Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Tolerable Upper Intake Levels, ElementsFood and Nutrition Board, National Academies

Life-Stage GroupArsenicaBoron (mg/d)Calcium (mg/d)ChromiumCopper (μg/d)Fluoride (mg/d)Iodine (μg/d)Iron (mg/d)Magnesium (mg/d)bManganese (mg/d)Molybdenum (μg/d)Nickel (mg/d)Phosphorus (g/d)PotassiumSelenium (μg/d)SiliconcSulfateVanadium (mg/d)dZinc (mg/d)SodiumeChloride (g/d)
Infants
0–6 moNDfND1,000gNDND0.7ND40NDNDNDNDNDNDh45NDNDND4NDhND
7–12 moNDND1,500gNDND0.9ND40NDNDNDNDNDNDh60NDNDND5NDhND
Children
1–3 yND32,500ND1,0001.3200406523000.23NDh90NDNDND7NDh2.3
4–8 yND62,500ND3,0002.23004011036000.33NDh150NDNDND12NDh2.9
Males
9–13 yND113,000ND5,000106004035061,1000.64NDh280NDNDND23NDh3.4
14–18 yND173 000ND8 000109004535091 7001.04NDh400NDNDND34NDh3.6
19–30 yND202,500ND10,000101,10045350112,0001.04NDh400NDND1.840NDh3.6
31–50 yND202,500ND10,000101,10045350112,0001.04NDh400NDND1.840NDh3.6
51–70 yND202,000ND10,000101,10045350112,0001.04NDh400NDND1.840NDh3.6
> 70 yND202,000ND10,000101,10045350112,0001.03NDh400NDND1.840NDh3.6
Females
9–13 yND113,000ND5,000106004035061,1000.64NDh280NDNDND23NDh3.4
14–18 yND173,000ND8,000109004535091,7001.04NDh400NDNDND34NDh3.6
19–30 yND202,500ND10,000101,10045350112,0001.04NDh400NDND1.840NDh3.6
31–50 yND202,500ND10,000101,10045350112,0001.04NDh400NDND1.840NDh3.6
51–70 yND202,000ND10,000101,10045350112,0001.04NDh400NDND1.840NDh3.6
> 70 yND202,000ND10,000101,10045350112,0001.03NDh400NDND1.840NDh3.6
Pregnancy
14–18 yND173,000ND8,000109004535091,7001.03.5NDh400NDNDND34NDh3.6
19–30 yND202,500ND10,000101,10045350112,0001.03.5NDh400NDNDND40NDh3.6
31–50 yND202,500ND10,000101,10045350112,0001.03.5NDh400NDNDND40NDh3.6
Lactation
14–18 yND173,000ND8,000109004535091,7001.04NDh400NDNDND34NDh3.6
19–30 yND202,500ND10,000101,10045350112,0001.04NDh400NDNDND40NDh3.6
31−50 yND202,500ND10,000101,10045350112,0001.04NDh400NDNDND40NDh3.6

NOTES: A Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) is the highest level of daily nutrient intake that is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to almost all individuals in the general population. Unless otherwise specified, the UL represents total intake from food, water, and supplements. Because of a lack of suitable data, ULs could not be established for arsenic, chromium, potassium, silicon, sulfate, or sodium. In the absence of a UL, extra caution may be warranted in consuming levels above recommended intakes. Members of the general population should be advised not to routinely exceed the UL. The UL is not meant to apply to individuals who are treated with the nutrient under medical supervision or to individuals with predisposing conditions that modify their sensitivity to the nutrient.

a

Although the UL was not determined for arsenic, there is no justification for adding arsenic to food or supplements.

b

The ULs for magnesium represent intake from a pharmacological agent only and do not include intake from food and water.

c

Although silicon has not been shown to cause adverse effects in humans, there is no justification for adding silicon to supplements.

d

Although vanadium in food has not been shown to cause adverse effects in humans, there is no justification for adding vanadium to food and vanadium supplements should be used with caution. The UL is based on adverse effects in laboratory animals, and this data could be used to set a UL for adults but not children and adolescents.

e

The lowest level of intake for which there was sufficient strength of evidence to characterize a chronic disease risk reduction was used to derive the sodium Chronic Disease Risk Reduction Intake (CDRR) values.

f

ND = Not determinable owing to lack of data of adverse effects in this age group and concern with regard to lack of ability to handle excess amounts. Source of intake should be from food only to prevent high levels of intake.

g

Life-stage groups for infants were 0–5.9 and 6–11.9 months.

h

ND = Not determinable owing to a lack of data of a specific toxicological adverse effect. SOURCES: Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorous, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride (1997); Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline (1998); Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids (2000); Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc (2001); Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate (2005); Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D (2011); and Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium (2019). These reports may be accessed via www‚Äč.nap.edu.

From: Appendix J, Dietary Reference Intakes Summary Tables

Cover of Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium
Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium.
National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; Health and Medicine Division; Food and Nutrition Board; Committee to Review the Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium; Oria M, Harrison M, Stallings VA, editors.
Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2019 Mar 5.
Copyright 2019 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

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