutol – Myambutol®


Antituberculosis Agents


Product labeling at DailyMed, National Library of Medicine, NIH


Ethambutol Chemical Structure


References updated: 07 April 2014

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    (78 year old woman developed jaundice 2 months after starting isoniazid, streptomycin and ethambutol [bilirubin 11.8 mg/dL, AST 264 U/L, Alk P 976 U/L] with negative rechallenge to isoniazid and positive rechallenge twice to ethambutol [Alk P rising from 767 to 1225 U/L, AST from 144 to 356 U/L], later tolerating isoniazid and streptomycin long term: Case 1).
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    (10 year old girl developed nausea and ALT elevations 2 weeks after starting isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol resolving with stopping all drugs, but severe recurrence with fever, rash and fatal acute liver failure 6 weeks after adding pyrazinamide back to rifampin, ethambutol and kanamycin).
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    (58 year old woman developed nausea 3 weeks after starting isoniazid, rifampin and ethambutol and jaundice 3 weeks later [bilirubin 3.7 mg/dL, ALT 1590 U/L, Alk P 54 U/L, protime 72 sec], dying 5 days later).
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    (Among 1783 patients with active tuberculosis treated with combination therapy [isoniazid, rifampin and ethambutol], 42 [2.3%] developed clinical hepatitis of whom 15 were HBsAg positive, fatality rate being 47% vs 4%, but no information on background features in the treated cohort or exclusion of reactivation of hepatitis B).
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    (17 patients with AIDs and mycobacterium avium complex infection were treated with amikacin for 4 weeks and then 12 weeks of ciprofloxacin, ethambutol and rifampin; therapy stopped early in 2 patients for hepatitis, but no details given).
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    (Among 72 patients with symptomatic liver injury due to antituberculosis medications, 12 had acute or subacute liver failure; among those who recovered, reinstitution of therapy was possible in 93%).
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    (In epidemiological studies, antituberculosis medications have the highest relative risk for liver injury, hepatitis occurring in 0.4% of recipients).
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    (Retrospective analysis of 99 children who received therapy for tuberculosis, 8 developed hepatotoxicity; risk factors identified were young age and pyrazinamide exposure).
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    (Review article on role of genetic polymorphisms of NAT2, CYP 2E1 and glutathione-S-transferase in hepatotoxicity of antituberculosis therapies).
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    (Among 1200 kidney transplant recipients, 45 [4%] developed tuberculosis usually after several years, all treated with isoniazid, rifampin and ethambutol; hepatotoxicity in 11 [25%], but severe in only 3).
  • Kurokawa I, Nakahigashi Y, Teramachi M. Erythema multiforme-type drug eruption due to ethambutol with eosinophilia and liver dysfunction. Int J Antimicrob Agents 2003; 21: 596-7. [PubMed: 12791479]
    (42 year old woman developed erythema multiforme 10 weeks after starting isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol for pulmonary tuberculosis with 34% eosinophils, ALT 312 U/L and normal bilirubin resolving in 2 weeks on prednisone, positive rechallenge to ethambutol with rash; tolerated other agents).
  • Yee D, Valiquette C, Pelletier M, Parisien I, Rocher I, Menzies D. Incidence of serious side effects from first-line antituberculosis drugs among patients treated for active tuberculosis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2003; 167: 1472-7. [PubMed: 12569078]
    (Among 408 adult patients treated for tuberculosis, 37 [9%] had 46 serious adverse events including 12 instances of hepatitis [3%: 11 symptomatic, ALT >5 times ULN]; risk factors were age [hazard ratio 4.8-7.7], female sex [2.2] and Asian birthplace [2.2]; hepatitis arose in 2% on pyrazinamide and 1% on isoniazid).
  • Fernández-Villar A, Sopeña B, Fernández-Villar J, Vázquez-Gallardo R, Ulloa F, Leiro V, Mosteiro M, et al. The influence of risk factors on the severity of anti-tuberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2004; 8: 1499-505. [PubMed: 15636498]
    (Among 471 patients receiving antituberculosis therapy, 56 [12%] developed ALT elevations >3 times ULN, 16 [3.4%] and symptoms and 5 [1%] were jaundiced; no deaths. Rates of hepatotoxicity higher in patients with risk factors than without [18.2% vs 5.6%]).
  • Russo MW, Galanko JA, Shrestha R, Fried MW, Watkins P. Liver transplantation for acute liver failure from drug-induced liver injury in the United States. Liver Transpl 2004; 10: 1018-23. [PubMed: 15390328]
    (Among ~50,000 liver transplants reported to UNOS between 1990 and 2002, 270 [0.5%] were done for drug induced acute liver failure, 124 for acetaminophen and 137 for other toxins, the most common being isoniazid [24], prophylthiouracil [13], phenytoin [10], valproate [10], amanita [9], nitrofurantoin [7], herbals [7], ketoconazole [6], disulfiram [6], troglitazone [4] and 28 others).
  • Marra F, Cox VC, FitzGerald JM, Moadebi S, Elwood RK. Successful treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis following drug-induced hepatic necrosis requiring liver transplant. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2004; 8: 905-9. [PubMed: 15260286]
    (28 year old woman with tuberculous lymphadenitis treated with isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol and pyrazinamide, switching to ciprofloxacin with pyrazinamide and ethambutol when resistance testing was done; four days later she developed fever, rash and fatigue [bilirubin normal, ALT 285 U/L, Alk P normal], but then worsened [bilirubin 15.2 mg/dL, ALT 1165 U/L, Alk P 141 U/L] and ultimately required liver transplant, yet later was treated successfully with levofloxacin, amikacin and streptomycin).
  • Younossian AB, Rochat T, Ketterer JP, Wacker J, Janssens JP. High hepatotoxicity of pyrazinamide and ethambutol for treatment of latent tuberculosis. Eur Respir J 2005; 26: 462-4. [PubMed: 16135729]
    (Among 12 persons treated with pyrazinamide and ethambutol for latent tuberculosis and contact with a patient with multidrug resistant disease, 7 developed liver injury [ALT 82-1338 U/L], after 87 to 247 days, 3 with symptoms, no mention of bilirubin levels).
  • Andrade RJ, Lucena MI, Fernandez MC, Pelaez G, Pachkoria K, Garcia-Ruiz E, Garcia-Munoz B, et al. Drug-induced liver injury: an analysis of 461 incidences submitted to the Spanish Registry over a 10-year period. Gastroenterology 2005; 129: 512-21. [PubMed: 16083708]
    (Among 446 cases of drug induced liver injury collected in Spain between 1984-2004, isoniazid [with or without rifampin and pyrazinamide] was implicated in 22 cases [5%: ranking 3rd] and was fatal or required liver transplant in 5 [ranking first]).
  • Lee BH, Koh WJ, Choi MS, Suh GY, Chung MP, Kim H, Kwon OJ. Inactive hepatitis B surface antigen carrier state and hepatotoxicity during antituberculosis chemotherapy. Chest 2005; 127: 1304-11. [PubMed: 15821209]
    (Retrospective case control study of 110 HBsAg carriers and 97 controls from Korea who received 3-4 drug antituberculosis therapy; any ALT elevations occurred in 34% of carriers vs 20% of controls and were >3 times ULN in 8% vs 4%; no risk factors identified, most tolerated reintroduction of therapy without pyrazinamide).
  • Yew WW, Leung CC. Antituberculosis drugs and hepatotoxicity. Respirology 2006: 11: 699-707. [PubMed: 17052297]
    (Review of incidence, causes, risk factors and management of hepatotoxicity of antituberculosis medications).
  • Saukkonen JJ, Cohn DL, Jasmer RM, Schenker S, Jereb JA, Nolan CM, Peloquin CA, et al.; ATS (American Thoracic Society) Hepatotoxicity of Antituberculosis Therapy Subcommittee. An official ATS statement: hepatotoxicity of antituberculosis therapy. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2006; 174: 935-52. [PubMed: 17021358]
    (American Thoracic Society recommendations regarding hepatotoxicity of antituberculosis therapy; for latent infection, 9 months of isoniazid is first choice and 4 months of rifampin second; clinical monitoring is recommend for all patients and biochemical monitoring for those at high risk and possibly the elderly [ALT values at 1, 3 and 6 months or every 1-2 months]; hold therapy if ALT >5 times ULN or if symptoms are present and ALT >3 times ULN; mentions that there has been only one report of ethambutol hepatoxicity).
  • Forget EJ, Menzies D. Adverse reactions to first-line antituberculosis drugs. Expert Opin Drug Saf 2006; 5: 231-49. [PubMed: 16503745]
    (Review of side effects including hepatotoxicity of isoniazid, asymptomatic elevations in ALT levels occur in 10-22% of patients, but 80% of these resolve even with continuing therapy; overall rate of hepatotoxicity is 0.9%, mortality 0.04%).
  • Shigeto E; Committee for Treatment Japanese Society for Tuberculosis. [Survey of anti-tuberculosis drug-induced severe liver injury in Japan]. Kekkaku 2007; 82: 467-73. Japanese. [PubMed: 17564126]
    (Abstract: Survey questionnaire to 114 Japanese hospitals identified 70 cases of severe liver injury and 8 deaths due to antituberculosis therapy between 1994-2003).
  • Idilman R, Ersoz S, Coban S, Kumbasar O, Bozkaya H. Antituberculous therapy-induced fulminant hepatic failure: successful treatment with liver transplantation and nonstandard antituberculous therapy. Liver Transpl 2006; 12: 1427-30. PubMed Citation. [PubMed: 16933231]
    (19 year old woman with peritoneal tuberculosis developed jaundice 4 days after starting isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol and pyrazinamide [bilirubin 10.5 mg/dL, ALT 1332 U/L, protime 71 sec], undergoing living donor liver transplantation within 2 days and afterwards treated with streptomycin, ethambutol and cycloserine with no recurrence).
  • Björnsson E, Kalaitzakis E, Olsson R. The impact of eosinophilia and hepatic necrosis on prognosis in patients with drug-induced liver injury. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2007; 25: 1411-21. [PubMed: 17539980]
    (Review of 570 case reports of drug induced liver injury suggested that eosinophilia was associated with a favorable prognosis, lower peak bilirubin and lower fatality rate).
  • Sabaté M, Ibáñez L, Pérez E, Vidal X, Buti M, Xiol X, Mas A, et al. Risk of acute liver injury associated with the use of drugs: a multicentre population survey. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2007; 25: 1401-9. [PubMed: 17539979]
    (Population based survey of 126 cases of acute liver injury due to drugs between 1993-1999 in Spain calculated relative risk of injury compared to the general population to be 1300 with use of triple therapy [isoniazid, rifampin and pyrazinamide] and 154 for isoniazid alone, ranking first and third).
  • Kwon YS, Koh WJ, Suh GY, Chung MP, Kim H, Kwon OJ. Hepatitis C virus infection and hepatotoxicity during antituberculosis chemotherapy. Chest 2007; 131: 803-8. [PubMed: 17356096]
    (Retrospective analysis of 54 patients with HCV infection and 97 controls receiving therapy for active tuberculosis; ALT >3 times ULN occurred in 13% of HCV infected vs 4% of controls; none died or required hospitalization).
  • Aouam K, Chaabane A, Loussaïef C, Ben Romdhane F, Boughattas NA, Chakroun M. [Adverse effects of antitubercular drugs: epidemiology, mechanisms, and patient management]. Med Mal Infect 2007; 37: 253-61. French. [PubMed: 17336011]
    (Review of toxicities of antituberculosis agents; ethambutol can cause optic neuritis, allergic reactions, and rash; liver injury is rare except for mild hyperbilirubinemia not requiring dose adjustment).
  • Huang YS. Genetic polymorphisms of drug-metabolizing enzymes and the susceptibility to antituberculosis drug-induced liver injury. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol 2007; 3: 1-8. [PubMed: 17269890]
    (Two gene variants have been linked to an increased risk of hepatotoxicity of antituberculosis medications; NAT2 and CYP 2E1, but the associations require further confirmation).
  • Marzuki OA, Fauzi AR, Ayoub S, Kamarul Imran M. Prevalence and risk factors of anti-tuberculosis drug-induced hepatitis in Malaysia. Singapore Med J 2008; 49: 688-93. [PubMed: 18830542]
    (Among 473 patients treated for tuberculosis, 46 [9.7%] developed ALT elevations >3 times ULN; in a case control analysis, concurrent HIV infection was a risk factor).
  • Chalasani N, Fontana RJ, Bonkovsky HL, Watkins PB, Davern T, Serrano J, Yang H, Rochon J; Drug Induced Liver Injury Network (DILIN). Causes, clinical features, and outcomes from a prospective study of drug-induced liver injury in the United States. Gastroenterology 2008; 135: 1924-34. [PMC free article: PMC3654244] [PubMed: 18955056]
    (Among 300 cases of drug induced liver disease in the US collected from 2004 to 2008, isoniazid was implicated in 15 cases [5%: ranking 3rd] being the only agent implicated in 13 cases and implicated with other agents in two cases; but no case was linked to ethambutol).
  • Kaneko Y, Nagayama N, Kawabe Y, Shimada M, Suzuki J, Kunogi M, Matsui Y, et al. [Drug-induced hepatotoxicity caused by anti-tuberculosis drugs in tuberculosis patients complicated with chronic hepatitis]. Kekkaku 2008; 83: 13-9. Japanese. [PubMed: 18283910]
    (Abstract: reports on substantial higher frequency of ALT elevations in patients with chronic hepatitis C associated with pyrazinamide therapy).
  • Tostmann A, Boeree MJ, Aarnoutse RE, de Lange WC, van der Ven AJ, Dekhuijzen R. Antituberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity: concise up-to-date review. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2008; 23: 192-202. [PubMed: 17995946]
    (Review of incidence, pathogenesis, clinical course, risk factors and management of drug induced liver disease due to antituberculosis medications).
  • Lee JH, Park HK, Heo J, Kim TO, Kim GH, Kang DH, Song GA, et al. Drug Rash with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) syndrome induced by celecoxib and anti-tuberculosis drugs. J Korean Med Sci 2008; 23: 521-5. [PMC free article: PMC2526540] [PubMed: 18583892]
    (29 year old woman developed fever, rash, eosinophilia and jaundice 6 weeks after starting celecoxib and 5 weeks after starting antituberculosis therapy with isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol [bilirubin 3.6 mg/dL, ALT 327 U/L, Alk P 788 U/L, eosinophils 12%], improving upon stopping and recurring upon restarting with severe myositis and pneumonitis, treated with prednisone and ultimately resolved, but had positive patch tests to celecoxib and ethambutol).
  • Ferrajolo C, Capuano A, Verhamme KM, Schuemie M, Rossi F, Stricker BH, Sturkenboom MC. Drug-induced hepatic injury in children: a case/non-case study of suspected adverse drug reactions in VigiBase. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2010; 70: 721-8. [PMC free article: PMC2997312] [PubMed: 21039766]
    (Worldwide pharmacovigilance database contained 9036 hepatic adverse drug reactions in children, 2 antituberculosis agents were among the top 40 cases, including isoniazid [24th, 47 cases] and rifampin [35th, 37 cases], but not ethambutol).
  • Reuben A, Koch DG, Lee WM; Acute Liver Failure Study Group. Drug-induced acute liver failure: results of a U.S. multicenter, prospective study. Hepatology 2010; 52: 2065-76. [PMC free article: PMC3992250] [PubMed: 20949552]
    (Among 1198 patients with acute liver failure enrolled in a US prospective study between 1998 and 2007, 133 were attributed to drug induced liver injury and 25 to antituberculosis agents, including 15 to isoniazid alone [ranking first], 6 to isoniazid combined with other agents, 3 to rifampin and pyrazinamide and 1 to dapsone, but no cases were attributed even secondarily to ethambutol).
  • Devarbhavi H, Dierkhising R, Kremers WK, Sandeep MS, Karanth D, Adarsh CK. Single-center experience with drug-induced liver injury from India: causes, outcome, prognosis, and predictors of mortality. Am J Gastroenterol 2010; 105: 2396-404. [PubMed: 20648003]
    (Among 313 cases of drug induced liver injury seen between 1997 and 2008 at a large hospital in Bangalore, India, 181 [58%] were attributed to antituberculosis agents which accounted for 39 of 54 [72%] fatal cases; ethambutol not specifically mentioned).
  • Palmero D, Castagnino J, Musella RM, Mosca C, González Montaner P, de Casado GC. Difficult clinical management of anti-tuberculosis DRESS syndrome. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2013; 17: 76-8. [PubMed: 23114284]
    (Analysis of 11 patients with DRESS syndrome attributed to antituberculosis medications, one was attributed to ethambutol and isoniazid and one to ethambutol with isoniazid, rifampin and pyrazinamide).
  • Li C, Long J, Hu X, Zhou Y. GSTM1 and GSTT1 genetic polymorphisms and risk of anti-tuberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity: an updated meta-analysis. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2013; 32: 859-68. [PubMed: 23377313]
    (Metaanalysis of studies on the association of tuberculosis drug associated liver injury and polymorphisms of the glutathione S-transferase genes found weak associations only).
  • Shin HJ, Lee HS, Kim YI, Lim SC, Jung JP, Ko YC, Kwon YS. Hepatotoxicity of anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy in patients with liver cirrhosis. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2014; 18: 347-51. [PubMed: 24670574]
    (Retrospective analysis of 197 patients treated for tuberculosis found serum enzyme elevations [72% vs 46%] and drug induced liver injury [8% vs 2.7%] more common in 50 patients who had cirrhosis than in 147 without, but all patients recovered; specific agents responsible for injury were not identified).
  • Kaswala DH. Drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms syndrome due to anti-TB medication. J Family Med Prim Care 2013; 2: 83-5. [PMC free article: PMC3894017] [PubMed: 24479051]
    (68 year old man with tuberculosis developed rash, eosinophilia and serum aminotransferase elevations [details not given] 8 weeks after starting isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol, resolving within a month of stopping and with prednisone therapy).
    (CDC website with up-to-date recommendations on therapy of tuberculosis).


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